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gesting its place in a sequence. Such a practice is arbitrary, but may be justified in default of any other plan.
An example of the problems raised is afforded by the sale by auction of what was believed to be our No. 142, the statement issued on the surrender of Edmund Andros. The copy of the broadside went into the library of Mr. William Gwinn Mather, and on his courteously sending a photostat reproduction it was found to be the same text as No. 142 but entirely different in type, being in black letter.
With such difficulties to overcome it is certain that this list cannot be considered as free from criticism. Some limitations were imposed at the beginning. Maps, or engravings or legal blanks have been excluded, except in a few instances and for special reasons. Maps are not proper subjects for such a list and are better dealt with in lists prepared by specialists in maps. A few engravings have been admitted, either because of their interest, like the card on spermaceti candles (208) engraved by Hurd, the unlocated “caricatura” (1344) by the same hand, or because they were pertinent, like the store-card of Hancock, the bookseller, or engraved commissions, like those under Bernard and Hutchinson. Law blanks came late into general use but rapidly increased in number and variety, few printers not printing what would be in steady demand and a source of small yet continuing profits. A careful study of the various changes in language and form might possibly suggest something of value to the historian of legal practice, but of no interest to any but the antiquary. The earliest occurrence of a form is noted, with occasional mention of later varieties. Where the name of the printer is found it is given, for thus a clue with which to identify other issues of the same press may be suggested. One exception has been made in the * Oaths of Allegiance. Being without date as a rule, those that bear a year - the year in which the signers took the oath — will serve to place in its proper time a like undated
What appeared regularly at stated intervals are only occasionally listed. The annual law apportioning taxes throughout the colony and state, precepts to elect representatives, tickets to balls and assemblies and lottery tickets, are examples of what are either not listed at all, or given when found, or only once to establish the form. Proclamations appointing days of fasting or thanksgiving rest upon another basis, often giving historical information of the special occasion.
The selection of items has not been entirely consistent, but
the proper rule of inclusion would be difficult to frame and more difficult to apply. The definition of a broadside is not fixed, though Mr. Evans in the introduction to his fifth volume has undertaken to discriminate. In the present instance the word has been broadly used, intended to apply to almost any issue of the press which has not a proper title page, whether printed on a single leaf or on a number of leaves, whether carrying page numbers and signature-marks or without such usual indications of a pamphlet or volume. It is more serviceable to note this stray and fleeting product of the press, often unrecorded elsewhere, in too great fulness, for in that way the labors of other bibliographers are supplemented. Further, the list in its original intention and final performance is tinged with personal motives, serving as an aid in special undertakings now in process of completion. If too much has been included much has undoubtedly been omitted, and one of the leading objects of the publication is to call out from their hiding places the unknown or at least the undiscovered issues of a like character.
The frontispiece to this volume is made up of two fragments of a papal indulgence printed at Madrid, February 2, 1738, and bearing the (printed) signature of Cardinal Gaspar de Molina y Oviedo. These fragments had been used as covers to two manuscript sermons by a New England clergyman. The history of this indulgence is told under No. 875 on page 121 of this volume. The ballad there mentioned is printed on the lower half of the indulgence and the text for that portion is complete. I have not located a complete text of the upper half and the reproduction is made in the hope that at some time a full example of this document, spoils of war, may be found.
I acknowledge my indebtedness to the late Nathaniel Paine, of Worcester, and to Charles Evans, compiler of the American Bibliography.? Pioneers in this field, they did not go far in covering it. Intensive cultivation was needed to obtain the best results. I have received many favors from libraries, the custodians of which have thrown open their stores freely and with every privilege and courtesy. The list is practically that of the libraries named in the “Key” on page 2, and my sense of obligation is as great to the small as to the large libraries.
1 American Bibliography, v. xiv.
? See also the list of "Early American Poetry to 1820” in the New York Public Library, made by Mr. John C. Frank and printed in the Bulletin of that Library, xxi. 517.
An essential factor has been the photostat, which has enabled a closer examination of widely separated items to be made, developing hitherto undiscovered differences and adding materially to the number of issues known. Instances of this multiplication may be seen in the issues of Father Abdy's Will (1730), broadsides issued on the death of George Whitefield (1770) and those on Levi Ames (1773). This comparison has also permitted printers to be identified, and under a more extended application, will throw some light upon the history of printing in Massachusetts.
Mr. F. W. Coar, of New York, has courteously permitted me to use blocks of some broadsides which have passed through his hands — the inserts in this volume. The illustrations in the text are copied from the originals and tend to prove the slow advance in wood engraving in the century covered by the list.
WORTHINGTON CHAUNCEY FORD. Boston, June, 1922.
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