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TABLE OF 1751 PERSONS REACHING THE AGE OF 100 AND UPWARDS:
[In modern mort. T. the positions of the 2nd and 3rd cols. of this T. would be reversed. We give it as its compiler arranged it.]
CENTRAL LOAN, LIFE, AND REVERSION.-A co. under this title was projected in 1849; but prov. regis. was the limit of its attainment.
CEOLA.-A large ship.-Blount.
CEPHALITIS.-Inflammation of the brain (Class, LOCAL; Order, Disease of Nervous System). The deaths from this cause in England present very slight variations. In ten consecutive years they were as follows: 1858, 3463; 1859, 3451; 1860, 3518; 1861, 3426; 1862, 3580; 1863, 3869; 1864, 4014; 1865, 4199; 1866, 4146; 1867, 4220. The average over a period of 15 years ending 1864 was 187 to each million of the pop. living.
The deaths in 1867 were: Males, 2337; Females, 1883. Of the males, 1213 died under the age of 5, and the remainder mostly in the younger ages-the decrease being steady as the ages advance. Of the females, 928 died under 5, and then the same as the males. See BRAIN DISEASE.
CEREBELLUM.-The little brain, situate behind the larger brain or cerebrum. CEREBRUM.-This term denotes the vessel which hold the brains, i.e. the skull: hence the brains. The term is restricted to the chief portion of the brain, occupying the whole upper cavity of the skull.
CERTIFICATE.-A testimony given in writing to declare or verify the truth of anything; or of having discharged a duty, or complied with any specific requirements of the law. CERTIFICATE OF AGE.-This must be a transcript of some recognized official record of age, duly verified. If it be taken from any other than an official record, it will be termed a DECLARATION OF AGE.
CERTIFICATE OF BAPTISM.-A copy of the registry of baptism taken from the parish regis., or any other record authorized by law to be kept for such purpose, duly verified. It is by no means synonymous with "certificate of birth," inasmuch as baptism is usually more or less delayed after birth, sometimes for years; and with certain religious sects is altogether disregarded.
CERTIFICATE OF BIRTH.-This is an official copy of the actual entry in any duly authorized register of births, properly certified by the official lawfully in charge of the same. CERTIFICATE OF BONUS.-On a declaration of bonus, a certificate is usually issued to each policy-holder, stating the amount of bonus, either cash or reversionary, and indicating how it has been or may be applied. [BONUS.]
CERTIFICATE OF BURIAL.-A certified copy of any entry of burial in a parish regis., or regis. of burials in any authorized public purial-place.
CERTIFICATE OF THE CAUSE OF DEATH.-No funeral can take place in Gt. Brit. until a copy of the entry in the register of deaths, signed by the registrar, or a certificate by a coroner, setting forth the cause of death, is produced to the minister performing the burial service, except in certain cases provided for by the General Registration Act, and in which the officiating minister has to give notice to the registrar. [FRIENDLY SOS., 1858.] CERTIFICATE OF DEATH.-An official copy of the entry in any register of deaths existing and kept pursuant to law.
CERTIFICATE OF HEALTH.-A certificate issued to a person seeking admission as a member of friendly sos. and other provident asso.
CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION.-The Cos. Act, 1862 (25 & 26 Vict. c. 89), provides (sec. 18), that upon regis. of the memorandum of asso., and of the art. of asso. (where required or desired), the registrar shall certify under his hand that the company is
incorporated, and in the case of a limited company, that the co. is limited, and such certificate shall be conclusive evidence that all the requisitions of the Act in respect of regis. have been complied with.
CERTIFICATE OF Loss (Marine).-It appears to have been the practice for the Clerk of the Chamber of Insurances to grant a Certificate of Loss after a proper investigation had been made into the circumstances of the loss, and the Chamber had become satisfied thereon. We have not met with one of these forms. [CHAMBERS OF INS.]
