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We have said the table was made public in 1868. The manner in which that was accomplished was by the legislature of the State of N.Y. making it the standard for their State valuations. To this end the Ins. Law of 1853 and 1866 was amended by the add. of various provisions, of which the following only are material for our present purpose:

SEC. 13. It shall be the duty of the Superintendent of the Ins. Department to arrange the information contained in the statements required in the last section in a tabular form, or in abstracts, and to prepare the same for printing in his annual report to the legislature. It shall also be the duty of the said Superintendent, at least once in every five years, and ann. in his discretion, to make valuations of all the outstanding policies, additions thereto, unpaid dividends, and all other obligations of every American L. Ins. Co. transacting bus. in this State; and for the purposes of such valuations, and for making special examinations under the 17th section of this act, and for valuing registered life and other policies under chapter 708 of the laws of 1867, the rate of int. assumed shall be four and a half p.c. p.a. and the rate of mort. shall be that established by the American Experience Table, in which table the expectation of life and the numbers of living and dying at each age from ten to ninety-five out of one hundred thousand persons living at age ten, are as stated in the schedule hereto annexed. The Superintendent may, in his discretion, vary the above standards of int. and mort. in cases of cos. from foreign countries, and in particular cases of invalid lives or other extra hazards. The superintendent may also, in his discretion, value policies in groups, use approximate averages for fractions of a year and otherwise, and calculate values by the net, the actual, or the gross premiums or otherwise, deducting in cases of gross valuations, from the gross value of future premiums, one-sixth thereof for future expenses and contingencies.

The act was passed 6th May, 1868, and took effect immediately. The former standard of valuation in that State had been the ENGLISH TABLE, with 5 p.c. int. Since the adoption of the AMERICAN EXPERIENCE TABLE by the State of N. Y., the States of MEGAN and MISSOURI had adopted it, each in 1869.

The adividual offices were not called upon by this act of the legislature, or any other, 1er their tables of rates, etc. They may still, for theiwn purposes, retain or adopt Le bey please for their internal working; but all their operations will be from time The deasured by the AMERICAN EXPERIENCE TABLE. Some of the offices have sted the table. The Ins. Commissioners of Massachusetts have not yet at has been under their consideration. A belief is entertained in many itimately become the National Standard Table of the U.S. The rse V. Y. Ins. Department [ACTUARIAL TABLES] are all based upon it. hese rabies issued by the department, as also on the adoption of Mr. e Legislature, the following passage from a circular from the 1.1. Va Barnes, should be preserved; the more so as it is the te latter question which we can recall:

traction of tables of this nature, it is entirely unnecessary to perpetually gravitate towards the printed page. More than ae been taken in the preparation, printing and electrothe work must be apparent to any one, but more pet. The actual results in net values according to state are especially gratifying; and the "American mmand itself to officers, act., cos., and legislatures, as for the various purposes of life ins. Whenever tested by our cos. having reached their maxidate the statistics of all of them; but this

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average exactly of the age at which they stand in the books of the Co., excepting always in the cases of add. for impaired lives. [AGE, PROOF of.]

Dr. Ward, in his Medical Estimate of Life for Life Assu., says, regarding age:

The medical referee has nothing to do with actual proof of age, but only to remember that it is relative rather than positive; and that some persons from inherent weakness of constitution, bad habits, or other exhausting causes, grow old before the age of 40, while others far advanced in years are virtually young as regards effective performance of function and vigour of constitution. Where any great discrepancy exists between the real age and that apparent in the aspect, gait, and force, it will be necessary to ascertain if possible the cause of such, or, at any rate, to conduct a more searching examination as to health and habits.

