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re-enacted in 1840 by 3 & 4 Vict. c. 85-An Act for the Regulation of Chimney Sweepers and Chimneys. This last-named Act contains the following provision:

VI. And whereas it is expedient for the better security from accidents by fire, the improved construction of chimneys and flues provided by the said Act be continued; be it enacted, that all withs and partitions between any chimney or flue, which at any time after the passing of this Act shall be built or rebuilt, shall be of brick or stone, and at least equal to half a brick in thickness; and every breast-back and with or partition of any chimney or flue to be built or rebuilt shall be built of sound materials, and the joints of the wood well filled with good mortar or cement, and rendered or stuccoed within; and also that every chimney or flue hereafter to be built or rebuilt in any wall, or of greater length than 4 feet out of the wall, not being a circular chimney or flue 12 inches in diameter, shall be in every section of the same not less than 14 inches by 9 inches; and no chimney flue shall be constructed with any angle therein which shall be less obtuse than an angle of 120 degrees, except as is hereinafter excepted; and every salient or projecting angle in any chimney or flue shall be rounded off 4 inches at least upon pain of forfeiture, by every master builder or other master workman who shall make or cause to be made such chimney or flue, of any sum not less than £10, nor exceeding £50; provided nevertheless that notwithstanding this Act chimneys or flues may be built at angles with each other of 90 degrees and more, such chimneys or flues having therein proper doors or openings not less than 6 inches square.

By the Metropolitan Fire Brigade Act, 1865—28 & 29 Vict. c. 90—it is provided :

23. If the chimney of any house or other building within the metropolis is on fire, the occupier of such house or building shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding 20s.; but if such occupier proves that he has incurred such penalty by reason of the neglect or wilful default of any other person, he may recover summarily from such person the whole or any part of the penalty he may have incurred as occupier.

The penalties imposed by the 14 Geo. III. are repealed. [FIRE PREVENTION.]

Chimneys on fire constitute a considerable per-centage of the "calls" made to the Fire Brigade. [FIRE CALLS.]

CHINA.-China claims to be the oldest even of Asiatic nations; but of its early hist. we know very little. In 1710 its pop. was estimated at 27,241,129; in 1757 at 190,348,228. In 1812 an official census was taken by order of Kia King. The pop. was found to be 367,632,907, giving a density of 283 to the square mile. In 1860 the pop. was estimated at 414,607,000; in 1867 at 450,000,000. Various other enumerations are said to have taken place. Dr. Bowring considered (1855) that "our greater knowledge of the country increases the evidence in favour of the approximate correctness of the official document." The Laws of China make provisions for a general system of registration, and punishment is awarded to those who neglect to regis. The machinery is confided to the Elders of the district, and a census should be taken annually.

The populous aspect of the country has been noticed by many writers. Among the first was Father Alvares Semedo, whose Hist. of China was pub. in Lond. in 1655, and who says:

This kingdom is so exceedingly populous, that having lived there two-and-twenty years, I was in no less amazement at my coming away than in the beginning at the multitude of the people. Certainly the truth exceedeth all hyperboles, not only in the cities, towns, and public places, but also in the highway there is as great a concourse as is usual in Europe on some great festival. And if we will refer ourselves to the General Register Book, wherein only the common men are enrolled, leaving out women, children, eunuchs, professors of letters and arms, there are reckoned of them to be 58 millions, 55 thousand, 1 hundred, and 4 score.

An earthquake throughout China occurred in 1662. It is stated to have buried 300,000 persons in Pekin alone. In 1731 another earthquake occurred which is said to have destroyed 100,000 in Pekin, and 80,000 in a suburb.

The enormous river pop. of China, who live only in boats-who are born and educated —who marry, rear their families, and die-who, in a word, begin and end their existence on the water, and never have or dream of any shelter other than its roof, and who seldom tread except on the deck or boards of their Sampans-show to what extent the land is crowded, and how inadequate it is to maintain the cumberers of the soil. In the city of Canton alone it is estimated that 300,000 dwell upon the surface of the river; the boats, sometimes 20 or 30 deep, cover some miles, and have their wants supplied by ambulatory salesmen, who wend their way through every accessible passage.-Bowring. The constant flow of emigration from China, contrasted with the complete absence of migration into China, has further been regarded as a striking evidence of the redundancy of pop. They crowd all the islands of the Indian Archipelago; they spread over the South Seas; they reach Australia, and penetrate to the West Indies. California has long formed a considerable outlet for them; they are rapidly spreading over the entire U.S. In 1822 nearly the entire city of Canton was burned. The lightness of the materials used in construction renders the towns peculiarly liable to destruction by fire.

