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1603, when the deaths from Plague were 36,269; from all causes, 42,042

1625

1636

1665

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Mean of those years

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54,265

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37,671

54,243

The great outbreaks of the Cholera (excluding that of 1831-32, of which we have not authentic returns) have been :

1849, when deaths in Lond. were Cholera 14,125; from all causes, 68,755

1854

1866

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Mean of those years

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10,153 13,550

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73,697 80,453

74,301

74,301

Ditto ditto (including diarrhoea)... As compared with the deaths from all causes, those from the plague were 69 p.c. Those from C. are less than 14 p. c., and with diarrhoea included less than 18 p.c. Nearly as many died from the plague in 1666 as from all causes (cholera included) in 1849.

The Gresham L. has made a contribution to the statistics of mort. of ins. lives as arising from C. Out of the first 1000 deaths among the ins. in that Co., 7 were reported as having died from C. Out of the second 1000, no less than 32 were attributed to C. In the report of the med. officer of the Co., Mr. A. H. Smee, presented in 1871, it is stated:"This large increase is no doubt partly due to the epidemic of C. which swept along the shores of the Mediterranean during the summer of 1866."

In 1871, also, Mr. Harben pub. the mort. experience of the Prudential Life during the 4 years 1867-70. The deaths from Diarrhoea, Dysentery and Cholera (classified together) were at the rate of 413 to 10,000 male, and 420 in the like number of female, lives ins.

It is said to have been remarked in Paris and elsewhere, that copper-workers had a remarkable immunity in respect to the C. At a serious outbreak at Bagdad in 1871, all classes are said to have suffered except the workers in copper. We have already shown that copper-smelters suffered severely in Gt. Brit. in 1866.

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In the summer of 1872 Mr. John Netten Radcliffe, "one of the medical inspectors who has for some years been charged with the duty of examining the communications with the Lords of the Council, as administrators of the Quarantine Act, and till recently of the Diseases Prevention Act," submitted to Mr. Simon, the medical officer of the Privy Council, a Report upon the Recent Diffusion of Cholera in Europe. This Report, which the Times designates as a very remarkable" one, proves, almost to demonstration, that the C. epidemic which has been displaying itself in eruptions more or less serious in Persia, Russia, and other parts of Continental Europe, originated at the annual religious Hindu Fair at Hurdwar, in 1867, at which, it was calculated, "not less than 2,800,000 were present on the great day of the festival," and was carried by or through personal communication with the pilgrims to the various localities in which it has since been heard of. [PLAGUE SPOTS.]

In the Appendix to 33rd R. of Reg.-Gen., pub. 1872, Dr. Farr says:

No greater mistake can be made than to assert of Asiatic C., as is done with a kind of Oriental fatalism, by some popular writers, that C. is under no kind of control. Now it is, I believe, more completely under medical control than any other known epidemic disease; in the first place its propagating fluid is tangible, and can be destroyed; and in the second place the disease almost invariably begins as diarrhoea, which can, in the great majority of cases, be stopped by simple remedies. The disease here never decimates cities, except when its poison is diffused through their potable waters. To the practical applications of these well-ascertained scientific facts, it is due that Asiatic C., which in 1849 destroyed 53,293 lives, in 1854 was only fatal to 20,097, in 1866 to 14,378 lives in E. and W. At the 8th International Statistical Congress, held at St. Petersburg, in Aug. 1872, the questions relating to sanitary statistics involved a discussion on the C. of great interest and animation. Mr. Samuel Brown, in his report on the Congress, read before the Statistical So. of Lond., 19th Nov. 1872, says thereon:

The propositions in the programme, twelve in number, related to a variety of inquiries to be made as to the personal history, health, habits, etc., of the person attacked with the disease; and also as to the manner in which he first caught it, and the results of the medical treatment, and minute questions as to the locality invaded, its sanitary and atmospheric condition, and the mode in which the disease appeared and spread. The subject, together with the report on syphilis, was referred to a Sub-Section, under the presidency of M. Middendorf, and various alterations made in the questions proposed. On being brought before the General Assembly, by Drs. Benezet and Bredow, another lively debate ensued, some being of opinion that the questions were too long and complicated. M. Castiglione proposed that they should be referred to the Permanent Commission to revise; but an amendment was carried, to the effect that medical men and statisticians should take as a guide, as far as possible, the programme now proposed, carry it into effect in the mean time, and report to the next Congress how far it is capable of practical application to throw light on these two calamitous diseases. He (M. Castiglione) also proposed that at the next Congress a larger number of medical men from different countries should be called together, to constitute a separate Section for Medical Statistics. At the present time [Nov. 1872] epidemic C. is making considerable ravages in Austria. During the autumn it prevailed with some severity in Russia. CHOLERA, ASIATIC, DEATHS FROM (Order, ZYMOTIC; Class, Miasmatic).—The deaths from this cause in England present considerable, and very sudden, fluctuations. For the purposes of comparison and future reference, we give the following T. of the deaths regis. over a period of 33 years [a generation]. This T. includes under C. the deaths 35

VOL. I.

from English C.; the deaths from Diarrhea are shown separately. The reason for their being included here is abundantly shown in the preceding art.

