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and reasonable to meet the existing engagements of the Co. So much of the funds as should not be required to meet existing engagements were to be distributed among the shareholders. The deed also provided: That two successive extraordinary general meetings, specially called for the purpose, shall have full power to make any new laws, regulations, or provisions. Also a provision that two successive extraordinary general meetings, specially called for the purpose, should have full power to come to a resolution to dissolve the Co., provided that such should have been previously recommended by the Board of Directors. The deed also contained a further clause (No. 107): That after a dissolution the Board should cease to grant or renew any pol. on behalf of the Co., and should proceed in such a manner as they should think fair and reasonable to meet existing engagements, and should cause so much of the funds as should not be required to meet existing engagements to be distributed among the proprietors.
Before the agreement with the Eagle was complete, but in contemplation of it, two general meetings were held, and a clause was added to the deed:
That an extraordinary general meeting, specially called for that purpose, should have full power, with the consent of three-fourths of the proprietors present and voting, to resolve that the bus. of the Co. should be transferred to any other Co. associated for like purposes, and to appoint a Committee of five proprietors to carry such resolution into effect.
By the agreement with the Eagle, the debts and liabilities and all the property of the Argus were to vest in the Eagle, who were to pay a sum of £164,000 to the Argus in such manner as the committee might direct; and it was provided that Argus shares should be transmuted into Eagle shares, and Argus policy-holders have an endorsement on their policies recognizing the liability of the Eagle, or Eagle policies for the same amount; and when the policies were parti., should, after receiving profit up to the time of the trans., participate pari passu with the Eagle policy-holders afterwards. The pol. were in the usual form, providing that the funds and property of the Co. should (subject to the provisions of the deed) be liable to pay the sum assured, and that the proprietors should not be responsible beyond their shares.
Under these circumstances, a Bill was filed by a parti. policy-holder to restrain the trans., and for a perpetual injunction against any similar amalg. The case came for hearing before V. C. Wood, in 1864-Aldebert v. Leaf. The Court considered that the only question was, whether the proposed trans. was contrary to the provisions of the deed? and was of opinion that it clearly was so, even supposing the supplementary provisions valid against the policy-holders. That although the policy-holders had no such lien as would ordinarily entitle them to interfere in the management of the Co., they were entitled to apply to the Court to stop the waste of the assets, and that the stipulation that the liabilities of the Co. should be provided for out of the funds on a dissolution was one which could not be disturbed to the detriment of any policy-holder.
Mr. Bunyon, reviewing the preceding decree, says:
It is, however, to be noted that the V. C. appeared to think that the amalg. might have been effected if the provisions of the deed had been duly followed. He observed: Even the resolution A, which purports to authorize a sale of the bus., recognizes the obligation to provide for existing policies, and it seemed to me that under that restriction the resolution might, perhaps, be considered valid as a mode of winding-up. And again: I am now dealing with a case of a policy-holder, and if the Co. had made an adequate provision for him by setting aside a proper fund, or in any other way, they might have arranged their affairs as they pleased so far as he was concerned. Handing over the whole concern to another Co. having extensive engagements of its own is not making provision for liabilities. -Law of L. Assu., 2nd ed., p. 163.
In 1865 another attempt was made to amalg. the Co.-this time with the Commercial Union, and upon terms which would have secured to the shareholders about £47 per share return. The Post-Mag., in announcing the fact (18th March, 1865), observes:
This announcement will cause surprise to many who are aware that negotiations were all but completed with a respectable legal office, whereby a larger amount per share would have been received by the shareholders. However, the Directors have doubtless good reasons for choosing the Commercial Union, and it is gratifying, at any rate, to find that they have at last become unanimous upon the question of amalg., and that this concern will now be disposed of without further depreciation of the shareholders' property.
In pursuance of this arrangement, a Bill was introduced to Parl. authorizing the amalg. and the dissolution of the Argus. This Bill came before a Select Committee of the House of Lords in 1866, Earl Cathcart being Chairman; and was rejected.
Since that period we believe no further attempts have been made at amalg. The Co. removed its offices from the City to less expensive ones in King-st., Covent Garden, and is understood to be working off its risks in a very satisfactory manner, and not seeking for new bus.
ARISTOCRACY, DURATION OF LIFE AMONG THE.-The inquiries of Dr. Guy show that while the expectation of life for males of E. and W. at 20 years of age is over 40 years, or beyond the age of 60, that of the nobility is only 385, and that a corresponding ratio is maintained at every succeeding decennial period. In analyzing the matter more closely, it would appear that, in point of health and longevity, the aristocracy fall far short of the agriculturist, and below the several professions. Dr. Guy thinks, in habits of self-indulgence, and the which tends so much to promote health and vigour.