(Fire). — According to the early practice of F. ins. offices, a certificate had to be furnished by all claimants in respect of F. losses (in add. to their own affidavit or declaration), by the minister and churchwardens, and some other respectable inhabitants of the parish, not concerned in such loss, importing that they were well acquainted with the character and circumstances of the person or persons insured; and did know, or verily believe, that he, she, or they, really and by misfortune, without any fraud or evil practice, had sustained by such fire the loss and damage as his, her, or their loss, to the value therein mentioned. Here is a condition of this effect, as issued by the Sun F. office, under date 1st Nov., 1794:
Art. XI.-Persons ins. sustaining any loss or damage by fire are forthwith to give notice thereof at the office, and as soon as possible afterwards deliver in as particular an account of their loss or damage as the nature of the case will admit of . . . ; and procure a certificate under the hands of the minister and churchwardens, together with some other respectable inhabitants of the parish not concerned in such loss, importing that they are well acquainted with the character and circumstances of the person or persons ins., and do know or verily believe that he, she, or they, really and by misfortune, without any fraud or evil practice, have sustained by such fire the loss and damage as his, her, or their loss, to the value therein mentioned, etc., etc.
The Hand-in-Hand, Union, Lond. Assu., Royal Exchange, and indeed all the early F. offices, required similar certificates.
CERTIFICATE OF MARRIAGE.-A certified copy of the entry of marriage in any parish regis., or in any of the regis. of marriage provided under the Marriage Laws. [MARRIAGES, REGIS. OF.]
CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION. -The Joint-Stock Cos. Regis. Act (1844), 7 & 8 Vict. c. 110, provided for the issuing of certificates of PROVISIONAL REGIS., and of COMPLETE REGIS. These will be spoken of under those heads. The Cos. Act, 1862, 25 & 26 Vict. c. 89, provides (sec. 191), that cos. not orig. constituted under that Act may be regis. under it; and the certificate of incorp. given by the registrar of joint-stock cos. to any such co. shall be conclusive evidence that all the requisitions under that Act have been complied with; and the date of incorp. in such certificate shall be deemed to be the date at which the co. is incorp. under this Act.
CERTIFICATE OF SHARE.-The Cos. Act, 1862, declares (sec. 31), that a certificate under the common seal of the co. specifying any share or shares or stock held by any member of a co. shall be primâ facie evidence of the title of the member to the share or shares or stock therein specified.
The Cos. Act, 1867, provides for the issuing of fully paid-up shares to bearer by means of share-warrants. [SHARES TO BEARER.] [SHARE-WARRANTS.] CESSPOOLS.-It can easily be shown that the mort. bears a certain proportion to the quantity of the poison which the people inhale; and that the quantity is greatest under the cesspool system, which formerly prevailed in Lond., and is now in use in the French, German, and Italian towns. The mort. has gradually fallen in Lond. as the cesspools have been abolished; it is still high in foreign cities where the cesspools are in use. Manchester, where the dirt is allowed to decay behind the houses, and is not thrown into sewers, the mort. was at the rate of 33 per 1000 in the years 1841-50; and in the foreign cesspooled cities the mort. ranges from 30 to 44 in the 1000.-Reg.-Gen., 21st R., 1860. Dr. T. Herbert Barker performed, about 1858, an ingenious series of experiments on animals to determine the effects of each of the noxious principles which arise from cesspools. He placed the animals in a close chamber by a cesspool, with which a tube opening into the chamber communicated, and a lamp was arranged so as to draw a current of cesspool air steadily over the creatures inside. With a pair of bellows Dr. Barker could draw the air from the chamber. A young dog in half an hour became very uneasy and restless; he vomited and had a distinct rigor, and in the course of a day was exhausted. When he was removed, he soon recovered. Another dog was subjected to the cesspool air during twelve days; in the first seven he underwent a series of sufferings not unlike the symptoms of the diseases of children in hot weather; on the ninth he was very ill and miserable. After he was liberated on the 12th day, he remained very thin and weak for six weeks. Dr. Barker then continued his experiments on the effects of definite doses of the gases in the sewers, and killed or poisoned several sparrows, linnets, jackdaws, and dogs.