In 1848 Hong-kong and neighbourhood was visited by a violent typhoon. Immense damage was done to the shipping; upwards of 1000 boat-dwellers on the Canton rivers were drowned.

In 1855 Dr. Bowring, then Brit. Plenipotentiary at Hongkong, communicated to our Reg.-Gen. a paper on the Pop. of China [printed in Statistical Journal, vol. xx. p. 41], from which some of the preceding facts are drawn. He says further:

While so many elements of vitality are in a state of activity for the reproduction and sustenance of the human race, there is prob. no part of the world in which the harvests of mort. are more sweeping and destructive than in China; producing voids which require no ordinary appliances to fill up. Multitudes perish absolutely from want of the means of existence-inundations destroy towns and

imperial city the census was taken by the censors in person. In the provinces the citizens made their declarations before the provincial magistrates, according to a form or schedule transmitted to the latter by the censors. All these lists being returned to Rome were reduced to a tabular form, so that the total number of Roman citizens, and the slaves and other property possessed by each, could be ascertained at a single glance. These records were preserved in the Temple of Venus Libitina; but none of them have been preserved to us in detail.

It will be discerned by the thoughtful reader that such exact details were prob. required for other purposes than a mere estimation of the number of the pop. It was so. The returns, obtained as described, were required and used for the fiscal purposes of the State; while they also had a distinct value in relation to military organization. Those who desire more details regarding the mode of taking and the purposes of the censuses of both Greece and Rome may, with advantage, consult Smith's Dict. of Greek and Roman Antiquities.

In the first instance the Roman census was taken every 5 years. After a time a good deal of indifference arose regarding it; hence it came to be taken only once in 10 years; and later, but once in 15 years. It is said, upon apparently good authority, that only 75 enumerations were made in the 630 years from Servius to Vespasian; after which it was entirely discontinued. Originally, after the census was taken in Rome, a sacrifice of purification or lustration took place. From this the term of 5 years came to be called a lustrum. The two great jurists, Paulus and Ulpian, each wrote works on the census in the imperial period.

It is stated that the Paternal Government of Peru has from a very early date kept a regis. of all births and deaths throughout the country, and has caused exact returns of the pop. to be made every year by officers appointed by the State.

One of the earliest methods employed with a view to numbering the people in Gt. Brit. was to enumerate the Houses, and then to multiply the houses by the number of people supposed to be occupying them. This method has been frequently resorted to, both here and in Ireland. Another aid was called in. In 1662 the Hearth or Chimney Tax was first imposed. The returns of this tax were supposed to elucidate the number of Families. After the Revolution of 1689, when the taxing of fireplaces was abolished, the computers fell back upon the returns of House and Window Duties. The Poll Tax had been levied on too small a portion of the pop. to be of much value for such estimates. It has been frequently shown that none of these methods could be at all depended upon. The books containing the account of hearth money were long since lost, and it is by no means certain whether Dr. Davenant, in stating the number of houses in England and Wales in 1690, as given in the Hearth Books, really meant the buildings in which families lived, or the families themselves. The returns of the House and Window duties were still less worthy of credit. The collectors were only required to make out and return to the Commissioners of Assessed Taxes, lists of houses within their respective collections chargeable with the duties in question. All cottages exempted from the usual taxes to church and poor were also exempted from the house and window duties; and there was no obligation on the officers to return an account of their numbers. The earlier returns of assessed taxes have never been regarded as very accurate. All these points are necessary to be considered in dealing with the various estimates made in the absence of the authority and the means for an exact enumeration.

