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the mort. had averaged 140 p. 1000 of the strength, it was in a few years afterwards reduced to 30 p. 1000. The mort. in Ceylon, which had amounted to 75 p. 1000, had been reduced to 38 p. 1000.

In 1838 was pub., Statistical Report on the Sickness, Mort., and Invaliding_among the Troops in the West Indies. Prepared from the Records of the Army Medical Department and War Office returns.

In June, 1838, the following return of the ages of 4866 officers in the army on full pay was obtained:

See Appendix to Report of Commissioners for Inquiring into Naval and Military Promotion (p. 298).

In 1839 Mr. Woolhouse pub Investigation into the Mort. of the Indian Army. This in

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vestigation was undertaken at the instance and for the purposes of the National Loan Fund Ins. So., and was based upon an alphabetical list of the officers of the Indian army: with the dates of their respective promotion, retirement, resignation, or death, whether in India or in Europe, from the year 1760 to the year 1834 inclusive; compiled and edited by Messrs. Dodwell and Miles, East India army agents, 69, Cornhill. We do not propose

to dwell upon its contents here. [BENGAL.] [BOMBAY.] [MADRAS.]

In the same year was pub., Statistical Reports on the Sickness, Mort., and Invalidating among the Troops in the U. K., the Mediterranean, and British America. Prepared from the Records of the Army Medical Department and War Office returns.

In the Journal of the Statistical Society for this year (vol. 1), were the following papers (1). On Sickness and Mort. among Troops in the West Indies, part 1, by Capt. A. M. Tulloch; ditto, parts 2 and 3. (2). Mort. among Officers retired from the Indian Army, by R. Christie. In vol. 2, a paper On the Sickness and Mort. among Troops in the U. K., from Major Tulloch's report, by Mr. J. W. C. Lever.

In 1840 the first statistical report on the sickness and mort. of the U.S. army was pub. It covered a period of 20 years, from January, 1819, to January, 1839; and is a most instructive document. [See again 1856 and 1860.]

In the Journal of the Statistical So. for this same year (vol. 3), there appeared the report of a committee of that So. “appointed to collect and inquire into V. Sta. upon the sickness and mort. among European and native troops serving in the Madras Presidency, from the year 1793 to 1838." A second report by the same committee will be found in vol. 4.

In 1844 there was read before the Statistical So. of Lond. a paper by Dr. Graham Balfour: Comparison of the Sickness, Mort., and prevailing Diseases among Seamen and Soldiers, as shown by the Naval and Military Statistical Reports; and the same is printed in the Journal of the So. for 1845. In the same vol. also appears a paper by Assistantsurgeon Edward Balfour, Madras army: Statistical Data for forming Troops, and maintaining them in health in different climates and localities. In vol. 9 (1846) there is a short paper by Lieut.-Col. Sykes: Mort. of the Madras Army, from official records.

At the close of 1846, some statistics were obtained of the mort. of the French army in Algeria; and these went to show that Algiers was as fatal to the French as India to the English soldier. M. Boudin showed that the annu. mort. during the years 1837-46, was 7.58 p.c., or four times as great as the mort. (186 p.c. in 1842-6) in France. The mort. was as low as 4'5 in 1838, and as high as 14'1 p.c. in 1840. It varied a great deal at the different stations.

In 1847 was pub. by Dr. Graham Balfour, Statistical Report on the Sickness and Mort. among the Troops serving in the Madras Presidency: prepared from official documents, printed by order of the Madras Government. [MADRAS.]

In vol. 10 of the Journal of Statistical So. (1847), appeared the following papers: (1). V.Sta. of the East India Co.'s Armies in India, European and Native. The whole of the facts therein were stated to be based upon data supplied from official sources in India. (2). On the Mort. among H.M. Troops serving in the Colonies during the years 1844 and 1845, by Lieut.-Col. A. M. Tulloch. It especially shows the great advantage resulting from serving the troops frequently with fresh, instead of salt meat. It furnishes the only statistics we have met with regarding Hottentot soldiers. The Cape Corps, composed entirely of this class, showed a very favourable mort. result. The strength and deaths for two years under obs. were respectively as follows:

Year ending 31st March, 1845

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Average of these two years

Strength 420
448

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434

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Deaths 3
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being at the rate of 7 p. 1000 ann. While the mort. in the same corps on an average of the 13 years antecedent to 1836 had been 12 p. 1000 annually.

