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Sovereign Prin- Popes, or Bishops Archbishops of Theological Wri


of Rome.

Emperors of Leo III.



816 Athelard 817 Wulfred 824 Theogild

802 Eugenius II. 827 811 A schism be

811 tween Euge

nius II. and

ropolites 813 Zizinnus.

Irene Nicephorus


Michael Cu

Leo Armen.


Michael III.

Basil I.



Leo VI.


Michael Balb. 829 Gregory IV. 844

886 Bened. III. 858

A schism be

tween Bene

Emperors of the dict and Ana


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The rise of transubstan- John Scot Erigena. tiation and the sacrifice Alfred the Great, king of the mass. of England.

The cause of Christianity His Saxon version of suffers in the east under Orosius was never the Saracens, and in published. Europe under the Nor- Abon-Nabas, an Arabian poet.


The power of the pope increases; that of the bishops diminishes; and the emperors are divested of their ecclesiastical authority. The Decretals are forged, by which the popes extended the limits of their jurisdiction and authority. The fictitious relics of St. Mark, St. James, and St. Bartholomew, are imposed upon the credulity of the people. Monks and abbots now first employed in civil affairs, and called to the courts of princes. The festival of All-Saints is added, in this century, to the Latin calendar by Gregory IV.though some authors of note place this institution in the seventh century, and attribute it to Boniface IV. The superstitious festival of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, instituted by the council of Mentz, and confirmed by popeNicolas I. and afterwards by Leo X. The trial by cold water introduced by pope Eugenius II. though Le Brun, in his Histoire des Pratiques Superstitieses, endeavours to prove this ridiculous invention more ancient. The emperor Louis II. is obliged by the arrogant pontiff Nicolas I. to perform the functions of a groom, and hold the bridle of this pope's horse, while his pretended holiness was dismounting.

The first Legends or Lives of the Saints appear in this century.

The khalif al-Mamoun,

an eminent mathematician and astronomer. N. B. Haroun, the father of this prince, sent to Charlemagne a striking clock, with springs and wheels, which was the first ever seen in France, and shows that, this period, the arts were more cultivated inAsia than in Europe.


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