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yard of All Saints in Writtle. I bequeath for my tythes and oblations negligently forgotten a cow or else twenty shillings in money, at the election of Mr. Vicar. Towards the reparations of the church twenty shillings. I will that twenty shirts and twenty smocks and forty bushels of wheat be given and divided amongst the poor folk in Writtle and Roxwell, and that same to be don by the discretion of the church wardens and two or three honest men of the parish. Elizabeth my wife to have all that my house and garden called the Swan, with the "Orteyarde" called the Safforn garden thereto belonging, and Calpat field and the "mede, orteyard" and garden, the barn and the barn yard now in the tenure of William Jervyes, for term of her life natural. After her decease I will the same to remain to George Pynchyn my son. And if the said George die without issue then I will that all the premisses remain to John Pyuchyn mine eldest son and his heirs forever. To the said Elizabeth my wife two of my best beds, with all things belonging to them, the bed in the wardens chamber, with the appurtenances thereunto belonging, except and reserved. To the said Elizabeth forty pounds in money, to be paid her by six pounds thirteen shillings four pence* yearly until it be paid. To the said Elizabeth "tenne fearme able kyne and fortye Ewyes" of two or three years age, a dozen of silver spoons next the best, the best salt saving one, a goblet, a little silver pot, a dozen of pewter platters, a dozen of pewter dishes, eight saucers, six pottingers, six "coysshons," that is to say, two of the best, two of the second and two of the "redde," a carpet, the best saving one, the bedsteddles, the counter and the "cheestes that been nowe at the Swanne,” painted clothes for hanging, the best that she can choose, saving them that be in the wardens chambers, a cupboard, the best saving one, two brass pots, two brass pans, two kettles and two postnets, and of everything else touching household and not before named such part as may be spared, the house for my son first being furnished of that it shall need. Provided always that if my said wife will not be contented and agreed to take in the name of her third the house and lands above expressed which I have given her for term of her life together with nine pounds of money to be paid yearly during her said life, that is to say, out of the lands I have given Edward my son five pounds by the year and out of the lands that I have given George my son forty shillings by the year and out of the lands that I have given Henry my son other forty shillings by the year, but refusing the same, which I trust she will not do, will ask, demand and claim the third of my lands contrary unto my meaning and contrary unto her promise made unto me in that behalf, to the trouble, vexation and hindrance as well of my children to whom I have given my lands as also of other to whom I have sold some lands, then I will that all and every gift, bequest or legacy before mentioned be clearly void and stand as nought. And if she be contented &c. then she shall stand bound to discharge my lands of the said third by all such ways and means as shall be devised by mine executor or his learned counsel before the legacies before written be delivered unto her. Whereas I do intend to give, as beneath doth appear, an house to Richard Allyn, my wife's brother, another house to Edmund Church's wife, another house to Grove's wife, my said wife's sisters, if my said wife do claim, ask or challenge the third of my lands, contrary to my meaning and to her promise, then I will that all such gifts to her said brother and sisters, of houses as abovesaid, shall likewise be void, frustrate and nought. To Ed

• See foot note on page 114. This sum is equivalent to ten marks.

