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the male issue of the four daughters and co-heirs of Richard Stephen. At any rate it agrees finely with my theory of the descent of the Pinchon family of Writtle from William Pinchon, and is itself confirmed by the will of William Pinchon, who mentioned a brother Richard Everard. If true, however, it shows that the wife Elizabeth mentioned in that will was not his first wife and the mother of his sons, for she was evidently an Allen and had sisters Agnes wife of Edmond (or Edward) Church and Joan wife of Robert Grove.

Besides the pedigrees of this family published in the Visitations of Essex and London, the only others I have seen here in print are those in Morant's Hist. of Essex (II-65), Gyll's Hist. of Wraysbury and F. G. Lee's Hist. of Thame. Morant deduces the family from Nicholas Pinchon of Wales, one of the Sheriff's of London A. D. 1532, but gives no evidence in favor of it, only referring to a pedigree which he describes as “now before us." He speaks of John Berners, Esq. as having sold the manor of Turges probably to the Pinchon family. If so there is not slightest evidence that Nicholas Pinchon had anything to do with it. In fact I have not found a bit of evidence to show that he owned any land at all, whether in Essex or elsewhere; and I would ask why, since he made a will, did he not make a testamentary disposition of real estate if he had any? William Pinchon of Writtle, who was undoubtedly a kinsman of Nicholas and possibly his brother, did possess considerable landed property; and this, as we have seen, descended chiefly to his sons and especially to John, his eldest son and heir. The latter doubtless made large additions, and probably through leases from the Warden and Fellows of New College of their manor of East Hall and other estates which we know he held. These leases we have traced, through the eldest male line, to his great grandson John Pinchon who died in 1654.

The pedigree given in Gyll's History of Wraysbury also shows Nicholas as the father of the John Pinchon who married Jane Empson and died 29 Nov. 1573. This was undoubledly taken from Morant. It then continues the line through John's son William who married Rose Redding and died 13 Oct. 1592. We are told that William and Rose were the parents of Sir Edward (of Writtle) "who died 6 May 1625," Henry, who is described as of Wraysbury, Christopher and a Nicholas, who is also described as of Wraysbury in 1653. This Nicholas is given as the father of William Pinchon who went to Connecticut and returned and was buried 7 Nov. 1662. William's son John, we are told, was of New England and had a daughter married to Henry Smith.

This, surely, is the wildest of guesswork. Some of the statements deserve to be called sheer nonsense. In the first place, Henry Pinchon is shown by the record to have been of St. Andrew's Holborn. In the next place William and Rose Pinchon had no son named Nicholas. According to the epitaph in Writtle church (see Morant) they had six sons, and we know just who they were, vizt. Peter, who was eldest son and heir at the death of his father, John, who was eldest brother and heir of Peter at his death, Sir Edward, who was eldest brother and heir of John, at the latter's decease, Henry, William and Christopher. There was no Nicholas among them. Thirdly, William Pinchon of New England and Wraysbury could not have been a grandson of William and Rose Pinchon, for he was too old. He was three score years and ten at his death in 1662. Now Peter, eldest son and heir of William (and Rose) died in his minority without male issue. John, the next brother and heir, also died a minor and without male issue, and at his death (1 June 40th Elizabeth) his brother Edward, who succeeded as eldest brother and heir, was then a lad only seventeen years old. His young kinsman William Pinchon of Springfield (afterwards of New England) was then living a boy of six. Moreover Sir Edward Pinchon of Writtle who, we are told, died 6 May 1625, must have come to life again to make his will (q. v.). We have only to note and compare these facts to show how ridiculous such guesses are.

Merely noting that Dr. F. G. Lee's History of Thame contains the same old error (borrowed I suppose from Morant) of the descent from Nicholas Pinchon, let me now suggest the true line of ancestry of our William Pinchon. He was, I believe, that William Pinchon of Springfield to whom Sir Edward Pinchon bequeathed a piece of plate of ten pounds (see his will). This William was undoubtedly Sir Edward's cousin german, the eldest son and heir of John Pinchon of Springfiela (who died 1610). We have seen that he named in his will two sisters, Jane and Susan, which were the names of two of the daughters of

John and Frances (Brett) Pinchon, and we know that he gave to that beautiful town which he founded in Western Massachusetts the name of Springfield, undoubtedly in memory of his old home in England. His father, John Pinchon, was clearly the second son of John and Jane Pinchon of Writtle, as is shown by his possession of the lands &c. in Wike Street (see the wills of himself and his father).