AGE ASSU. Co., founded in 1851, with an authorized cap. of £100,000, in 10,000 shares of 10. The prosp. said, "It has been calculated that not more than one in ten of the heads of families amongst those likely to ins. have yet availed themselves of the advantages of Life Assu.; and considering the fact, and the continued increase of pop., there is ample bus. for many new offices." Again, "The large profits which have been made by existing Cos. have been produced by a very limited amount of bus. compared with what might be obtained if more liberal principles were acted upon by the offices." Among the features of the Co. were these: A surrender value of “at least one half the prems. paid" was to be given on whole-term pol. Lapsed pol. might be renewed, "without proof of health," if the omission to pay had been "accidental." Married lives were to be ins. at lower prems. than unmarried ones. Policies indefeasible. Deposit Ins. granted. Policies payable to nominee of Ins., "thus saving the great expense and delay of attending the proving a will or obtaining letters of administration." It also paid "int. on all policies from the death of the Ins." Finally (said the share prosp.), "there can be no doubt that the public will gladly avail themselves of these, and of the other advantages offered by this Co., and as they will give an ample profit to the office, a large and very remunerative bus. must be obtained."

A considerable portion of the cap. was subs., but an obstinate or short-sighted public did not see all the advantages offered by the Co., or if it saw them failed to come in. The Co. in 1856 amalg. with the Engineers, and was afterwards known as the Engineers and Age; and in 1859 that Co. amalg. with the English and Irish Church, which see. Mr. William Owen was consulting actuary.

AGE, OLD. See LONGEVITY, and OLD AGE.

AGE, PROOF OF.-It is one of first essentials in Life Ins. and annuity transactions that the real age of the lives interested or put forward as the basis of the transaction should be correctly stated. In the case of endowments and reversions, and indeed in all contracts relating to the duration of life, the present age must become an important consideration as influencing not only pecuniary values, but even the very acceptance or rejection of the proposal.

In Life Policies there is generally a condition to the effect that reasonable proof will be required of the date of birth, unless that fact shall have been previously estab. and the "age admitted." [AGE ADMITTED.]

The usual evidence tendered is a baptismal certificate, extracted from the parish books by the officiating minister; or, in the case of Dissenters, of an extract from the registers of births and baptisms kept by those bodies; or, in the case of Jews, from the register of births and circumcisions kept at the synagogue; in every case signed and certified as a true copy, by the officer to whose custody the original is entrusted.

Parish registers are not evidence of the time of birth, but of baptism only; since it is not the duty of the minister to register the former. A person may be baptized when considerably advanced in years; many registers do profess to give the date of birth, and where they do such a circumstance should be regarded.

Since 1837 in England the General Registration Act has been in force. It will soon begin to bear fruits in the direction we are now speaking of. Similar Acts have since been passed for Scotland and Ireland. [GENERAL REGISTRATION.]

When the registers, under the old system, do not contain the necessary proof, recourse must be had to secondary evidence; such is the production of an entry in the family Bible or Prayer-book, or even in an almanack. A statutory declaration made by some member of the family or other person who can speak from personal knowledge of the fact testified will sometimes suffice.

Mr. Bunyon says:

It is notoriously true that evidence on this point is often very difficult to obtain; as, for instance, in the case of children which have been born abroad, or those of dissenters, of whose baptism no evidence is preserved; or where they have been privately baptized, and no entry made in the parish books; or where the books themselves and this is especially common in Ireland-have been imperfectly kept. After the death of the party the proof becomes doubly difficult. Secondary evidence which might have been suggested is then lost.

It does not follow that because the evidence is difficult to obtain, that it should therefore in every case be dispensed with. Much must be left to the discretion and good faith of the officers of the company in which the life is insured.

Mr. W. T. Thomson speaks upon the subject as follows. (Proof sheets):

It has been the practice among some offices to require proof of age at death, if not previously afforded. This we conceive to be most unjust; it ought to be given or required at the commencement

of the contract, and ought never to be delayed till a claim arises; both assurer and assured are wrong in not attending to this, but more particularly the office, if they consider themselves entitled to require it at death. One case has come under our notice lately, where proof of age was required thirty-two years after the policy was effected. The gentleman had been in the service of the Hon. East India Company, and it was discovered that in some official declaration to them he had made himself out four years older than stated to the office. The parties could procure no evidence to show that this was wrong, though they felt morally convinced that it was so, and were obliged to submit to a deduction from the sum assured. The amount assured was £6000, and the difference of premium, with compound interest, amounted to upwards of £2000, which the office held themselves entitled to deduct at settlement; but they did not insist upon their full rights, and gave a deduction of one-half. Still the case, although hard enough on the representatives, might have been worse, as the policy could have been reduced altogether, on the ground of mis-statement in the original proposal. Our advice is, that evidence of age should always be produced at first.