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ward Pynchyn my son my house, with orchard, garden and dovehouse called Skygg's and Turnor's, with Skygg's field, Bridgemead and Cheremead at the end of Bridgemead, windmill field, Clement's field next unto the windmill, the little "brome" and all the little crofts in Widford parish, by the little "brome and by yonde" the same that divideth the parishes of Writtle and Widford, with all the crofts lying together towards "By ffortye amedynge by yonde" Skygg's gate on the right hand as we go to the watermill on this side Adam Salmon's "pyghtell," and a "pyghtell" that I bought of Ramsall lying right over against Skygg's wall, upon this condition, that he shall pay his mother yearly five pounds out of the same lands during her life. If he die without issue all these lands &c. shall remain to John Pynchyn, my eldest son, aad his heirs forever. To George, my son, my tenement called Hasylls, with the lands lying and adjoining to the same, that ys to say Bocho's Croofte ffoosters Croofte norryes mede, otherwyes callid Swanne mede and a Croofte and a mede late belonging to an Obite and bought of Mr. Celye as they lye all togyther in lenngith bytwene the Ryver that rynneth from Wryttell bridge towardes lordes myll and the same that leadeth frome Wryttell to Loweford bridge, one headde abuttynge upon the same tenemets callid Hasylls and thother hedde abuttynge upon a mede of Penny fathers nowe in the tenure of Mr. Bygges, and Loweford Leaf and Bryckes Brydge meade with all the reentes comynge into the said Hasylls," upon similar condition to pay out of these lands forty shillings a year to his mother &c. If he die without issue all the said lands to remain to John mine eldest son. To Henry, my son, my tenement and garden called the "Sterre," now in the tenure of Prentyze, three crofts of arable land and a mead thereto belonging lying all together at Cowbridge. nigh unto "Patcho" Foorde," a mead at Cowbridge now in the tenure of Thomas Argoo and two crofts late belonging unto the Chapel Chauntry, whereof one I do occupy &c and the other is now in the tenure of Richard Asser, and the crofts at "Tonstrete and Harvies hoopes" at Oxney Green, &c. (upon similar condition of payment of forty shillings a year to his mother). Remainder, as before, to son John. The tenement called Dunmowes, now in the tenure of Reede the wheelwright, the tenement wherein mother Brewer now dwelleth and the little house adjoining wherein Ayre sometime dwelled (other lands) two crofts, whereof one I bought of late M'. Pawne and his wife and Mr. Thomas Byddell their son and the other I bought of Thomas Byddell uncle unto Thomas Byddell before named, shall be sold and the money thereof coming equally divided between my two daughters Agnes Pynchon and Margery Pynchon and paid them at their full age or day of marriage. If not sold for so much as it is worth then the rents thereof coming to be equally divided between them. I will that Dennys Pynchyn my daughter have all these lands and tenements that I bought lately of Mr. Manne and his brothers, now in the tenure and occupation of John Squyer. Remainder to John mine eldest son. To Joane my daughter, now Brytton's wife, my tenement at the church gate late my brother Borrell's and wherein my said brother dwelled. To Emme Brytton, the daughter of the said Joane, the tenement next adjoining to the same, wherein Roydon the shoemaker now dwelleth. To Joyce Pynchyn my daughter, now the wife of John Athye, my tenement on the North side of Greenbury wherein John Clerke now dwelleth. To Elizabeth Athye, her daughter, the tenement next adjoining, wherein Thomas Smythe now dwelleth. To Elizabeth Pynchon, the daughter of John Pynchon and Helyn his wife, my two tenements, late Salmon's, wherein John

Newton and Thomlyn now dwell. To the same Elizabeth the land called Cookes or Cockes in Roxwell, bought of M. Browne (and other land). will that two tenements adjoining Hasylls and two on the N. end of Green. bury shall be the poor's forever, and my executor, and after his decease the church wardens, shall place in the said houses such person or persons as they shall think good, there to dwell without any rent therefore to be paid. I will that Thomas Badcock and Joanne his wife have all the house wherein he now dwelleth, called Skygg's and Turnor's, with all the lands I have given Edward Pynchyn my son, from the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel next after my decease unto the end and term of ten years next following, if they do live so long, paying therefor yearly thirteen pounds, &c. To Richard Allen, my wife's brother, my tenement and garden at the North end of the town, where Gregory Joyce now dwelleth. But if his sister, my wife, do refuse the portion I have appointed her &c. then this gift be made void and stand for nought. To Edward Church and Agnes his wife, my wife's sister, and their heirs my tenement wherein Cocks now dwelleth, upon the same condition. To Robert Grove and Joanne his wife, sister also to my wife, &c. the tenement wherein Rose now dwelleth, upon upon the same condition. To William Plowright the tenement where mother Lukes now dwelleth, to give and to sell. To Thomas Plowright the tenement where Maunselld the miller now dwelleth, to give and to sell. To Joanne Plowright the tenement where Roger the weaver now dwelleth, to give and to sell. To Mary Plowright the tenement where Brette the carpenter now dwelleth, to give and to sell. I will that the tenement next unto Peter Brewer's, where the weaver now dwelleth, be sold and the money thereof coming be distributed amongst my servants, by discretion of John Pynchon my son. Sundry small gifts to John Genyns and his wife and William Genyns (a godson) and every other of their children. To Margery Kinge the wife of Johu Kinge and to Lettys Kinge the wife of Robert Kynge. To William Kynge the son of John Kinge and to William Kynge the son of Robert Kinge, to every of them a silver spoon. Certain other bequests to members of the Plowright family. To every of my daughters Agnes, Margery and Dennyce so much household stuff as shall be worth three pounds in money, at their election. To Richard Dakyn, clerk, three shillings four pence in money. The residue of all my lands and goods herein not given nor bequeathed I give and bequeath unto John Pynchon mine eldest son, whom I make and ordain my sole executor &c. And my brother Richard Everard and my cousin, Robert Kinge my supervisors and for their pains herein to be taken I give unto either of them ten shillings &c.

