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17 All unrighteousness is sin; and there is a sin not unto death.

20 And we know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an

18 We know that whosoever is born understanding, that we may know him of God sinneth not; but he that is begotten of God keepeth himself, and that wicked one toucheth him not.

19 And we know that we are of God, and the whole world lieth in wicked


that is true; and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God, and eternal life. 21 Little children, keep yourselves from idols. Amen.

Questions. What is the proper evidence 5 Sinneth not habitually. See chap. iii. that we love the children of God? note 1. Who hath life, and who hath not life?



WHO the person was to whom this epistle was addressed is not known. The design of it was to guard her and her children against the errors of one Basili'des and his followers, who affirmed that Jesus Christ had not come in the flesh, that is, that he was not a real man, but only a man in appearance; consequently, that he neither did nor suffered what he appeared to do and suffer. This was one of the errors against which John wrote his first epistle; and as it was subversive of the whole scheme of the gospel, and robbed the christians of their best hopes, he thought it expedient to guard this elect lady against the same error; as, by her distinguished hospitality, she was peculiarly exposed to the arts of false teachers.

Questions. What was the object of this letter? Whose errors did it oppose?


1 He exhorteth a certain honourable from the beginning, ye should walk in matron, with her children, to perse-it.

vere in Christian love and belief, 8 7 For many deceivers are entered lest they lose the reward of their for- into the world, who confess not that mer profession; 10 and to have no-Jesus Christ is come in the flesh. This thing to do with seducers. is a deceiver and an antichrist. Look yourselves, Ther children, whomelit lady and not those things hic that we love

HE unto

truth; and not I only, but also all they that have known the truth;

2 For the truth's sake which dwelleth in us, and shall be with us for

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wrought, but that we receive a full


9 Whosoever transgresseth, and abideth not in the doctrine of Christ, hath not God; he that abideth in the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and the Son.

10 If there come any unto you, and bring not this doctrine, receive him not into your house, neither bid him God speed:3

11 For he that biddeth him God speed is partaker of his evil deeds.

12 Having many things to write unto you, I would not write with paper and ink; but I trust to come unto you, and speak face to face, that our joy may be full.

13 The children of thy elect sister greet thee. Amen.

Questions. What is true love?
What is the 9th verse?

3 Neither bid him God speed; that is, wish him neither health and prosperity.



THIS short epistle is inscribed to a person named Ga'ius or Ca'ius, a common name among the Romans. The name of Gaius frequently occurs in the history of the Acts, but who this Gaius was is not known.

In this epistle John commends Gaius for his kindness and hospitality to some brethren and strangers, who, in journeying among the Gentiles, had come to the place where he lived, and encourages him to shew them the like kindness in future: he reproves Diot'rephes for his arrogance in assuming undue authority in the church, of which Gaius was a member, and censures him for refusing to assist the brethren, and for hindering those who were desirous of doing it, and he informed Gaius that he expected soon to see him. This epistle and the preceding were probably written about the year 91 or 92.

Questions. To whom was this letter addressed? For what does it commend him? When was it probably written?


1 He commendeth Gaius for his piety, 9 I wrote unto the church; but Di5 and hospitality to true preachers; ot'rephes, who loveth to have the pre9 complaining of the unkind dealing eininence among them, receiveth us of ambitious Diot'rephes on the con-not.

trary side; 11 whose evil example is 10 Wherefore, if I come, I will renot to be followed: 12 giveth special member his deeds which he doeth, testimony of the good report of De- prating against us with malicious metrius. words; and not content therewith,

THE elder unto the well beloved neither doth he himself receive the Ga'ius, whom I love in the truth. brethren, and forbiddeth them that 2 Beloved, I wish above all things, would, and casteth them out of the that thou mayest prosper and be in church. health, even as thy soul prospereth.

3 For I rejoiced greatly, when the brethren came and testified of the truth that is in thee even as thou walkest in

the truth.

4 I have no greater joy than to hear that my children walk in truth. whatsoever thou doest to the brethren, 5 Beloved, thou doest faithfully and to strangers;

11 Beloved, follow not that which is evil, but that which is good. He that doeth good is of God; but he that doeth evil hath not seen God.

12 Demetrius hath good report of all men, and of the truth itself; yea, and we also bear record; and ye know that our record is true.

will not with ink and pen write unto 13 I had many things to write, but I


6 Which have borne witness of thy charity before the church; whom if 14 But I trust I shall shortly see thou bring forward on their journey thee, and we shall speak face to face. after a godly sort, thou shalt do well: Peace be to thee. Our friends salute 7 Because that for his name's sake thee. Greet the friends by name. they went forth, taking nothing of the Gentiles.