The cause of this is to be found, want of incentives to that exertion Among men of independent means
are to be found those who are given to indulgencies of the table, to excess in drinking, and to other kinds of dissipation: hence with them the inquiry into habits becomes of considerable moment. On the other hand, the wealthy classes are not harassed by the mental anxiety and bodily toil which attend the thinkers and workers of the community, and, when not addicted to those habits to which they are tempted by ample means, may be looked upon as good average lives.- Ward's Medical Estimate, 1857.
The opinion has been long prevalent that a distinctive marriage rate would be found to prevail among different classes of the community, and that the aristocracy and landed gentry would exhibit a law differing materially from that of the labouring pop. As the former are essentially the class whose rev. interests frequently involve the necessity of Issue pol., it seemed highly desirable that, as actuaries, we should endeavour to obtain some definite information as to the operation of that law-if indeed it should be found to exist at all.-Archibald Day, Assu. Mag., 1862.
The preceding will sufficiently indicate the scope of the inquiry arising here. The entire subject will be followed out under head of PEERAGE, from obs. on which class most of the facts have been obtained.
ARITHMETIC.-The art of numbering, or science of number. In the ordinary and restricted acceptation of the term, however, arithmetic is the art of expressing numbers by symbols, of combining these symbols, and of applying to them the several rules of greatest practical utility. It is the foundation of the actuary's art; but its processes are too cumbersome, and he has constantly to resort to the higher branch, as developed in ALGEBRA. Shakespeare makes Coriolanus exclaim :
"Now 'tis odds beyond arithmetic."
In 1852 Mrs. G. R. Porter pub. Rational Arithmetic; its object being to assist in rescuing arithmetic from the degraded rank it at present occupies among intellectual pursuits. The pub. is very favourably noticed in 3rd vol. of Assu. Mag. ARITHMOMETER, THE.-A calulating machine, invented by M. Thomas (de Colmar), of Paris. The machine has been in use for some years; but improvements have been made recently. Its inventor has been awarded medals at most of the International Exhibitions from 1851 down to the present time. The instrument is in practical use in a number of Ins. Offices in the United Kingdom; and a detailed account of its uses will be found in the Assu. Mag. for July, 1871. [CALCULATING MACHINES.] ARK LIFE ASSU. So. (No. 1.), founded in 1839, for "assu. on lives, endow., deferred, and rev. annu., etc." Its authorized cap. was £600,000, in 12,000 shares of £50. The paid-up cap. was stated to be £60,000. The organization of the Co. was very powerful. The Marquis of Salisbury, Lord Monson, and Roland Alston, M.P., were presidents, and there were influential names among the vice-presidents and directors, many of them being designated as holding high office in the Masonic fraternity. The prosp. said:
This So. derives its orig. from members of the fraternity of Freemasonry. The usages of the order affording peculiar means of personal knowledge and confidential communication, it was thought that an inst. like the present might prove acceptable and useful to the brethren; and in that opinion many distinguished masons have expressed their concurrence. But the So., though it has the support of some of the most eminent of the brotherhood, assumes no other name and claims no higher character than belongs to an asso. of private individuals. Neither the grand master nor the grand lodge has ever taken a part in pecuniary speculations, nor granted to any undertaking of this description authority to use a masonic title. The claims of this So. to the confidence of the brotherhood rest on the known character of its declared supporters.
But the So. is not exclusively masonic in its character. It is open to all who choose to join it, or to ins. in it. The field of enterprise in L. assu., though already much occupied, is considered to afford scope for the useful and advantageous estab. of an asso, so regulated as to unite security and reasonable terms for the assured with a fair profit to the assurers.
Some of the allusions in the preceding para. prob. had reference to the Freemasons and Gen, which had been founded in 1838, and afterwards became the Albert.
The prosp. also contained the following para.: A return of 5 p.c. will be made on the first payment of prem., and upon each subsequent payment made on or before the day appointed; such return to be made to the party paying, whether principal or agent.
The shareholders were to be entitled to 4 p.c. int. on cap. actually paid up, "in priority of any appropriation of profits," and were, in add., to have one-eighth of the realized and divisible profits every five years.
In the outset of the scheme it had been proposed that a certain share of the profits should be appropriated to a masonic charity: But as that proposition could only be carried into effect at the expense of the holders of pol. and shares, the present Directors thought it neither fair nor wise thus to pledge the property of others, and, therefore, this point of benevolent utility' is left, as it ought to be, to the freewill of the parties entitled to the profits."