Wit: William Harper, clerk, Rychard Dakyn, clerk, John Jenyns and Thomas Badcocke. Horn, 47 (Consistory Court of London).

[The Warden's chamber mentioned above was probably the official home of the Warden of the College of St. Mary, of Winton, commonly called New College, Oxford, on the occasion of his business visits. A part of the endowment of New College consisted of the landed property of an alien Priory, located in Writtle, whose estates were scattered through Essex, more particularly toward the east, and in the neighborhood of Bradwell on the Sea, about twenty miles distant on the English channel. These buildings and lands at Writtle were purchased by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester, and founder of New College, Oxford, and, together with the livings of Writtle and Roxwell, given to the College. The chapel, chantry and obit are specified in the text. As one of the principal functions of these Priories was to look after the poor and to entertain strangers, it is not unlikely that a hostel was maintained for this pur

pose after the Priory estates came into the possession of the College, and passed into the hands of the Pynchons, who seem from these wills to have been for several generations the lessees of large portions of the College property. That for several generations they took a special interest in New College, Oxford, as is shown by gifts and the education of their sons, is evident from the succeeding wills. About four miles west of Writtle there is another property called the Warden's House, probably on College land. Writtle lies a mile west of Chelmsford, a place of some importance, upon the Eastern Counties R. R., twenty-six miles from London. The church, which is pleasantly situated upon the village green, is very beautiful, and bears the impress of the architectural genius of William of Wykeham. The chancel is nearly filled with the monuments and memorial tablets of the Pynchon family.

Springfield is situated nearly a mile to the north-northeast of Chelmsford. This also is a picturesque village, and has a very ancient church with a low, square tower, inscribed beneath the battlements: "Prayse God for all the good Benefactors." There are some fine brasses in the interior commemorative of the Tyrrel family. There is a tablet on the wall of the vestry-room with the name of William Pynchon inscribed upon it as one of the Church Wardens, dated 1624. This is the William Pynchon who was one of the original patentees of the Massachusetts Bay Company, and who six years later assisted, in 1630, in bringing that charter to America, a memorable and somewhat hazardous undertaking.-T. R. P.]

JOHN PINCHON of Writtle, Essex, gent. 10 November 1573 proved 11 December 1573. My body to be buried in the church of Writtle. To the reparations of the church twenty shillings. To the poor of Writtle three pounds six shillings eight pence. And as touching all my lands and tenements within the parishes of Writtle, Bradwell near the Sea, or elsewhere in the County of Essex, I will that Jane my wife have and enjoy all the same during her natural life, upon condition that she bring up my children until their full ages or days of marriage, and upon condition also that she pay yearly unto William Pinchon, my eldest son, at his full age, so much of annuity or yearly rent as, together with the revenue of my copy holds and customary lands in Bradwell, shall amount unto the yearly value of twenty pounds, and that she pay unto John Pinchon, my second son, and to Edward Pinchon my third son, at their several ages, to either of them one yearly rent or annuity of ten pounds, and to Elizabeth my daughter, at the day of her marriage, five hundred marks, so that the said Elizabeth, my daughter, do make to my wife, mine executrix, and mine heirs a good and sufficient release in the law of all her right and title that she the said Elizabeth hath or ought to have to Cookes lands in Roxwell and to all the profits and rents due unto her since my father's death; and also upon condition that she, my said daughter, upon request, shall release unto John Newton and his heirs and assigns forever all such right, title and interest as she might have or claim by any legacy or gift of my late father, her grandfather, of and in certain tenements by me to him, the said John Newton sold.