The following is a return of the mort. from disease among the European troops in H.M. service in the East and West Indies respectively, showing the number of deaths p.c. on the whole force employed in each year from 1840 to 1848 :

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The deaths occurring in hospitals in consequence of wounds were not included in the above returns of such, during the 9 years 1840-8, there were 370 in Bengal, 39 in Bombay, 2 in Madras, and 4 in the West Indies.

In 1849 were pub. Statistical Reports on the Sickness, Mort., and Invaliding among the Troops in Western Africa, St. Helena, the Cape of Good Hope, and the Mauritius. Prepared from the Records of the Army Medical Department and War Office Returns. We believe there are some subsequent returns of a similar character of which we have not the details at hand.

In the Journ. of the Statistical So., 1849 (val. xii.), there is a paper (read before the Statistical Section of the Brit. Asso. in 1848), by Assistant-Surgeon Edward Balfour : Additional Obs. on the Means of Maintaining Troops in Health. In this paper are some excellent remarks upon the influence of climate on health.

Mr. Samuel Brown, writing in 1849, with some of the details of the preceding reports before him, said:

In all the Brit. dominions the mort. amongst military men during times of peace is found to exceed that of the civil pop. between the same ages in England. This fact may, perhaps, be explained by considering that the greater part of the troops are quartered, both for convenience and military policy, in large towns and in localities in which a much greater amount of mort. will be found than the average of the country at large; and the same causes which would affect the health of the inhabitants may be supposed to influence in some degree also that of the military men quartered amongst them.-Thoughts on Life Ins., etc.

The Report on the Census of 1851 gave in a more connected form than they had previously appeared in, certain valuable statistics regarding the army and navy of Gt. Brit. The information had been supplied to the Census Commissioners in the shape of returns from the War Office, the Admiralty, the Ordnance, and the Offices for Half-pay and Pensions. The following is an abstract:

The army and navy had on the 31st March, 1851,-exclusive of the East India Co.'s army and navy, and officers of the staff of the army not serving with their regiments, and militia-178,773 effective men, viz., 142,870 in the army, and 35,903 in the navy-besides 83,797 non-effectives, on half-pay or pensions: 63,305 for the army, and 20,492 for the navy. The effectives of the army comprised 6593 officers, 136,277 men; and the 142,870 were composed as follows: Cavalry, 12,911; infantry, 115, 567; artillery, 12,006; engineers, 2386. Of these there were stationed in England and Wales, 36, 504; Scotland, 2655; the Islands of the Brit. Seas, 993; Ireland, 26,272; the Colonies, 44,402; India, 29,096; on the passage out and home, 2948.

Of the above numbers in the army, there were born in E. and W., 67,647; in Scotland, 15,300; in Ireland, 53, 169; in the Islands of the Brit. Seas and abroad, 6754. In the navy (exclusive of marines) the numbers born in E. and W. were 20,125; Scotland, 1078; Ireland, 2532; Islands of the Brit. Seas and abroad, 1168.

The active force of the army and navy amounted to 2 p.c. of the men of Gt. Brit., or I in 47; or taking the whole pop., male and female, I in every 158 was engaged in purposes of warfare, or defence of the country. The males of the soldiers' age, 20 to 40, in Gt. Brit. in 1851 were 3,193,496. The increase from 1821 was equivalent to a vast army of more than 1,200,000 men.

The proportion of married per 100 of each class in the army was found to be, officers, 25; men, 15. In the navy, 30 officers and 24 seamen. But it must be here remembered that the regulations of the service set a limit on the marriages of the men, and none on the officers. The proportion of bachelors in civil life at the same date was 31 in every 100 males of the age of 20 and upwards. Among the officers in the army of 20 and upwards it was 71 in 100; among the men, 82 in 100. Among the officers in the navy, 60 in 100; among the men, 69 in 100.