Again, the regis. of births and burials have frequently been resorted to as means by which to estimate the magnitude of the pop. In applying them to this purpose, districts in various parts of the country were selected, forming as nearly as possible a fair average of the whole; and a census being taken of the pop. in them, it is learned, by dividing that pop. by the number of births and the number of deaths, the proportion which they respectively bear to the whole number of inhabitants in the districts that have been surveyed; and hence it followed, that to learn the pop. of the entire kingdom it was only necessary to multiply the total number of births, or the total number of burials, as given in the regis., by the proportion which either of them had been thus proved to bear to the whole pop. Thus, supposing that the average proportion of deaths to the pop. had been ascertained, by examinations being made in different parishes, situated in different parts of a country, to be as I to 45 or 50, the entire pop. would plainly be equal to the entire number of deaths in a year multiplied by 45 or 50; or if the proportion of births to the whole pop. had been ascertained, in the same way, to be I in 28 or 30, the pop. would be the product of the yearly births by 28 or 30. It is plain, therefore, that if the regis. of births could have been relied on as accurate, this would form a compendious and not unsatisfactory mode of forming an estimate of the pop. But the early regis. were in almost all cases very far indeed from being accurate. [PARISH REGIS.]

But though the regis. of births and deaths were kept with the most perfect accuracy, it would still be no easy matter to determine the exact amount of the pop. by their means. What may be considered the average and ordin. rate of mort. in a country-and the same thing is true of the average and ordin. proportion of births-is liable to be deeply affected by the occurrence of scarce and calamitous years, and conversely [FOOD, ITS INFLUENCE ON LIFE AND DEATH]; and unless all such exceptional circumstances were allowed for, error of greater or less amount must invariably be found in such estimates.

The earliest country in modern Europe which adopted a census of its pop. by actual enumeration was Sweden. A census of its entire pop. was taken in 1749, and again 1752 and 1755. [SWEDEN.]

One of the earliest English writers who appears to have discerned, or at least to have pointed out, the value of an exact enumeration of the people was Corbyn Morris, who in his Obs. on the Past Growth of the City of Lond., etc., first pub. 1751, suggested a B. of mort. arranged so as, after a series of years, to furnish such information. He says:

Under the B. of mort. proposed, one noble instance of information, which might clearly be drawn from it at any period, readily suggests itself. This is, that the total number of persons living of all ages, and also the respective numbers living of each age, might from hence accurately be ascertained: supposing this bill to have been kept for a time past, equal to the utmost extent of life, and also the accession of foreigners during that time to have been nearly equal to the egression of natives.

De Moivre, in the 3rd ed. of his Doctrine of Chances, 1756, speaks of the importance of Taking the numbers of the living, with their ages, through every parish in the kingdom: as was in part ordered some time ago by the Rt. Rev. the Bishops; but their order was not universally obeyedfor what reason we pretend not to guess. Certain it is that a census of this kind once estab., and repeated at proper intervals, would furnish to our governors, and to ourselves, much important instruction, of which we are now in a great measure destitute; especially if the whole was distributed into classes, to married and unmarried; industrious and chargeable poor; artificers of every kind; manufacturers, etc.; and if this were done in each county, city, and borough separately, that particularly useful conclusions might thence be readily deduced; as well as the general state of the nation discovered; and the rate according to which human life is wasting from year to year.

In 1783 the War of Independence in the American Provinces terminated. A Constitution had to be provided for the new U.S. In that Constitution pop. was made the basis of representation. This involved a periodical census of the people. It was resolved that this should be taken every 10 years. The first census of the U.Ŝ. was taken in 1790. The pop. was then returned at 3,929,827.

Various writers, many of whom will be noticed under POP. and various other heads, continued to urge the importance of a correct enumeration of the people of Gt. Brit.; and at length urgency became so great that the Gov. yielded. The first systematic enumeration of the people of Gt. Brit. was therefore fixed to be taken in 1801. It must not be supposed that the proposal was carried through Parl. without opposition. On the contrary, it excited a good deal of alarm. Many considered it in the light of a preparatory measure for some more efficient plan of taxation, or some new scheme with respect to the levy of the militia. These fears operated rather outside than inside the House, and tended in many instances to false or defective returns.