In the 24th R. of Reg.-Gen. (1863), Dr. Farr took up the question, and observed: The practice of keeping the refuse of the sick and the healthy of successive generations in the cesspools alike of cottages and palaces every day grows more pernicious as the pop. becomes denser; for the water is defiled in wells, and even when the cesspools and drains are emptied into the Thames and other rivers, it is pumped again into the houses only partially purified. The ova of worms and the seeds of various diseases are thus diffused among children; while great numbers of men and women in the prime of life also suffer, and often die of the maladies which are the inevitable consequences of violations of natural laws.
Happily the cesspool system, and all its attendant evils, is being gradually driven from the towns of Gt. Brit.
CESTUI QUE TRUST.-The person who possesses the equitable right to deal with property, and receive the rents, issues, and profits thereof.
CESTUI QUE VIE.-The person for whose life any lands, tenements, or hereditaments may be held.
CHADWICK, DAVID, M.P., was for some years District Agent in Manchester for the Globe Ins. Co., and afterwards for the Liverpool, London and Globe, and secured a large and important bus. for these offices.
CHADWICK, EDWIN, C.B., Barrister-at-Law and Social Economist.—He has during the whole of the present generation been an earnest worker in the cause of the public health. Mr. Chadwick was born in 1801. His publications have been numerous, although mostly in the shape of official reports. We propose to notice all such as relate to our subject. In 1828 he contributed a paper to the Westminster Review, on L. Assu. [LIFE INS., HIST. OF.]
In 1838, being then connected with the Poor Law Board, Mr. Chadwick obtained the consent of the Commissioners to a special inquiry into the local and preventible causes of disease, and the improvement of habitations in the metropolis. As the result of this investigation, he presented a Report, proposing a venous and arterial system of water supply and drainage for the improvement of towns, and works for the application of sewage to agricultural production.
A little later a similar inquiry was extended to the whole of England and Wales, and was taken charge of by Mr. Chadwick, although he had then become Sec. of the Poor Law Board. The result of this larger inquiry appeared in the shape of Reports from time to time under various titles.
In 1843 he presented a Report On the Results of a Special Inquiry into the Practice of Interments in Towns; which document laid the foundation of subsequent legis. upon that subject. In the same year he read before the Statistical So. of Lond. a paper: On the best mode of representing by returns the Duration of Life and Causes of Mort. [See vol. vii. of Statis. Journ.]
In 1848 he was appointed a Commissioner of the General Board of Health, for improving the supplies of water, and the sewage, drainage, cleansing, and paving of towns. In 1858 Mr. Chadwick read before the Social Science Congress at Liverpool a paper: On the Application of Sanitary Science to the Protection of the Indian Army, in which the subject was treated in a very complete and conclusive manner.
In 1860 he delivered before the Public Health Department of the Social Science Congress at Glasgow an address as Vice-President, which address abounds with facts of a most important character, drawn for the most part from undoubted sources.
In 1861 Mr. Chadwick delivered an address before the Brit. Asso. at Cambridge, as President of the Section of Economic Science and Statistics, in which he treated of many subjects associated with health and statistics.
CHAIRMAN.-Every ins. asso, is supposed to have a Chairman. In some cases the Chairman is fixed by the deed or art. of asso.; in others he is elected by the ann. meeting. More generally the chairman of the co. is the chairman of the board of directors, and is elected by the directors annually or otherwise. The L. Assu. Cos. Act of 1870 gives the following definition :- 'The term 'Chairman' means the person for the time being presiding over the court or board of directors of the co. Sec. 10 provides that "every statement or abstract herein before required to be made shall be signed by the 'Chairman,' etc. [ACCOUNTS.]