In the Journ. of Statistical So. for 1851, appeared a paper by Lieut.-Col. W. H. Sykes: Mort. and Chief Diseases of Troops under the Madras Government, European

and Native, from the years 1842 to 1846 inclusive, compared with the Mort. and Chief Diseases of 1847. The author of the paper says: "I do not purpose making any comparisons between the results in the following T. and those shown in the valuable contribution to the V. statis. of the Madras army by the late Sir James Annesley. It will suffice to say that the mort. amongst the European troops is materially lessened in modern times, while that of the Native troops remains much the same."

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In the same vol. (xiv.) there is a paper by Mr. Edward Balfour: Remarks on the Abstract T. of the Men Discharged from the Military Service of the East India Co. "A cursory examination of the causes which led to their discharge, showed that crime, disease, and a natural physical unfitness, were the chief agencies in operation."

In 1852 Lieut.-Col. Sykes read a paper before the Statistical So. of Lond. On Mort. and Sickness of the Bombay Army, 1848-49. "As a whole, this report of the Bombay army is the most satisfactory which has ever been received, particularly in relation to the European portion of it." This is the testimony of the author of the paper. We cannot follow him in the details; but we extract the following passage:

On the present as on former occasions I have dwelt strongly upon the remarkable healthiness of the native troops, as indicative by analogy, in the absence of returns, of the value of native life in India; and I avow that my object has been to excite the attention of assu. sos. in England to the prob. pecuniary advantages which would result from the estab. of ins. offices in India, for giving that vast body of native public servants, whose means of providing for their families are dependent on their own lives, the opportunity of securing something for their widows and children after their deaths. To give them such opportunities, would be to confer a blessing upon a highly respectable and very large class of the native community.

In 1855 there appeared in the Assu. Mag. some Tables, contributed by Mr. W. H. Scales, a medical officer in the East India Co.'s service, exhibiting the Sickness and Mort. amongst the European and Native Troops of the Madras Army. The eds. in presenting them remark, "As from the extension of L. assu. in our Indian possessions, every information of this kind is of value, we present a summary of them to our readers."-Vol. v., p. 245.

To the 16th R. of Reg.-Gen. (1856), Dr. Farr appended a paper entitled "The Great Powers," wherein much valuable information is given concerning the armies of the seven great powers of the world, viz., England, France, Turkey, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and the U.S. The number of males of the "fighting age" in each of these countries from which statistics could be obtained were stated. He points out that after the numbers of a military force are filled, they are continually reduced by-(1). Deaths from disease and from wounds. (2). The invaliding of men disabled by sickness and wounds. (3). Expiration of terms of service, where the service term is limited. (4). By desertion and losses, and the capture of prisoners by the enemy. It had been found that the ann. loss from these causes amounted to nearly 12 p.c. on the mean force. To sustain a regular army of 435,561 men under these conditions, would require 52,267 recruits p.a. He continues:

The mort. in the general pop. of England at the military age, notwithstanding the innumerable and evident defects in the sanatory arrangement of towns, and the low living of considerable numbers, is less than 1 p.c. p.a. The causes of the high mort, of the army can be exactly ascertained by investigation; and arrangements could be made for supplying all that is necessary to preserve their health, except in times of disastrous defeat. The amount of desertion and invaliding would at the same time be diminished.

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He adds by way of note, "The mort. among the Dorchester labourers of the age 20-40 is less than I p.c.-s -so that luxuries are not necessary in a sanatory sense." The cost of each man in the service (army) in 1811 had been found to be about 112 p.a.; it was now (1851) about £100. Dr. Farr found that 97 out of every 100 in the Brit. army were under 40 years of age; and the proportion in the Prussian army was precisely the same, Dr. Farr pointed out in 17th R. of Reg.-Gen. (pub. also in 1856), that it would be useful to have authentic official returns of the deaths, and the causes of death, in the army as well as in the civil pop. ; for it would at the same time dissipate the exaggeration that always attends great losses, and enable the public to see precisely, by the diseases and the mort., the sanitary condition of the army under different circumstances.

Under the 96th art. of the Code Napoleon, information of the death of every French soldier is required to be sent home by the regimental authorities, and entered on the civil registers of his last-known place of residence in France. This circumstance has to be allowed for in comparing the general mort. rates of England and France.

In 1856 the 2nd report upon the sickness and mort. of the U.S. army was pub., and embraced a period of 16 years, from January, 1839, to January, 1855 (see 1840 and 1860). Again, in the 19th Report of Reg.-Gen. (1858), it was pointed out that the names of British soldiers who die abroad are never inscribed on the national registers.