The Act under the authority of which the first enumeration was to be taken is the 41 Geo. III. c. 15, An Act for taking an Account of the Population of Gt. Brit., and of the Increase or Diminution thereof. The day named for the enumeration was the 10th March. Many preparations were required to be made. The rector, vicar, overseer, or other authorized person in each parish in England-and in Scotland the parochial schoolmaster -was to fill up in a schedule sent for the purpose answers to the following questions : Ist.-How many inhabited houses are there in your parish, township, or place; by how many families are they occupied ; and how many houses therein are uninhabited? 2nd.--How many persons (including children of whatever age) are there actually found within the limits of your parish, etc., at the time of taking this account, distinguishing males and females, exclusive of men actually serving in His Majesty's regular forces or militia, and exclusive of seamen either in His Majesty's or belonging to registered vessels. 3rd. What number of persons in your parish, etc., are chiefly employed in agriculture; how many in trade manufactures, or handicraft; and how many are not comprised in any of the preceding classes?

4th. What was the number of baptisms and burials in your parish, etc., in the several years 1700, 1710, 1720, 1730, 1740, 1750, 1760, 1770, 1780, and each subsequent year to the 31st day of December, 1800, distinguishing males from females?

5th. What was the number of marriages in your parish, etc., in each year, from the year 1754 inclusive to the end of the year 1800?

6th.-Are there any matters which you think it necessary to remark in explanation of your answers to any of the preceding questions?

The information so obtained was valuable in the degree of its completeness. It will be spoken of under POPULATION, OCCUPATIONS, etc. The powers of the Act did not extend to Ireland.

In 1811 the second census of Gt. Brit. was taken; the form of returns being much the same as in the first. The prejudices attending the first enumeration had almost entirely passed away.

In 1813 the first census was taken in Ireland; but was regarded as a failure. (See 1821.) At the 3rd census of Gt. Brit., 1821, a return of the ": ages of the people" was first introduced. In 1821 also a very complete census was taken in Ireland. [IRELAND.] In 1829 there was pub. a pamp., Proposals for an Improved Census of the Pop. Upon this there was founded an able art. in the Edin. Review [vol. 49]. The writer pointed out in a forcible manner that an actual enumeration, or census, of the people "is the only means that can be safely depended upon for ascertaining their numbers."

He

the Census in France in 1861. The substance of these papers will be found in the Statistical Fourn., vol. xxv., p. 72.

In 1865 Mr. W. L. Sargant read before the Statistical So. a paper, Inconsistencies of the Census of 1861, with the Reg.-Gen. Reports; and the Deficiencies in the Local Registry of Births. The principal conclusions at which he arrived are the following:

1. That the census of 1861 is not to be implicity trusted, but requires further investigation. 2. That male infants below 1 year old are underrated by 36,546 or 12 p.c.; and the female infants by 30,831 or 10 p.c.; that in the 2nd year of life the deficiencies are 11 and 11 p.c.; in the 3rd year, 2 and 1 p.c.; and in the first 5 years taken together, 63 and 6 p.c.3. That this difference of error between male and female infants is prob. owing to the better regis. of male births, and not to a worse enumeration of males in the census. 4. That the males and females together, of all ages under 20, are apparently underrated by 510,440; but that some considerable deductions have to be made from this number. 5. That the males and females together, of all ages, are prob. underrated by more than half a million. 6. That the deficiency in the census is far greater in some districts than in others. 7. That the regis. of births is very imperfect in places; Liverpool and Hull appearing to be the worst, with Lond., Cheltenham, Plymouth, and Portsmouth following in order of demerit. 8. That we have but few materials for comparing the Census of Scotland with calculations made from the regis. of births; but that, as far as we can judge, the Scottish census is as inaccurate as the English one.

In giving these “conclusions,” it must not be understood that we indorse them. Our purpose is to supply the substance of, or give reference to, all information upon the subject of which we are treating.

In the same year Dr. Farr read before the same So. a paper, On Infant Mort., and on Alleged Inaccuracies of the Census, in which he reviewed and answered the preceding paper. The two productions throw a flood of light over the question of the mort. of infants. [INFANT MORTALITY.]