CHALK STONES.-Gouty concretions, resembling half-dried mortar, formed under the skin, about the joints, chiefly of the fingers and toes, and consisting of urate of soda. CHALKING [or CAULKING].-Stopping the seams in a ship or a vessel. CHALMERS, GEORGE, pub. in Lond., in 1782, An Estimate of the Comparative Strength of Gt. Brit., and of the Losses of her Trade from every War since the Revolution. There was appended to the ed. of this work, pub. 1802, and generally called Chalmers' Estimate, the "Political Conclusions of Gregory King," which we shall speak of hereafter. The last ed. was pub. in Edin. in 1812. This work exhibits the constant progress made by the country in wealth and pop. from the Revolution down to 1812, and shows that complaints of the decline of trade, the impoverished condition of the people, and the oppressiveness of taxation, have been constantly occurring, and have been usually put forward with the greatest confidence when there was least foundation for them.McCulloch. We have had occasion to quote this book in various parts of the present work. CHALMERS, WILLIAM, was General Man. of North of Scotland (now Northern) Ins. Co. from its formation in 1836 down to 1865, when he retired upon a full pension. He died Oct., 1872, aged 71. CHALYBEATE WATERS (Ferruginous Waters).-Mineral waters, whose active principle is iron. There are two kinds: the carbonated, containing carbonate of the protoxide of iron; and the sulphated, containing sulphate of iron. There are variations containing other properties. Invalids are sent to the various Spas to obtain the curative properties of these waters.
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.-An assembly of merchants and traders where affairs relating to trade are treated of.
There has been a good deal of speculation regarding the origin of Chambers of Commerce. King Edward II. is said to have summoned a chamber of merchants to meet him at Lincoln in 1315; but the purport of this assembly, and whether it was the first of its kind, does not appear. Macpherson, in his Annals of Commerce, gives the following account of their origin, under date 1318:
The King being desirous of consulting with judicious and prudent merchants concerning the establishment of the staple of wool in Flanders and other commercial matters, John of Cherleton, citizen of Lond. and mayor of the merchants of England, who was furnished by the King's council with a particular statement of the matters to be considered, together with two merchants chosen out of every city and burgh throughout the kingdom, were summoned to meet at Lond. in the Octaves of St. Hilary, in order to deliberate upon those matters (Færdera, vol. iii. p. 740). This is, properly speaking, the earliest council of trade known in English history or record, as the merchants appear to have formed a board of themselves; whereas those summoned to Lincoln in the year 1315 seem to have been called only to give information and perhaps advice to the King's council or parliament.
We had expected that the early hist. of Chambers of Commerce would throw some light upon the hist. of marine and other branches of ins. In this we have been disappointed; and it is prob. that in earlier times the general prevalence of Chambers of Ins. prevented the Chambers of Commerce from attempting to regulate matters of ins. as they have sometimes attempted to do in modern times. [CHAMBERS OF INs.] [TRIBUNALS OF COMMERCE.]
CHAMBERLAYNE, EDWARD, pub. in 1668, Anglia Notitia; or, the Present State of England, with Divers Remarks upon the Ancient State thereof. This work passed through a large number of eds. The first 20 were ed. by the author himself; and about the same number by his son. It treated of pop., and such kindred subjects as are included in the range of political arithmetic. McCulloch speaks on the whole favourably of it. We have had occasion to quote it in these pages.
CHAMBERS' EDINBURGH JOURNAL.-Various articles bearing upon ins. have appeared in this pub. The following paper, pub. 1841, attracted considerable attention: Cautions respecting L. Assu. and Annu. (No. 474).
CHAMBERS OF INSURANCE.-At a very early period Chambers of Ins. were estab. in various cities of Europe. Their objects appear to have been two-fold: (1) to promote the practice of marine ins. on a solid and uniform basis; and (2) to settle all disputes arising among merchants and others concerning matters of ins.
The earliest of these Chambers, of which we have any present indication, appear to have been founded in the Mediterranean ports about the 12th century. The chief of these was prob. in Venice, which appears for several centuries to have been the chosen seat of marine ins.