TABLE SHOWING THE MORT. BY CHOLERA AND DIARRHEA IN England AND IN London, FROM THE YEAR 1838 DOWNWARDS.

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Cholera.

Diarrhoea. Cholera. Diarrhoea. Cholera. Diarrhoea. Cholera. Diarrhoea.

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[We do not calculate the ratios of deaths to pop. in these later years, because the pop. has to be adjusted in the light of the census of 1871.]

The following additional Tables will be found valuable for future reference :

TABLE SHOWING THE DEATHS FROM CHOLERA AND DIARRHEA IN London AND IN EACH DIVISION OF England DURING THE YEARS 1849, 1854, AND 1866.

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London ...

South-Western Counties 1,835,714

879 961 4564 338 West-Midland Counties 2,436,568 5174 892 139 North-Midland Counties 1,288,928 584 247 North-Western Counties 2,935,540 8836

2,803,989 14,137 10,738 5596
South-Eastern Counties 1,847,661 3209 1581 865
South-Midland Counties 1,295,515 1517 1229
Eastern Counties......

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III 913

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1,142,562

501

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631

1086

953 892

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83

764

967

772

1916 2991

4206 4404

4518

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6346 624 358 1955 2179 1964 1,151,372 3474 632 610 789 824 1135

Monmouth and Wales... 1,312,834 4573 939 2493 629 516 561

England and Wales... 20,066,224 53,293 20,097 14,378 18,887 20,052 17,190

TABLE SHOWING DEATHS IN Lond. AND EACH DISTRICT TO 10,000 PERSONS LIVING.

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TABLE SHOWING THE DEATHS AND RATE OF MORT. FROM CHOLERA AND DIARRHŒA IN 1849, 1854, And 1866, of MALES AND FEMALES AT DIFFEREnt Ages.

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1849. 1854. 1866. 1849. 1854. 1866. 1849. 1854. 1866. 1849. 1854. 1866.

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1849. 1854. 1866. 1849. 1854. 1866. 1849. 1854. 1866. 1849. 1854. 1866.

All Ages............ 30'2 10'8 6.8 30'0 10.8 6.8 II'I

11.2 8.6 10'2 10'4 7'6

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[We have endeavoured in this and the preceding art. to deal exhaustively with the subject of C., and for this reason-it is the only element menacing the stability of life ins. offices with which careful management cannot combat. We believe the reader will be led to the conclusion, after a careful perusal of the preceding details, drawn from all available quarters, that C. is now nearly as much under human control as any of the maladies which afflict humanity; and if that be so, L. offices can best consult their own safety by aiding the advancement of enlightened legislation and practice in relation thereto.] CHOLERA, ENGLISH (Gastro-enteritis mucosa).-A milder form of the malady than that usually spoken of as Asiatic or Epidemic C. The English or European form of C. is

accompanied by bile; the Indian is without bile or urine.-Hoblyn. It is supposed to have been this variety which was noticed by Sydenham in 1669.

Dr. Guy speaks of it as having paid our Lond. ancestors visits of five or six weeks in the months of Aug. and Sept. during the 17th century. It is set down by our Reg.-Gen. simply as "C." It appears to be especially aggravated by the circumstances attending an epidemic of Asiatic C. In 1847 the deaths were 52; in 1848 (marking the beginning of an epidemic), 292; in 1849 (C. epidemic), they rose to 6209; and in the following year fell to 55. The preceding returns embrace all the deaths from it in England. CHOLERA FLUX.-See CHOLRINE.