In view of the 8th Census, then approaching, several of the learned sos. took action in 1870. The Council of the Statistical So. urged the repetition of the religious and educational census-this time to be made compulsory, especially as to answering the question whether every child or person beyond the age of 7 could read or write. It also urged inquiries as to house accommodation in accordance with the preceding Census of Scotland. The National Asso. for the Promotion of Social Science appointed a Special Committee, consisting of Mr. George Godwin, Dr. Stewart, Mr. Lewis, Mr. Walford, Mr. Safford, Mr. Powell, and Mr. Aldis. That Committee, after several sittings, passed the following series of recommendations :

1. That the Census of 1871 should be taken as nearly as possible at the same date as on the former occasions of 1851 and 1861.

2. That this Committee very strongly urges upon the Government the desirability of adopting a uniform system in taking the Census of 1871 for each of the three divisions of the U.K.; this uniformity not having been observed hitherto.

3. That alike for England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland, the Census "Householder's Schedule" should embrace the following particulars: 1. Name. 2. Sex. 3. Condition (civil). 4. Age (last birthday). 5. Degree of instruction, a, can read; b, can write. 6. Rank, profession, or occupation. 7. Relation to head of family. 8. Where born. 9. Language usually spoken. 10. Professed religion. 11. If deaf, dumb, blind, insane, sick, or infirm; if sick, the nature of the malady to be stated.-[Vide p. 129, Irish Census Report, 1861, Part III., vol. i.]

4. That it would be of the greatest utility if the Government would direct the Census Commissioners for the U.K. in 1871 to undertake, as a subsidiary inquiry, an industrial census, the principles of which were discussed in the last English Census Reports [vol. iii., p. 233]. Such inquiry would include: House accommodation, church and chapel accommodation, school accommodation, manufactures, trades, professions, wages of working classes.

5. That an annual enumeration of merely the number and ages of the pop. is greatly needed, at least for all the principal cities and towns of the kingdom.

The Brit. Asso. at its meeting in Edinburgh appointed a Special Committee consisting of Prof. Jevons, Mr. Dudley Baxter, Mr. Dawson, Mr. Heywood, Dr. Hodgson, and Prof. Waley. Their memorial to the Home Sec. embodied the following:

Your memorialists could specify a great many points in which there was divergence between the Tables of 1861; but they will mention only a few of the more important cases:

1. The detailed pop. T. of Eng., Scot., and Ireland, differ as regards the periods of age specified. The Scotch report gives 21 intervals of age, the Irish report generally 22, and the English only 13. Either one-third of the printed matter in the Scotch and Irish T. is superfluous, or that in the English T. deficient.

2. The classification of occupations is apparently identical in the 3 reports, but there is much real discrepancy between the Irish and English reports, rendering exact comparison difficult.

3. In the Irish report there is no comparison and classification of occupation according to age: classification according to religions being substituted, although such a classification could not be made in England or Scotland.

4. In the appendix to the English report appears a T. (No. 56), giving most important information as regards the number of the pop. at each year of age. Inconvenience has been felt from the want of similar information concerning the pop. of Scotland and Ireland.

5. In the appendix to the Irish report they find some interesting T. (II., III., and IV.), to which there is nothing exactly corresponding in the other reports, so far as they have been able to discover. 6. The T., even when containing the same information, are often stated in different forms and arrangements, seriously increasing the labour of research.

The General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland also memorialized in favour of a religious and educational census, but it was all of no avail. The Ministry of the day did not understand the cry of "let there be light"! Three separate enactments were passed, as before, for the three divisions of the Kingdom, differing indeed in minor points, but all agreeing in excluding any provisions on the new and important points suggested. The Census was taken on Monday, 3rd April, 1871. The instructions given to enu

merators were exceedingly minute; for example, the qualification for a place in the Census was to be alive at midnight on the 2nd of April. The enumerators were expressly enjoined not to include any one who might die before midnight, nor any infant born after midnight. If we look at the facts, there were prob. 3000 births and 1863 deaths during the census day of 24 hours, or 4863 in all. If half of these births and deaths occurred in the night, and were improperly included in the returns, the pop. at any given moment would be overstated to the extent of 2432. This is one of the reasons why exactitude becomes essential. The cost of this last Census was estimated as follows: E. and W. £120,000; Scotland £30,000; Ireland £32,000. This was larger in each case than on any preceding occasion, the remuneration of the enumerators being fixed at a higher scale. The cost of the Census in E. and W. in 1841 was £86,728; 1851, £93,132; 1861, £95,719 (exclusive of postages). This was in 1841, £5 9s. per 1000 of the pop. ; in 1851, £5 45. ; in 1861, 4 155. 5d., or rather more than one penny per head for every man, woman, and child. The Census in Ireland was taken by the Irish constabulary and the Dublin police.