We have already seen that a Chamber of Ins. is stated to have been estab. at Bruges in 1310. [BRUGES.]
It seems more than probable that a Chamber of Ins. existed in Barcelona in the 13th or 14th century. [BARCELONA.]
A Chamber of Ins. was estab. in Amsterdam in 1598, called the "Kamer von Assurantie." In 1600 a Chamber of Ins. was estab. at "the city of Middleburg in Zealand" (Holland). The Ins. Ordin. promulgated in that city in Sept. of that year provides :
XXIX. The officers, commissioners of the Chamber of Assu., their sec., his sworn clerk, the officers of the customs or brokers of assu., shall not make nor cause any assu. to be made, either directly or indirectly [as on their own account, or as underwriters].
XXXIII. All differences arising between any parties concerning affairs of assu. made in this place shall in the first instance be inquired into and be determined according to this Ordin. by commissioners of the Chamber of Assu., who are to the number of three appointed for that purpose.
A Chamber of Maritime Affairs was estab. in Rotterdam, prob. at an early date. The Ins. Ordin. of 1721 says (Art. 1): "All disputes arising in this city, relating to assu., averages, or other affairs of navigation, shall in the first instance be determined by the Chamber for the Maritime Law estab. in this city.'
Other continental cities had or have Chambers of Ins. under various designations, as "Courts of Ins." "Offices of Ins." etc., etc. These are mostly spoken of under the Ins. Ordin., or Hist. of Ins. in those places. It is not unlikely that some, if not many, of the various Ins. Ordin., of which such frequent mention is made in these pages, owe their origin in the fact of the existence of these early Chambers of Ins.
The Consolato del Mare was prob. used, if not in part compiled, by the early Chambers of Ins.; while in some cases prob. the Consular Courts assumed the functions of the Chambers of Ins. [CONSOLATO DEL MARE.] [CONSULAR COURTS.]
It seems not improbable that some of these Chambers of Ins. became transformed into corporate bodies, and instead of remaining confined to their original functions of registering and regulating ins. made by others, actually undertook the bus. of ins. themselves. The Ins. Co. of Copenhagen, which received a Royal Charter in 1746, seems to be a case in point. The Ins. Co. of Stockholm, chartered in 1750, we regard as another. The practice prob. became more general: for in the French Dict. du Citoyen, we find the following:
The credit of these [Foreign] Chambers or Cos. of Ins. depends chiefly upon the ability of the
directors and of the proper employment of the sums deposited with them. These funds are often made use of in loans on bottomry and in discounting of public and commercial paper. Chambers of Assu. may therefore be very useful to the State; they accelerate the circulation of specie, favour paper credit, and become a resource for merchants who have immediate need of ready money. Another advantage which these Chambers procure to the nation is that, by means of their competition, and the low prems. thereby established, commercial enterprises become less expensive, and merchants of our own nation are enabled to rival strangers.
The estab. in Lond. at an early date of a Chamber of Ins. appears to have been almost entirely overlooked by previous writers upon the subject; yet it has such an important bearing upon the hist. of Ins., in its various branches, that we propose to follow the events in some detail.
In 1574, "Sir James Hawes being maior," one Richard Candler, Mercer, obtained from the Queen (Elizabeth) a grant to make and regis, all manner of assu., policies, intimations, renunciations, and other things whatever that thereafter should be made upon any ship or ships, goods or merchandize, or any other thing or things, in the Royal Exchange, in Lond., or in any other place within the City, by any manner of persons of what nation, condition, er quality soever; to endure the Queen's Majesty's pleasure; but with a proviso, that if the said office should be thought needful to be reformed for the better benefit of the subject that should have any dealing herein, then, notwithstanding the same, upon suit made to Her Highness, or her Honble. Council, by order to be directed in writing, the said Candler should conform himself thereunto.