It is usual, where the mis-statement in age is believed to have been accidental, to rectify the matter by deducting from or add. to the sum ins. No more reasonable method can be devised.

These we

AGE, "PUT UP."-In the case of impaired or diseased lives, it is usual where they are taken at all to make an add. of years, intended to be equivalent to the degree of impairment in each particular case. This is termed "putting up" the age. In actuarial valuations all such cases require special treatment. [DISEASED LIVES.] [VALUATION.] AGENCY.-Agency in a legal sense implies legal duties and responsibilities. shall speak of generally under AGENT. AGENCY COMMISSIONS.-As most of the Ins. Asso. other than Marine Cos. obtain the greater proportion of their bus. through the introduction of their agents, it follows that a commission must be allowed to such agents for their services. The rates of commission vary not only with the classes of bus. transacted, but in some instances amongst the offices carrying on the same bus. It must be understood therefore that the following are only approximate rates :

Fire Ins. usually 10 p.c. on the prem. both new and renewal, with a procuration fee in add. for new policies. When the duty on Fire Ins. was in force, some offices allowed agents 2p.c. on the duty.

Life Ins. usually ro p.c. on the first prem. and 5 p.c. on renewals. District and general agents have larger allowances to cover expenses and time employed in their duties. Accidental Ins., generally 10 p.c. both on new prem. and renewals.

Glass Ins. 12 p c. on new prems. and 10 p.c. on renewals.

Hail-Storm Ins. 10 p.c. on new and renewals.

Cattle Ins. 12 p.c. on new and 10 p.c. on renewals.

Steam Boiler Ins. 10 p.c. on new and 5 p.c. on renewals.

On Marine Ins. there is a brokerage of 5 p.c., and a discount for cash paid within a certain number of days, frequently 10 p.c.

The foregoing commissions relate to ins. in England. On the Continent of Europe, and especially in France, the commissions range much higher. But the agents generally give up their whole time to the bus., and become much more proficient than ordinary agents in Eng. In the U.S. the commissions are much the same as in England. But there also the agents confine their attention solely to ins. bus., often acting for several large and important Cos. at the same time, and making princely incomes by reason of the enterprise they throw into the bus. [BROKERAGE COMMISSION.]

The practice of giving commissions for the intro. of life bus. was first introduced early in the present century, and then only by one or two of the more enterprising offices. Mr. Francis Baily, writing in 1810, thus expresses himself on the subject:—

Many of the public cos. who do not make any return of the profits to the assured allow a liberal prem. (generally 5 p.c. on the payment made) to any person who will procure an ins. to be effected at their office; and this commission is also allowed to any person who makes the annual payment, provided it be not the party himself!! An artifice which is easily seen through: but which opens such a door to fraud and imposition that it cannot be too severely reprobated. And however much it may be sanctioned by the Directors in their public capacity; we are all aware what their emotions would be if they discovered any of their tradesmen tampering with their own servants in this opprobrious manner, since they must well know who would eventually pay for it. I omit to give the names of those cos. who have adopted this nefarious practice, under the hope that such a mean and improper artifice will not be encouraged in future.

There are Life Offices which have never adopted the commission system, viz., the Equitable, Lond. Life, Metropolitan and Mutual; and there are some, as the various Legal Ins. Offices, which have no agents in the strict sense of the term, but allow a commission to all solicitors who introduce bus. [solicitors in the English, not the American sense.] Some of the non-legal offices also allow a commission to solicitors intro. bus., whether agents for the Co. or not. Several other offices, as the Economic and National Provident, have been contemplating the abandonment of the agency system; but we believe have come to no actual decision to that effect.

AGENDA.-Lat. Things to be done. Hence the name of the book used by the Chairman of the Board. Most Ins. Asso. have "agenda books" prepared in relation to any special points in their bus., so that the board agenda assumes the character of a current report on the position of the asso. A most excellent method.

AGENT.-A person appointed to transact the business of another.-Law Dic.

AGENT, DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF.-In all questions arising upon the acts

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