In the three years over which the Crimean war extended, the deaths in our army abroad were as follows:

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totals 7383
99 20,315
2580

These figures do not exclusively apply to the Crimea: they extend to our entire army abroad ; but the great proportion of deaths were in the Crimean war.

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was tried of adding these figures to the national 'returns. The mort. rate for 1854 was very little affected by the add. of the numbers for that year. In 1855 the rate was increased from 2266 p.c. to 2.312, the males being chiefly affected. In 1856 no appreciable effect was produced on the general average.

În 1857 a Royal Commission was appointed to investigate the sanitary condition of Brit. soldiers. From 1839 to 1853, a period of peace, the mort. of the infantry of the U.K. had averaged about 17 per 1000; in 1859 it was found only to average 8 per 1000. Dr. Balfour was the Sec. of this Commission, and he says, speaking of the improvement noted, "I believe that a considerable portion of it is due to the sanitary improvements consequent upon the statistical results which were brought out by our investigation." Not many years previously we had been told, on what appeared competent authority, that the mort. in the Brit. army was in time of peace 49 in 1000-that of men under 24 years of age, 24 in 1000; while among those above 40 years of age it was as high as 126 in 1000! Barracks had not been numerous in the U.K. until about 1789. A SuperintendentGeneral was appointed in 1793, after which many barracks were built in Lond. and several of the provincial towns. In 1858 a report was submitted to Parl. censuring the condition of many of these buildings, viz.: Report of the Commissioners appointed to inquire into the Regulations affecting the Sanitary Condition, the Organization and Military Hospitals, and the Treatment of the Sick and Wounded. It was in consequence of this report that Mr. Sydney (afterwards Lord Herbert) took up the subject, and speedily effected many improvements.

Following this Report of 1858, and taking it for his text, Dr. Guy pub. Sanitary Condition of the Brit. Army, and especially on the want of space in Barracks. This paper breathes strongly of that earnest philanthropy which always characterizes the productions of this learned writer. He says:

Now this report

.. brings into bold relief one great fact-one distressing and disgraceful fact that the mort. of our soldiers, especially of the infantry, and more especially of the footguards, is very much greater than that of any class of the civil pop, with whom it seemed to be reasonable and natural and fair to compare them. And when you reflect that the army is recruited from a pop., some of whom are conscious of defects that prevent them from ever offering themselves as soldiers, and others are rejected in large numbers when they do offer; when you bear in mind, too, that great numbers of soldiers are sent back as invalids, or pensioners, to the pop. from which they were drawn, to be reckoned when they die not as soldiers, but as civilians, so as to swell the proper rate of mort. of the civil pop., and to diminish, in like proportion, that of the army, you will be able to appreciate the gravity of this statement.

We regret we cannot accompany the Doctor further, especially in his crushing proof of the deplorable deficiency of barrack accommodation.

In the same year there was pub. Mort. of the Brit. Army at home and abroad, and during the Russian War, as compared with the Mort. of the civil pop. in England.

In 1859 Dr. Joseph Ewart, in the Bengal Medical Service, published, A Digest of the V. Sta. of the European and Native Armies in India; interspersed with suggestions for the eradication and mitigation of the preventible and avoidable causes of sickness and mort. amongst imported and indigenous troops. This treatise is a most exhaustive one.

It was in this year (1859) that the Volunteer movement was set on foot. The sickness and mort. of this body is not in any way included with that of the regular army. The Volunteers numbered 14,981 in 1859, 133, 342 in 1860, 176,571 in 1861, 173,318 in 1862, 178,260 in 1863, 186, 334 in 1864, 194,430 in 1865, 197,511 in 1866, 204,029 in 1867. The following is a return of the mort. amongst the Native Troops in the Brit. army in 1859, compiled from official sources:

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In 1860 were pub.: (1) Army Statistical and Sanitary Report; and (2) Statistical Report on the Sickness and Mort. of United States Army, 1855 to 1860. This last report is a most exhaustive one. The line of inquiry was similar in many respects to that pursued with regard to the army of Gt. Brit.