We observe that it is mentioned by Stow that this patent was complained of by the notaries public and the brokers, that it was an intrusion upon them, and would be their utter undoing; and upon this, he says the patent seems to have been revoked. But in this respect he is clearly in error. We proceed to show what really did occur.
The first step taken after this grant appears to have been the appointment, under the order of the Lord Mayor, ratified by Her Majesty's Council, of commissioners for the hearing and ending of all matters of ins. The next step-the commissioners so appointed drew up a scale or bill of fees to be charged in the said office or Chamber of Ins. for registering pol., etc. This scale was submitted to the said Richard Candler for his approval or otherwise; and here is the document in which he expressed his views thereon: The answer of Richard Candeler unto a bill of ffees sett downe by certen Aldermen & Cittezens of London apoynted by Sir Ambrose Nicholas Knight Lord Maior of London towching his office for the Making and Regestring of Assewraunces &c. in the names of the Comissioners apoynted for the rating of the Regestringe of Assewraunces by here Majesty's Letters pattentes under the great seale of Ingland:
An unreasonable difference between vs. per cente and xij d. p. cente.
Comissioners ought not to excead ther comission.
An evil bargayne to exchange something for nothing or thinges certen for uncerteyne thinges.
So longe as every man maye make his owen pollecy the decept in Assewraunces will nevir be redressed, whiche is the greatest cause of the
erection of the said offices, as apereth by
the letters Pattentes.
First, where they wolde allow him for the entring and regestring of every pollecy of assewraunce xij d. and for everry cli. [100 livre] subscribid in everry souch pollecy being c li. and upwarde xij d. And if the assewrance be lesse then cli. then he to have for the Regestring of the polecy & souch assewrance ijs. To this he answereth that althoughe ther is v s. uppon the hondreth allowid [at] Andwarpe [Antwerp] for licke Regestringe approvid by Certifficat yet neverthelesse yf all the said Comissioners do agree uppon the said Ratte either more or lesse the said R. Candeler must and will hold him selfe contented therwith being orderly done according to her Majesty's said Comission.
Item, wher the saide parties in the names of the said Comissioners woolde further allowe to the said Richard Candeler for certificattes vs. ffor Coppies of Pollecyes if enny be required ij s. vj d. for Searches vj d. To this he answereth that the said Comissioners have nonne awcthoritie nor warraunt to rate anny soche thinges neither are they of enny valew to be accomptid off. But thrust in to make some shew of lyving and therby slyly to convey from the said Richard Candeler the greatest partte of his office, (that is to saye) the making of all pollycies and Intimations to him grauntid in the said letters pattentes by special wordes. As the same doth well apeare as well by the Covenauntes that they wold bynd the said R. Candeler to. As also by ther bill of rattes, wherin they saye that the said R. C. shall have xij d. for the making of every pollecy that shalbe brought to him to be maide. And that it shalbe lawfull to the said R. C. to make Intimations as other notoris maye (and noe otherwize).
Further he saith, That yf every man maye make pollicies that will, the case wilbe souche that the saide Richard Candeler shall not have the Regestringe of the Tenthe pollecy of assewrance that shalbe made, ffor that he shall not knowe on whom to complayne for not Regestring ther assewraunces. so his said office not abill [able] to cowntervaille his charges.
This document, the orig. of which is still preserved with the State Papers, is indorsed, "Answer to the bill of rattes delivered by my L. Maior to Mr. Secretorie Walsingham the 23 Maye 1576."
The marginal notes are not the least interesting portion of this document. They bring out its meaning even more vividly than the text itself.
In 1590 one John Allington moved that an office might be set up for the making and registering all manner of writings in the ordinary contracts and bargains usually made between all merchants, owners, and masters of ships before the going out of every ship or vessel; and that he, his deputies or assigns, might be the only registrars for that office. Strype (the able editor of Stow) considers this as another attempt to secure the grant formerly held by Candler. We regard this simply as an attempt to estab. a general marine regis., and not as in any way relating to the Chamber of Ins.