In June, 1871, preliminary reports upon the Census of England, Scotland, and Ireland, were presented to Parl. These, as usual, embodied many points of immediate interest. The more detailed Reports are still in course of preparation.

In 1872 there were pub. the following documents relating to the 9th Census of the U.S. [1870] (1). Statis. of Pop., consisting of a most elaborate series of returns in T. I. to VIII. inclusive. (2). Statis. of the Blind, Deaf and Dumb, Insane and Idiotic (by States and Territories). (3). Statis. of Wealth, Taxation, and Public Indebtedness. (4). General Statis. of Agriculture (by States and Territories). We have to thank the President of the U.S., and also the Hon. Francis A. Walker, Supt. of the Census, for their thoughtful interest in sending us early copies of these important publications.

At the present time nearly every European country except Turkey has a Census of its pop. taken with more or less regularity. The value of the information so brought together cannot be overestimated. Much of it is presented in various forms through these pages. Many interesting articles thereon will be found in the pages of the Statis. Journ., beyond those already quoted. The various reports of the Census Commissioners, however, are the great storehouses of such facts, and these will be referred to in some detail in our art. on POPULATION.

CENTENARIAN.-A person who has reached a 100 years of age. There has been, and still is, a good deal of controversy regarding centenarianism. A great many of our bestinformed writers regard 100 years as the natural limit of the life of man, and to that age they assert a certain per-centage of all mankind attain. There is another class who assert that such a theory is preposterous, and contrary to Scripture authority. Taking advantage of the difficulties surrounding the proof of birth prior to a complete system of regis. being introduced, they discard every alleged Centenarian where the proof is incomplete. We do not intend to pursue the subject here: it will be treated fully under LONGEVITY, where it will be shown that there are numerous well-authenticated instances of centenarianism.

In 1872 Sir George Duncan Gibb, Bart., read before the Anthropological Institute a paper, The Physical Condition of Centenarians, as derived from Personal Observation in Nine Genuine Examples. [LONGEVITY.]

In 1872 also there was a case reported from Rochester, Illinois, U.S., of a man who had reached 103 committing suicide.

CENTENARIAN LONGEVITY.-By this term is implied the period of life beyond 100 years enjoyed by centenarians. Mr. Babbage drew attention to this subject in 1826, and compiled a T. of mort. applicable to such cases, without, however, having the opportunity of testing the credibility of the cases reported. His T. will be given in a following art. Mr. Milne offers some obs. thereon. [CARLISLE T. OF MORT.] [LONGEVITY.] CENTENARIAN TABLE OF MORTALITY.-Mr. Babbage, in his Comparative View, pub. 1826, included a T. which he had deduced from the lives of alleged centenarians. The T., he said, was formed from a collection of 1751 persons, who had reached the age of 100 and upwards. The greater part were selected from Easton's work, 1799; but some few of the names in that vol. were rejected as occurring twice, or as being of doubtful authority. Some additions were made by Mr. Babbage from other sources. They had all died before the commencement of the present century.

Mr. Babbage says, in reference to the data on which the T. is constructed : About the ages marked by round numbers, as 110, 120, and 130, there appeared to be more deaths than the proper allowance: but the most singular, and which deserves notice, from its not being explicable on the same principle, was the large number which occurred at the age of 102, both amongst females and males, but particularly amongst the latter. Traces of this will be found in the diminished decrement of lives at 101, and the large increase at 102, but in the original list the disproportion was much greater.

In order to form the present T. 150 was assumed as the extent of human life, although there were two or three authentic instances of persons of greater age. Commencing with this period, wherever too large a number of deaths were found in any one year, they were equalized by transferring some of them to such of the preceding years as appeared to be deficient; thus it was imagined that the tendency to overrate the age of old people would be in some measure compensated.

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