Item, I give and bequeath unto John Pinchon, my second son, all those my lands and tenements called Whelers, &c. in Wikestreet, now in the several tenures &c. of Robert Tunbridge and John Thornton, and also of one field called Lowfford, near nnto Lowfford bridge, containing twenty acres or thereabouts and now in the tenure &c. of John Aware, gent., to have and to hold &c. after the decease of Jane my wife; remainder to Edward, my third son, then to my right heirs. I give to Edward, my third son, my lands and tenements called Skigges and Turnors, now in the tenure &c. of John Dockley, and the great brome and meades thereto belonging in the tenure of Thomas Reede's widow, and a croft of land called Clovil hill Croft lying at Byfortie and the hoopes called Challfe hoopes now in

the tenure of Hopkin, after the decease of my wife; remainder to John, my second son, then to my right heirs. Certain other lands &c. to my wife. If my three sons do die without issue of their bodies lawfully begotten then I do give and bequeath all my lands and tenements to Elizabeth, my daughter, and her heirs forever.

Item, I do give all those my lands in Shenfield, which I lately bought of old Symonde deceased, to George Mannffield and Denis his wife, my sister, &c., remainder to the right heirs of the said Denis. As for my farms of the parsonages of Writtle and Roxwell and of the manor of Esthall and Shellmarshe and Garlsmondes marshe I will that Jane my wife have, take and receive the profits of every of them and the stock during her natural life, paying the yearly rents and doing all other things which I and mine assigns are bounden by the several leases to do &c. The residue of the term I give to William Pinchon mine eldest son &c. To my singular good Master Mr. Doctor White, warden of the new College of Winchester in Oxford, my best gelding, I mean that he make his choice, or else ten pounds in money, at his like choice, most humbly beseeching him that, as he hath been always special friend and great good master to me and mine in my life, so he will continue the like to my wife and my poor children when I am gone. To my very loving friend Mr. Bedell, for a remembrance, a ring of gold of the weight of forty shillings. I give for like remembrance unto my loving friend Mr. Tatem, the Vicar of Writtle, my best gown. The residue of my goods and chattells to Jane my wife whom I do make and ordain my sole executrix; and my special good brother in law M'. Peter Osborne my supervisor, to whom I do give, for a remembrance, a ring of gold of the weight of three pounds six shillings eight pence.

Md. the saied will is written with my owne hand in five Pagines of Pap And everie Pagin subscribed with myne owne hand/ Per me Johem Pinchon. Peter, 38.

[Jane, the wife of the above-mentioned John Pynchon, was the daughter of Sir Richard Empson, of Northamptonshire, who was beheaded at London on Tower-hill, Aug. 15th, 1510, in the early part of the reign of Henry 8th. From this date the Pynchon arms are quartered with the Empson on the monuments in the chancel of Writtle Church. Mary, another daughter of Sir Richard Empson, married for her second husband Edward Bulstrode of the ancient family of the Bulstrodes, of Bulstrode Park, County Bucks, not far distant from Windsor, and in the immediate neighborhood of Horton and Wraysbury. Bulstrode Whitlocke was of this family.

Doctor White mentioned above was Thomas White, D. C. L., Warden of St. Mary's College of Winchester at Oxford, commonly called New College, appointed Sept. 17th, 1553. He was educated upon the foundation of Winchester School, as was also Archbishop Chichelè, and held many distinguished positions. He died June 12th, 1588, and was buried in Salisbury Cathedral.-T. R. P.]

EDWARD BELL of Writtell, Essex, gen., 20 November 1576, proved 18 February 1576. Mentions wife's mother Mrs. Philipp Rutter. Wife's sister Johan Hardinge. My brother Thomas Wilbore and my sister his wife. Brother Philip Wilbore. Cousin Thomas Pagitt. Brother James Bell. The poor of Newland in the County of Gloucester. Uncle William Matthewe. Sister (by the mother's side) Dorothy Marshe and her children. Brother William Frend's children. Sister Alice Hagett and her children. Cousin Thomas Hall. The school and almshouses by me begun at Newland. Brother Henry Marshe (husband of Dorothy). My daughter Anne. Son Edward. Youngest son James Bell. Wife Margaret. My eldest son

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