It may be well just here to insert certain notes gathered years ago in the Public Record Office, Fetter Lane. From my notes of Lay Subsidies in Chelmsford Hundred, Co. Essex, I find that in the 39th of Eliz: (1597) John Pynchon gent. was taxed for lands in Springfield, while Rose Pinchyn, widow, and Edward Pinchyn jun. gent. were also taxed for lands in Writtle. Later I find that in the 234 of James (I) the name of William Pynchon appears on the Subsidy List of Springfield, instead of his father's, and for the same amount (eight shillings), and again on the list taken the 4th of Charles (I).

Turning to my notes of Fines I get much more valuable information. In the Fines of Hillary Term 35 Eliz. (1592) I find the following:

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Thomas Wale quer. and Henry Pynchon, gen. and Margaret his wife deforc, for certain premisses in Radwinter (Essex), with a warranty against the heirs of Margaret.

This must be Henry the son of William and brother of John Pinchon of Writtle, whom his niece (by marriage) Mrs. Rose Pinchon referred to in her will (1599) as then living.

In the Fines (for Essex) of Michaelmas Term 37-8 of Eliz: (1595) I find:

John Pynchon gen. quer. and Jasper Vessy and Margaret his wife def. for one messuage, one garden, one orchard, 30 acres of land, 6 acres of meadow, 20 acres of pasture and 4 acres of woodland &c. in Danbury. Consideration 100£ sterling.

Paschal Term 38 Eliz: John Pynchon gen. quer. and Robert Pease gen. and Martha his wife, def. for one messuage, one garden, one orchard, 20 acres of land, 4 acres of meadow, 16 acres of pasture &c. in Springfield. Consideration 80£ sterling.

Hillary Term 5 Car (I) Thomas Horne quer. and William Pinchon gen. and Ann his wife, deforciant, for one messuage, one garden, one orchard, 26 acres of land and 10 acres of pasture in Springfield. Consideration 60£ sterling.

Here we learn, first, that Henry Pinchon was married (a fact not known before), and we get the Christian name of his wife; secondly, the exact year when John Pinchon of Springfield acquired his estate in that town; and thirdly, the year when William Pinchon, his son and heir, sold that estate, and we get, in addition, the Christian name of William's wife. These last facts are of immense value; for I note that in that very Term (Hill. 5 Car.) our Governor Winthrop was making conveyances of real estate, and we know that in that very year Gov. Winthrop made New England his home, and with him went a gentleman of some importance named William Pinchon who founded our Springfield, and he too had a wife named Ann. All this, in connection with the mention, in his will, of two of his sisters (to which I have already referred) makes our case about as strong as circumstantial evidence can make it.

We are now therefore prepared to construct a pedigree of the family, and have prepared a table which will be found on the next page.

It will be noticed that I do not, in this pedigree, indicate the exact relationship which Nicholas Pinchon of London bore to William Pinchon of Writtle, for, I confess, upon further consideration, it seems too doubtful. The question of their exact relationship hinges entirely upon the identification of that "cousin John Pynchon dwelling in Writtell" mentioned in Nicholas Pinchon's will. John, the son of William Pinchon, was probably living at the time (1528-9). Nicholas Pinchon made that bequest, since, as we have seen, he was old enough to be married and have issue before July 1551, when his father's will was made. But is it so probable that he was anything but a mere child in 1528-9, and, if so, is it very likely that a mere child would be described as

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"my cousin dwelling in Writtell"? To my mind such a description rather suggests a grown man or, at least, one nearly approaching maturity. On the other hand I have not seen elsewhere the slightest evidence of the existence of any other John Pinchon dwelling in Writtell" than this very john, the son of William Pinchon. Of course it is possible to assume that William Pinchon had two groups of children by separate matches and born a considerable interval apart, John Pinchon being the eldest born by the first wife. In the absence of certain knowledge I must leave the whole matter as an open question. For the same reason I do not show on the pedigree the exact maternity of William Pinchon's children, although the little extract from the Stowe MSS. shows pretty clearly that John, Edward and Henry at any rate, were his issue by the daughter of Richard Stephen.