8 We, therefore, ought to receive such, that we might be fellow-helpers to the truth.

Questions. What was a source of great joy to the apostle?

Who is of God?

Who hath not seen God?




JUDE, or Judas, the author of this epistle, was the son of Alphe'us, and the brother of James. He was one of those, who, on account of their relation to Jesus, were called his brethren. Matt. xiii. 55.

Jude is thought to have written this epistle at an advanced age, and but a short time before his death; probably as late as the year 70, or 75. Little is known with certainty concerning the life of this apostle.

In the latter part of the apostolical age, many false teachers had arisen, and were going about speaking perverse things to draw away disciples after them, as St. Paul had predicted, Acts, xx. 30. These were the same persons, or were similar to those, against whom Peter, James, and John wrote. They perverted Paul's doctrine concerning justification, and resolved the whole of christianity into the speculative belief and outward profession of the gospel. They also taught their followers to live in all manner of licentiousness, and still flattered them with the hope of the favour of God and of eternal life. Wherefore, to show the falsehood and impiety of these doctrines, and to secure the disciples from being seduced by them, Jude wrote this epistle, in which, by facts recorded in the Jewish scriptures, he proves that, as God had already punished the angels who sinned, notwithstanding their dignity, and the antediluvians, notwithstanding their numbers, so he will most assuredly punish all obstinate sinners in the

severest manner.

Questions. Who was Jude, or Judas? When is he supposed to have written this epistle! What was its object?


1 He exhorteth them to be constant in godly men, turning the grace of our the profession of the faith. 4 False God into lasciviousness, and denying teachers are crept in to seduce them, the only Lord God, and our Lord Je for whose damnable doctrine and sus Christ.

manners horrible punishment is pre- 5 I will therefore put you in remem
pared: 20 whereas the godly, by the brance, though ye once knew this,
assistance of the Holy Spirit, and how that the Lord, having saved the
prayers to God, may persevere and people out of the land of Egypt, after
grow in grace, and keep themselves, ward destroyed them that believed
and recover others out of the snares not.
of those deceivers.

J and brother of Jar of
UDE, the servant of Jesus Christ,

are sanctified by God the Father, and
preserved in Jesus Christ, and called:
2 Mercy unto you, and peace, and
love, be multiplied.

3 Beloved, when I gave all diligence to write unto you of the common salvation, it was needful for me to write unto you, and exhort you, that ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the


6 And the angels which kept not bitation, he hath but left own ht their first estate, but left their own haing chains, under darkness, unto the judgment of the great day.

7 Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them, in like manner giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire.

8 Likewise also these filthy dreamers defile the flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities.

4 For there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old this very punishment; that is, the punishment ordained to this condemnation; un-mentioned in verses 6 and 7.

2 Turning the grace, &c. Perverting the grace of God in justifying men by faith with1 Who were before of old ordained to this out the deeds of the law, into the liberty of condemnation; of whom it was long ago fore- committing all manner of sin without incurtold, that from their sins, they should sufferring the displeasure of God.

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9 Yet Michael the archangel, when 15 To execute judgment upon all contending with the devil, (he disputed and to convince all that are ungodly about the body of Moses,)3 durst not among them of all their ungodly deeds, bring against him a railing accusation, which they have ungodly committed: but said, The Lord rebuke thee. and of all their hard speeches which

10 But these speak evil of those ungodly sinners have spoken against things which they know not; but what him. they know naturally, as brute beasts, in 16 These are murmurers, complainthose things they corrupt themselves. ers, walking after their own lusts; and 11 Wo unto them! for they have their mouth speaking great swelling gone in the way of Cain, and ran words, having men's persons in admigreedily after the error of Ba'laam for ration because of advantage. reward, and perished in the gainsaying of Co're.4

17 But, beloved, remember ye the words, which were spoken before of 12 These are spots in your feasts of the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ; charity, when they feast with you, feed- 18 How that they told you, there ing themselves without fear; clouds should be mockers in the last time, they are without water, carried about who should walk after their own unof winds; trees whose fruit withereth, godly lusts. without fruit, twice dead, plucked up by the roots:

13 Raging waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame; wandering stars, to whom is reserved the blackness of darkness for ever.