This change in the plan of the asso. led to or was made the pretext for some discord amongst the promoters, and to some delay in perfecting the scheme. But ultimately all preliminary difficulties were overcome, and a circular was issued, containing, amongst other things, the statement last quoted, and the following:
Ark Life Assu. Office, 83, Cornhill, 12th February, 1840.-Sir and Brother,-The Directors of the Ark, etc., have now completed all arrangements for carrying on that So. Having surmounted
the difficulties incidental to the estab. of such an inst., the Directors present their scheme to the con
sideration of the fraternity.
The Directors feel constrained by a sense of justice to use this opportunity of noticing an attack made on this So. in the Freemasons' Quarterly Review, pub. on 30th September, 1839. The ed., after apologizing for some previous encomiums on the Ark, etc., imputes to it, in substance, that its orig. principles are abandoned; that it has abandoned points of benevolent utility, and that its character is selfish.
When the present Directors joined this undertaking, they found it in a most precarious condition. The plan was crude, in some respects impracticable, and in others inconsistent alike with justice and prudence. Their first task was to remodel and purify the scheme. They early determined that no Director should derive any emolument from his appointment, unless or until a general meeting of the If it was one of the "orig. principles' proprietors of shares and pol. should otherwise order.
of the So. that Directors were to make money by their offices, there certainly has been so far an
This manifesto was signed by Wm. Woodall, the Actuary of the Co.
It does not appear to have been in existence at the close of 1844. It certainly could have had no sort of connexion with Ark (No. 2).
ARK INDISPUTABLE MUT. Assu. So. (called for brevity Ark No. 2), founded in 1852, with an authorized guarantee cap. of £100,000, in 20,000 shares of £5. The prosp. said, "The D. of Constitution of this So. is framed on the most comprehensive basis, so as to embrace every improvement in the modern practice of assu. for life or other contin." Among the "leading features" specially enumerated were (inter alia) the following, abbreviated considerably. (1). The guarantee cap., in order not to be a permanent burthen, might, as soon as the bus. of the So. will permit," be paid off with a bonus of 100 pc. (2). The whole of the profits, "after deducting the necessary per-centage for the guarantee cap.," were divisible amongst the "assurers "-meaning, we presume, the assured! (3). The pol. "are absolutely indisputable, and their validity cannot under any circumstances whatever be contested against the children or representatives of the assured, except in cases of fraud." (4). The annu. granted by the So. increase periodically "from This is a feature which has been adopted a share of the profits arising in that department. by only one other asso., but as it is obviously unjust to deprive the annuitant of his legitimate share in the profit arising from the cap. to which he has contributed, the principle is embraced containing the advantages of an in this So." (5). Self-protecting pol. are issued endow. at a specified age to accrue to the assu. himself, or an annu. payable during his life," etc., etc. (6). Half-credit pol. (7). Value of pol. on surrender, "through the absolute incapacity of the assurer (?) to continue his prems." (9). Apprentice and educational endow. granted. (10). "Pol. effected for the whole of life are trans. to other lives of not greater age, and in good health at the time of trans." (11). Amount ins. when it became a claim might remain with So. at int. from 4 p.c. upwards. We dare say it might! (12). Clergymen and others can obtain advances to assist them in making repairs in parsonage ge houses, and other tenants on church property, and to meet the outlay for dilapidations.' (13). Scheme of building so. ins. (14). "A diminution of half a year is made in the amount of prems. when persons ins. within 6 months of their last birthday," etc., etc. (20). "No extra prem. is required for persons living during time of Then in add. peace in any part of the world not within 35° on either side of equator.' there was an "accident department on the mut. principle," which, except in the last Savings particular, was a barefaced plagiarism on the Accidental Death Co.; and a Bank and Life Assu. Department," which simply meant a deposit branch. Among the trustees was John Sadleir, then M. P. for Tipperary; and among the officers of the Co. many names since very well known in the ins. world.
The promoters appeared to rely upon the various features of the scheme to bring them bus., and in this respect they were, of course, disappointed. The asso. dragged on its slow existence until the year 1856, when it broke up and became a total wreck.
We have or had in our possession a prosp. of this asso. with the following Scripture "But with thee will I estab. my covenant; and thou quotation, employed as a motto: shalt enter into the ark: thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with them." We suspect it was a bad bus. for those, and the sons and daughters of those, who did enter
ARK ASSURANCE So. (No. 3).—This Co. was regis. in 1870, before the passing of the Life Assu. Act of that year, as the Leviathan, with an authorized cap. of £2000. It has recently adopted its present name, and increased its cap. to £100,000-consisting of 40,000 shares of £2 10s. The Co. is not regis. with Lim. Liability-but the art. of asso. contain a clause "limiting the liability of members in respect of pol. and other contracts to the cap. and funds of the Co. for the time being."