Nor have I gathered any evidence to confirm the statement that Jane the (second) wife of John Pinchon of Writtle was a daughter and co-heir of Sir Richard Empson, knight. I take that statement from the visitations. By the way, I notice that while Morant says that Sir Richard Empson was beheaded 17 August 1509, Dr. F. G. Lee says he was executed 18 August 1510, a discrepancy of a year and a day.

The marriage of the widow, Mrs. Jane Pinchon, with Secretary Wilson, Morant seems to doubt. And we should not gather from the will of the Secre tary any evidence at all of a connection with the Pinchons, while his widow Mrs. Jane Wilson, though she describes herself as his widow, does not refer to his children or family in any part of her will. Now in September 1891, when I accompanied my friend Mr. Frank F. Starr into the County of Essex on a hunt after Goodwins, I was able to secure the following from the Parish Register of Terling :

Married

1576, 15 July the Rt. Worshipf1. Mr. Thomas Wilson Esq., Master of the Requests, to Mrs Jane Pinchin of Writtle gen'., wid., p virt. dispens. concessae ab Edwino Epo. Lond. Ao. Dñi 1576 et A°. Rone. Eliz. XVIII.

Mr. John Pinchon of Writtle in his will named a brother in law Mr. Peter Osborne and his widow, Mrs. Jane Wilson, referred to the Right Worshipful her loving brother Mr. Osborne of the Exchequer. Just how the relationship came about I cannot now say. Morant's Hist. of Essex (vol. i. p. 323) under So. Fambridge, gives some account of the Osborne family (whence the Osbornes of Chicksands, Bedfordshire) from which it appears that there was a Peter Osborne, born A. D. 1521, active and zealous for the Reformation, Keeper of the Privy Purse to K. Edw. VI, who granted to him and his heirs the office of Treasurer's Remembrancer in the Exchequer. In Qu. Elizabeth's reign he was one of the High Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Affairs.

According to Morant, Edward the son of John Pinchon was knighted and died s. p. His father left him Skyggs and Turnors, but that may have been only a reversionary interest, since his uncle Edward, the brother of John, who inherited this property from his father (with remainder to John) outlived his eldest brother, as is shown by the will of Mrs. Rose Pinchon, who referred to him as “ uncle Edward” and still living and having a wife then living. In connection with this I have noted elsewhere that an Edward Pinchon is said to have married Catherine daughter of Thomas Bolstred.

I have followed the Visitations in giving to John and Jane Pinchon two daughters, viz. Elizabeth, the wife of Geffrey Gates, and Jane the wife of Andrew Paschal. I believe however that Elizabeth, at any rate, was that daughter of John by his first wife (Helyn) to whom her grandfather left Cookes lands &c. in Roxwell, while as to Jane it is noticeable that we do not get any mention of her in wills, especially that of her assumed mother. Nor have I evidence to confirm the statement that Elizabeth, one of the daughters of William and Rose Pinchon, became the wife of Richard Weston, afterwards Earl of Portland, though I see no reason to doubt it.

What relation Ralfe Evered bore to this family and who the Elizabeth Pynchion was whom he called "my mother" I cannot say.

Hannah, wife of John Pinchon, whom Dorothy Davies (1634) called "uncle" in her will, was, I have found, one of the daughters of Edward Elliot of Newland by Jane, his wife, one of the three daughters and co-heirs of James Gedge of Shenfield and Newland Esq. She had three brothers, Thomas (afterwards

Sir Thomas Elliot), Edward, on whose goods admon. was granted to his sisters Dorothy and Hanna, 14 May 1602, and John Elliot. Mrs. Pinchon's sister Dorothy was, I suppose, the wife of Johu Collen of Writtle, gen'., and another sister, Elizabeth, was married to Mr. John Yonge or Young of Roxwell.