CHOLERA INFANTUM.-A form of disease which has long been prevalent in American cities. It prevailed in Lond. in the summer of 1846. [CHOLERA, ASIATIC.] CHOLERA MALIGNA.-An epidemic malady due to an atmospheric poison, but communicable by infection, characterized by symptoms of collapse allied to asphyxia, and by profuse vomiting and purging. Cholerine is a term applied to the milder form of the disease. Cholera asphyxia is a term used to characterize the state of collapse in fatal cases. CHOLERAIC DIARRHEA.-A cause of death frequently returned to the registrars during the C. epidemics in Gt. Brit. [See CHOLERA, 1849.] CHOLRINE. A material substance, analogous in its nature to the substances which produce, under given circumstances, smallpox, cowpox, syphilis, and erysipelas; and by means of which C. epidemic is diffused. It has been called Cholerine; but Dr. Farr proposed in 1868, with a view to avoid ambiguity, to write it Cholrine. It is very frequently spoken of as the Cholera Flux. Dr. Snow advanced the view in 1849 [CHOLERA, ASIATIC] that the evacuations containing this matter, distributed by contact, or through water, were the sole means of propagating C. Dr. Richardson contends that the C. matter is an "alkaloidal organic poison, which, soluble in water, but admitting of deposit on desiccation, passes easily from one person to another," under the agency of certain peculiar physical states.

Dr. Farr has remarked that it may appear at first sight impossible that the C. flux of one or more patients should produce any effects in the waters of a river like the Thames. But living molecules, endowed with the powers of endless multiplication, are inconceivably minute, and may be counted by millions in a drop of water. Again:

The infection power of cholera liquid is essentially transitory; it is developed in given circumstances in its intenser form, and in a community as well as in an individual-in India as well as in England-it grows as well as declines by a law of its own; it is epidemic only for a time, and by periods of years. It has its seed-time and its harvest in each locality; and the air or the water which on one day is poisonous may a few days after be harmless. There is an essential difference between zymotic venom and a metallic poison like arsenic.

In its weakest form Cholrine produces diarrhoea in a great number of persons; but in every pop. a large number of people appear to resist its influence. They are insusceptible. The cases of attacks of the same person twice in this as in some other zymotic diseases are rare.-Report on Cholera Epidemic, pub. 1868.

CHOREA SANCTI VITI (from the Greek, dancing, hence called skelotyrbe; St. Vitus's Dance).-Functional derangements of the motor nerves, resulting in irregular jerking movements, more or less interfering with the voluntary actions.

CHOREA, DEATHS FROM (Class, LOCAL; Order, Diseases of Nervous System).-The deaths from this cause are very few in England, and show some fluctuations. In ten consecutive years they were as follows:-In 1858, 53; 1859, 55; 1860, 66; 1861, 71; 1862, 52; 1863, 63; 1864, 73; 1865, 88; 1866, 63; 1867, 50. Over a period of 15 years ending 1864 they averaged rather over 3 to each million of the pop. living. The deaths of 1867 were 21 males and 29 females, spread over the ages of youth and the later middle age. CHOSE IN ACTION [otherwise called Chose in Suspense].-A thing of which the man has not the possession or actual enjoyment, but only a right to recover, by action or other proceeding at law. A well-known rule of the Common Law is that no possibility, right, title, or thing in action can be granted to third parties; for it was thought that a different rule would be the occasion of multiplying litigation-it would in effect be transferring a lawsuit to a mere stranger.-Wharton. A sum insured under a pol. to be paid only on the happening of a particular event was regarded by the Common Law therefore as being incapable of assignment; and this, too, even although the sum ins. is made payable to the executors, administrators, or "assigns " of the ins. The Statute Law has now remedied this, as we have already shown. [ASSIGNMENT OF POL., Life.] CHRISOMES. One of the regular entries in the early Bills of Mort. was "Chrisomes and Infants," thus substituting the age of the deceased for the disease. Chrism is a Greek

word, signifying an ointment used as an holy unguent to anoint the cloth which infants wore until they were christened—usually at the end of the month. If the child died within that period, it was called a Chrisome. The priests of the Greek and Romish Churches attached importance to this rite. Graunt observes that as the number of deaths put down to this head decreased, the number set down to convulsions increased. By 1726 the designation had disappeared from the Bills.

CHRISTENING INS.-During the reign of Queen Anne-that is, in the early part of the last century—a strange mania sprang up in favour of ins. projects of every conceivable variety. Amongst them ins. offices of this class, which, however, appear to have sprung out of

BIRTH INS., then very prevalent. The first we meet with is the Baptismal Office of Assu., the announcement of which furnishes the following outline of the nature of the bus. Every subs. was to pay 2s. 6d. towards each infant baptized until he had one of his own, when he was to receive £200, "the interest of which is sufficient to give a child a good education; and the principal reserved until he comes to maturity." Various similar schemes followed, of which we shall proceed to give a chronological outline. We may fairly assume that many more such projects existed than at this remote period we are able to trace.