The prosp. tells us that the So. undertakes every description of L. assu. bus. at home and abroad. We must give a few of the "leading features" of the office. Thus, under "Ministers of Religion":
One of the leading objects of this So. is to extend to Ministers of Religion an advantage not at present within their reach. The marked superiority in duration of life of the Ministers of Religion over laymen in the transactions of L. Assu. is now a well-estab. fact in life statistics, a fact of which the members of the former class are fairly entitled to the benefit. This consideration has induced the directors to have special tables of prems. computed for the ins. of the lives of that large and influential body, by the eminent and well-known Actuary, A. G. Finlaison, Esq., and which enable this So. to issue pol. on terms considerably lower than can be accorded to the public at large.
The annexed is an abstract of this special scale "with profits": A certain number of shares are reserved "to be allotted to those members of your body who may wish to become shareholders."
I 12 6
I 16 9
2 2 O
2 8 2
2 15 10
Four-fifths of the profits every 5 years, apportioned on contribution" plan. The "one-third credit" "and half-credit" plans are adopted.
The general manager of the Co. is Mr. Geo. Smythe, who was for some years connected with the Gresham.
ARKANSAS, Ins. Laws OF.-By law of 31st May, 1864, no ins. co., whether of that or any other State, to transact ins. bus. until deposit of 20,000 dol. of the bonds of that State with the State Treasurer. Cos. may charge 2 p.c. upon amount of prems., "in consideration of add. security and certainty afforded to citizens of Arkansas under this Act."
By law of 23rd July, 1868, Governor to appoint commissioner of public works, etc. He to be ex officio inspector of insurance companies. Quarterly inspection. Clerks to be employed for the purpose. Agents of cos. to make ann. returns of gross receipts on tax lists.
By law of 8th April, 1869, agents to keep enough cash in hand to pay tax to collectors (rate of tax same as on personal property generally); and in default of payment, agent prohibited from doing bus.
For general provisions relating to corps., vide Digest of Statutes, 1858.
ARM OF THE SEA.-A bay, road, creek, cove, port, or river, where the water, whether salt or fresh, ebbs and flows.-Wharton's Law Lex.
ARMISTICE.-A suspension of hostilities between belligerents.
ARMY.-The military force of a country. The conditions of ins. as regards officers of the army will be fully discussed under MILITARY SERVICE.
The army is divided into various branches, or services, stationed in various parts of the world; and has therefore, of late years especially, furnished material for important obs. regarding the influence of climate and locality upon health and longevity. Indeed, it may be stated, generally, that no greater or more marked instances of the rapid development of sanitary science, in relation to its influences upon human life, can be furnished, than those arising from obs. on the army. It is for the especial purpose of making the reader familiar with the more important of these results that we now take up the subject.
Aggregated bodies of men, as is known by continued obs., are peculiarly liable to outbreaks of certain diseases. Careful inquiry may determine the causes, or some of the more obvious of these. Science will generally devise a remedy-the cause being known. Pliny and Tacitus record the outbreak of scurvy in the Roman armies. We do not remember that they record the remedy adopted, if any. When we come to speak of the NAVY, we shall have a good deal to say on this subject of scurvy.
The British army appears always to have been very subject to the ravages of small-pox: probably from the peculiar incidents of barrack life. Dr. Brocklesby says that in the middle of the last century the disease carried off about 1 in 4 of those whom it attacked in the natural way in encampments and winter quarters; and that only 2 out of 9 soldiers escaped the disease. It follows then that out of 100 soldiers, only 22 would escape attack, and the same number (22 in every 100, or 22 in 88 of all attacked) would die from this cause.-Dr. Guy, Public Health.
Nothing can be more certain than that during the present century-without going further back-up to and including the Crimean war, the risk of death to the army, even while in active service, has been far greater from sickness and disease than from the other incidents of warfare. The official returns show that during the last 3 years and 5 months of the Peninsular war, and this too under the great Duke, while there died of wounds or were killed in battle 8999, there died of disease 24,930, or very nearly 3 to 1! During the whole campaign (1808-14) there were generally 22 p.c. of the men absent on account of sickness!
In 1821 the males of the soldiers' age (20 to 40), in Gt. Brit., was found to be 1,966,664. The total pop. then being about 14,000,000. The number of persons actually inrolled in the army, navy, etc.-for we have not the returns for each branch of the service
separately-was much less than it had been. This indeed will be a convenient place to present some statistics for future reference:
The pop. figures are exclusive of the army and navy.