In 1861 Dr. Farr, F. R.S., read before the Brit. Asso., at Manchester, a paper On the

Health of the Brit. Army, and the Effects of recent Sanitary Measures on its Mort. and Sickness. Among the various Commissions appointed at the instance of the late Lord Herbert, was one for introducing improvements into the V. statis. of the army. The Commission consisted of Lord Herbert, Sir Alexander Tulloch, and Dr. Farr; and an elaborate plan was laid down for the obs., record, and analysis of the sickness, disease, and casualties of the army at home and abroad, at peace and in war. "That plan (said Dr. Farr on this occasion) is in operation; and I request your attention to some of the results deducible from the first report":

Under the new system an exact account is kept of the diseases of every soldier from the day he enters till the day he leaves the army; and the returns are so arranged as to exhibit the diseases of every regiment separately, as well as the amount of disability, invaliding, and death produced by each malady, and as far as possible by each conspicuous cause. The variable sanitary state of the

army is thus brought clearly before the eyes of the medical department, the commanding officers, the Commander-in-Chief, and the Sec. of State; so that evils, instantly known, can often be suppressed as they arise. The books are now made portable, and so simplified that they can be kept in the field as well as in barracks.

This is as it should be, and gives one confidence in the future statistical returns. The learned Dr.-to whom not only the army, but the entire civil pop. of this country owes so much—then details not only the steps taken at home to carry out the beneficial objects of the Commission; but also in each of the foreign stations-to be ordered to many of which, in former times, might well be regarded as equivalent to a death warrant.

It was the beneficent labours of this and the other Commissions of this period that inaugurated a new era in the sanitary condition of the Brit. army. Lord Herbert, alas! did not live to see the glory of his labours. He died in this very year, 1861. He will always be remembered as the soldier's friend.

In 1863 was pub. Report of the Commissioners on the Sanitary State of the Army in India-a document bristling with statistics of the greatest interest. We can only take one or two of its statements:

The deaths in the 56 years 1800-56, among all the Co.'s [E. I. Co.] non-commissioned officers and men, including invalids, in India, amounted to 40,420 out of an aggregate of 588,820 years of life, obtained by adding up the average ann, strength in those years: so the ann. rate of mort. has been 69 in 1000 during the present century.

The mort. rate was as high as 134 in the first Mahratta war, and it was as low as 41 in 1852. It was high again in the years of the Mutiny, and it has been subsequently lower than the Indian standard. From the rate of 55 in 1770-99, the rate rose to 85 in the 30 years 1800-29; and the mort. fell to 58 in the 27 years 1830-56; so the death-rate of the Brit. soldier since the first occupation of the country down to the present day has oscillated round 69 p. 1000.

In the same year (1863) Mr. James Bird, M.D., read before the Brit. Asso. a paper On the Vital Sanitary Statistics of our European Army in India, compared with those of the French Troops under like conditions of Climate and Locality. Many of his statistics regarding Europeans in India were drawn from the Report last mentioned. He supplies the following important T. of the mort. of the French army in hot climates (except Algeria), for 10 years, 1838-47, compiled from authentic sources. The ratios are p. 1000: Years. Martinique. Guadeloupe. Guiana. Senegal. Réunion. Average.

1838 1839 1840 1841

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This average it will be seen comes out at 69.5 p. 1000, which is a very remarkable circumstance. The known temperance of the French troops, taken in conjunction with the above corresponding ratio, leads to the belief that our soldiers may not have sacrificed their lives by intemperance and vicious habits while in tropical climates-a view that Dr. Edward Balfour had maintained in some of his papers already quoted.

In 1864 was passed 27 & 28 Vict., c. 85, An Act for the better prevention of contagious diseases in certain naval and military stations. This was the practical commencement of a movement of a most humane and beneficial tendency. It is pitiable to see a false philanthropy seeking to evade it all, and advance backwards.

In this same year Col. Sykes read before the Brit. Asso. at Newcastle, a paper: Comparison of the Organization and Cost in Detail of the English and French Armies. There is nothing in it directly bearing upon our present subject.

In 1865 the entire strength of the Brit. army was 208,590, of which, 4412 officers and 79,974 non-commissioned officers and men were at home, and 6155 officers and 118,049 non-commissioned officers and men abroad. The deaths of 134 officers and 3403 noncommissioned officers and men are recorded, and are thus epitomized: 34 deaths of

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