The Inquisitiones post mortem in the Public Record Office concerning the estates of this family I have not personally examined, but in Add. MSS. 1998519989, British Museum, being Jekyll's Collections for a History of the Co. of Essex, I find (B. 3, L. 119) that by an Inquisition held 4 Sept. XVIII Eliz: it was found that John Pinchon Esq. died 29 Nov. Ao. 17 (?) Eliz: and William Pinchon was his son and heir and of the age of twenty years on the 25th day of April last.

By an Inquisition held 19 Dec. 35 Eliz: it was found that William Pinchon died 13 Oct. last and Peter was his son and heir and of the age of fifteen years. By an Inquisition held 4 July 40 Eliz: it was found that John Pinchon, brother and heir of Peter Pinchon, son and heir of William Pinchon, Esq., died in Ward of the Queen 1 June last and Edward was his brother and heir and of the age of seventeen years.

Stowe MS. No. 93 (old number) also contains an Alphabetical Table of Post Mortems, Essex Co., arranged in different groups according to the different reigns. The first (small) group covers the reign of Henry VII, though I noted one which was taken 22 E. IV. Then comes a large group headed Temp. H. Octavi, Virtute Bris." Next "Escaetriae Virt. Officii temp. H. Octavi." Then "Inq. capt. in Com. Essex temp. Ed. VI Virt. Bris." The next was headed "Maria et Ph'us et Maria." In none of these lists did I notice any Pinchons. In the next list following (a long one) which was headed "Inq. capt. temp. R'nae Eliz: " I found the three referred to above, i. e. that of John in the 18th year, William in the 35th year, and John in the 40th year of that reign. Then follow two "Inq. Capt. temp. R. Eliz: Virt. Officii” (no Pinchons). The next list, headed Inq. Virt. Bris. temp. Jacobi Rs," contains one, that of John Pincheon, Anno 9 of that reign. This must be an Inquisition held after the death of John Pinchon of Springfield, the father of our William Pinchon of Massachusetts.

All these Inquisitions (especially the first and last) should in my opinion be carefully examined by any one who purposes to make an exhaustive study of the history of this family.

From my notes taken a few years ago from the Calendars of Fines I learn that in Hillary Term of 1653 William Pynchon Esq. was a plaintiff ("quer.") against Andrew Kinge and others "deforc." for real estate in Wyrardisbury, Co. Bucks., and again in the same Term against Jo. Bland Esq. and others, for real estate in the same place. This means of course that he was a grantee and the others were grantors of such property. I have not examined the Feet of Fines themselves in these cases, but think it well to call attention to them. It was probably in that year (1653) that he settled down in Wraysbury. I have no note of any Nicholas Pinchon purchasing land there in that year. I question the statement in Gyll.

In conclusion I would say that I have spent a great deal of time, from first to last, over this problem, and my notes, I find, cover a good deal of space in these Gleanings, but I have by no means made an exhaustive study of the whole family. That I leave, as in all such cases, to the special enquirer, my own attention being limited to one or two doubtful links in the direct chain of ancestry of our New England family. I trust that in this respect the careful reader will admit that if I have not absolutely proved I have at any rate shown it to be altogether probable that our William Pinchon was that William Pinchon of Springfield (Essex) eldest son and heir of John Pinchon of Springfield, who died in 1610, that I have shown conclusively that this John Pinchon of Springfield was the second son of John Pinchon of Writtle, who died in 1573, and, finally, that I have absolutely proved that this John Pinchon of Writtle was the eldest son and heir of William Pinchon of Writtle, who died in 1552, and not a son of Nicholas Pinchon of London. HENRY F. WATERS.

William Pynchon of Wrasbury, whose will dated October 4, 1662, is printed on page 859, was the oldest son of John Pynchon of Springfield, and grandson of John and Jane Pynchon of Writtle. He was educated at Oxford, matriculating at Hart Hall, afterwards Hertford College, Oct. 14th, 1596, when he was eleven years old. It was then the custom to send boys to the Halls of

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