The proportion of the total force in arms (including army, navy, marines, and embodied militia at home and abroad) to every 100 male population of the U.K., aged 16 and under 40, was 13.6 in 1801, 14:1 in 1811, 38 in 1821, 3.6 in 1831, 3.6 in 1841, 3.8 in 1851, 8.9 in 1855, 9'2 in 1856, 6.1 in 1858, 62 in 1859, and 5.7 in 1861.
Investigations into the health of the army made in 1825, by Mr. John Finlaison, gave the following results:
There were constantly sick of the Cavalry
Which was more than thrice the quantum of sickness prevailing amongst the members of Friendly Sos. according to the Highland Sos. Tables. The numbers observed upon were, cavalry, 94,293; infantry, 126,513; footguards, 92,889. Total, 313,695. Years over which obs. extended, 1823 and 1824.
The mort. of the French army on an average of 6 years, from 1820 to 1826, amounted to 19 per 1000 ann. ; but it was supposed that this might include the deaths of corps serving in the Colonies.
The mort. in the Prussian army, on an average of 10 years from 1821 to 1830, was 11/10 p. 1000 ann.; but that army was then entirely composed of young men between 20 and 25; while in the Brit. army the troops were for the most part above that age.
In 1831 Mr. Geo. Farren pub. Rates of Mort. among the Soldiery of Gt. Brit. The author says:
The military force of Gt. Brit., exclusive of artillery, may be estimated in round numbers at 110,000 men; of these about 5600 are commissioned officers. The average age of the soldiery may be fairly taken at 26; and from twelve monthly enumerations of the numbers, excluding officers, of cavalry, footguards, and infantry, living and dying in Gt. Brit. in each of the months of the year 1827, a T. has been arranged which shows the rate of mort. of 1 p.c. nearly; whilst the Carlisle rate at the age of 26 is not quite half as much. In fact, the rate among the soldiery in Gt. Brit. is equal to the rate among men of 52 at Carlisle.
It is difficult to account for this extraordinary difference, as the men are generally well selected, are well clothed and fed, their habits are subservient to the most wholesome discipline, and their exercises are favourable to health. It is a fact well worthy the consideration of those who have the direction of this splendid force, that the rates of mort. in England and Ireland differ materially both in cavalry and infantry; the rate in England being amongst cavalry 1 p.c. p.a. or 1 in 88 nearly; and the infantry 1.85 p.c., or 1 in 54 nearly; whilst in Ireland the cavalry rate is 1 or 1 in 59, and the infantry 2 p.c. or 1 in 46. The foregoing remarks are applied to the soldiery and non-commissioned officers only.
Mr. Farren then follows the troops to their stations in different parts of the world, and records their mort. at those stations. We do not propose to follow him here. We shall have occasion to quote from him hereafter. Speaking of the West Indian stations, he says: In Jamaica, for the 11 years ending 1829, there was an average number of men, 2524, on whom the ann. average deaths were 374. Hence ann. rate of mort. was 13 p.c., or 1 out of 7 living at the beginning of the year. During the same period there was an average number of officers, 122, and of women 258. The mort. of officers and women was very nearly in proportion to the numbers living of each. Combining them, there died ann. 351 out of 380. Hence ann. rate of mort. among officers in Jamaica is 9 p.c. or 1 out of 11 beginning the year.
Mr. T. R. Edmonds, writing in 1832, on the connexion which exists between sickness and death, said his obs. had been made on military masses of the greatest magnitude, under the widest variety of circumstances. Two years of sickness to each death he proclaimed to be the law of nature, from which little deviation was allowed except in very unhealthy climates. This proportion had been observed to rule over the English army employed in the Peninsular war, the European troops in the East Indies, and the native troops in the East Indies. In the English army at home and inactive there were 2 years of alleged sickness to each death. In the English West India army there was 1 year of sickness to each death. In the East Indies, the proportion, more correctly stated, was 2 years for the native troops, and 14 years for the European troops.
In 1835 a Commission was appointed to inquire into the mort. of the army in our Colonies, with a view to financial objects; but in the course of that inquiry it was decided to go more minutely into the question, and to consider it as bearing upon the health of the soldiers, with a view to ameliorate their condition. The Commission consisted of Sir Alexander Tulloch, Dr. Marshall, and Dr. Balfour. Five separate reports were pub. between 1839 and 1853. That of 1839 was upon the health of the troops in the West Indies. The improvement which has resulted from the adoption of the recommendations of these reports has been most satisfactory. For instance, in Jamaica, where for 20 years