14 And Enoch also,5 the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousand of his saints,

3 The body of Moses. It is supposed that Jude in this verse alludes to Zech. iii. 1, and that the body of Moses signifies the body of the laws of Moses, as the body of Christ signifies the church of Christ. What the apostle says, seems to be this: But how much more gentle than these men, was Michael the archangel, who, although opposed by the devil in his benevolent design of restoring to the Is/raelites the Jewish church and state by Joshua the high priest, did not revile that apostate spirit, but only said to him mildly, the Lord rebuke thee, Satan.

4 Gainsaying of Core, the rebellion of Korah. See Numb. xvi.

19 These be they who separate themselves, sensual, having not the Spirit.

20 But ye, beloved, building up yourselves on your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Ghost,

21 Keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life.

22 And of some have compassion, making a difference:

23 And others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire; hating even the garment spotted by the flesh.

24 Now, unto him that is able to keep you from falling, and to present you faultless before the presence of his glory with exceeding joy,

25 To the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen.

Questions. What did Jude exhort the dis5 The book of Enoch, from which Jude ciples to contend for? quotes this passage, was for many ages lost: What is said in the note respecting the but it was found a few years ago in Abyssinia, What is the 21st verse?

in the Ethiopic language, and has been trans-Book of Enoch? lated into English.



JOHN, the author of this book, was doubtless the same person that wrote the gospel and the three epistles which bear his name. For his adherence to the christian faith, he was banished by Domitian, the Roman emperor, about the year 96, to the isle of Patmos, where be was favoured by the visions and revelations which are here recorded.

This book is highly prophetic, and, in symbolical language, describes the future condition of the church in every age. It consists of three distinct parts, which, according to chapter i. 19. relate to the things which John had seen, the things which then were, and the things which should be afterwards.

The first part, which is contained in the first chapter, may be considered only as the introduction, in which John opens the scene of his revelations, salutes the seven churches in Asie Minor, and mentions at what place and on what day the Lord appeared to him in vision. These are the things which he had just seen.

The second part, contained in the second and third chapters, consists of epistles, addressed to the seven churches in Asia Minor, reproving and commending them according to their deeds, and admonishing them to take heed to themselves, lest their privileges be taken from them. These are the things which then were.

The third part, which relates to the things which were to be afterwards, extends from the third chapter to the end of the book. It begins with a sublime description of the Deity, enthroned in glory, and surrounded by the hosts of heaven, casting their crowns at the foot of the throne, and ascribing glory, and honour, and power to Him who sitteth thereon. It then proceeds to describe the future condition of the church in every age, and its connexion with the kingdoms and nations of this world.

Questions. Who was the author of this book? Where and at what time was it written?



1 John writeth his revelation to the seven churches of Asia, signified by the seven golden candlesticks. 7 The coming of Christ.

HE revelation of Jesus Christ, Twhich God gave unto him, to shew unto his servants things which must shortly come to pass; and he sent and signified it by his angel unto his servant John:

Who bear record of the word of God, and of the testimony of Jesus Christ, and of all things that he saw. 3 Blessed is he that readeth; and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein; for the time is at hand.


JOHN, to the seven churches which are in Asia; Grace be unto you, and peace, from him which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from the seven Spirits which are before his throne;

5 And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful Witness, and the first-begotten of the dead, and the Prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,

6 And hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Father; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.

8 I am Alpha and Omega,1 the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.

9 I John who also am your brother, and companion in tribulation, and in the kingdom and patience of Jesus Christ, gas in the isle that is called Patmos, for the word of God, and for the testimony of Jesus Christ.

10 I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day, and heard behind me a great voice as of a trumpet,

11 Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, the first and the last; and, What thou seest write in a book, and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Eph'esus, and unto Smyr'na, and unto Per'gamos, and unto Thyati'ra, and unto Sar'dis, and unto Philadel'phia, and unto Laodice'a.

12' And I turned to see the voice that spake with me. And, being turned, I saw seven golden candlesticks;

13 And in the midst of the seven candlesticks one like unto the Son of man clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about the paps with a golden girdle.

14 His head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire;

15 And his feet like unto fine brass,

1 Alpha is the first letter of the Greek alphabet, omega is the last. The words which follow explain them.

7 Behold, he cometh with clouds; 2 Patmos is a small barren island in the and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him; and all kin-gean, now the Archipelago sea, where John was banished on account of the Word of God, dreds of the earth shall wail because and where, during his banishment, he wrote of him. Even so, Amen.

the Revelation.

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