The Profitable So., at the Wheatsheaf, by Tom's Coffee House, issued in Nov., 1710, the following: £250 to be paid on the Baptizing a Child, being a new proposal by the Profitable So.; which, by only paying 2s. 6d. for a pol., and 2s. 6d. towards each claim, entitles you to the sum above mentioned. There is also a second so, where, paying only Is. contribution, you receive £100.

No

About the 28th of the same month the Union So. (No. 3), was opened at the Corner of Rupert St., near Upper End of Haymarket, being "a new office on Baptism." details given.

On the following day another Baptism office was opened, at the Hand and Pen, Earl Court, St. Giles. Pol., 2s. 6d. ; contribution, 2s. 6d. each infant; claim, £250.

On the 4th Dec. there was opened at the Widow Pratt's Coffee House, Cateaton St., A Faithful Office for Ins. of Baptisms. Terms, 5s., 5s. and £500. And shortly afterwards another: half-terms and half-benefits.

During this month of Dec. there was issued the following remarkable advertisement : At the several offices for ins. on marriages hereunder named are now also opened for paying 250/. in the first, 100l. in the second, say on the Baptizing children, or as to such of Her Majesty's Protestant subjects who do not baptize their children, on proof to be made that the child was alive three days after the birth thereof. The conditions for the 250l. are that each subscriber pay 2s. 6d. for each pol., and 2s. 6d. to each claim for the 100/. Every subscriber to pay 2s. for a pol. and is. to every claim. The number of subscribers to be 2100 in each office. Proposals at large may be had at Mr. Clement, "Wheat Sheaf," by Tom's; Mr. Simson, "Golden Lyon," Drury-lane; Mr. Baker, "Bourns Coffee House;" Mr. Morse, "Hargreaves Coffee House;" Mr. Edwards, "King's Head Court, Petticoatlane; " Mr. Blackmore," Black Swan," Shoreditch.

On 6th Feb., 1711, it was announced by Profitable So., at Wheatsheaf, that the trustees appoint "all pol. for claims on Baptizing Children to be henceforth made out for 3 kal. months; all for dividends for 2 kal. months. . . . . Entered already in the said societies, 1835."

Early in March, 1711, was passed the 9 Anne, c. 6, sec. 57 of which imposed a fine of £500 on every person erecting or setting up any office of this character in future. The enterprise consequently died out, and has since remained a matter of history only. [GAMBLING INS.] CHRISTENINGS.-Before the General Registration Act came into working operation in 1836, the system of regis. of births, although enjoined by the Canons of the Church, and also by the Statute Law as early as 1695 [BIRTHS, REGIS. OF], had become very lax; and indeed the regis. of the christening was regarded much the same as the regis. of the birth, although we now realize the fact that the two things are very different. Baptism, when it ceased to be immediate upon birth, as enjoined according to the rites of the Romish Church, could no longer be certain. The infants who died within the first month after birth-till which period baptism was generally delayed by the practice of the Protestant Church-never got into the returns of christenings at all; while several sects of Dissenters discarded baptism altogether. When it first became the practice to enter the christenings in the B. of Mort. does not appear. They are not entered in the Lond. Bill we have given for 1563; but they are in that for 1582. [BILLS OF MORT.] So that this last date may perhaps be regarded as about the orig. of the practice.

The number of christenings recorded became, and remained until early in the present century, an important element in estimating the pop., and also in predicting its increase or decrease. But, as we have elsewhere shown [CENSUS], the test was a fallacious one.

The first writer who used the returns of christenings in relation to pop. estimates was Graunt. He soon found how imperfect they were for the purpose; and he hit upon the cause of their imperfection with marvellous sagacity. Here is what he says in his Natural and Political Obs., 1661:

For that there hath been a neglect in the accounts of the christenings is most certain, because until the year 1642 we find the burials but equal with the christenings, or near thereabouts; but in 1648, when the differences in religion had changed the Government, the christenings were but two-thirds of the burials. And in the year 1659 not half, viz., the burials were 14,720 (of the plague but 36), and the christenings were but 5670; which great disproportion could be from no other cause than that above mentioned; forasmuch as the same grew as the confusions and changes grew.

He then follows up a train of statistical reasoning, and states his conclusions thus :— "Wherefore I conceive that the true number of the christenings, anno 1659, is above double to the 5670 set down in our bills,—that is, about 11,500; and then the christenings will come near the same proportion to the burials, as hath been observed in former times." He then enlarges upon the subject as follows:

The decrease and increase of people is to be reckoned chiefly by christenings, because few bear children in Lond. but inhabitants, though others die there. The accounts of christenings were well

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