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horns which extend four and a half feet and weigh thirtyfour pounds.

Mr. Hight, who lives on Mr. Whipple's place, told me he had seen snow on the N.W. side of the White Mountains within 3 weeks past.#

From here, as the road goes, 11 miles to the nearest part of Connecticut River, in Northumberland.

The land we passed through yesterday, between Peabody River and Israel River, is called Durand; some of it very good.

Tuesday, July 27. Cloudy on the Mountains. About 10 o'clock clears up for about half an hour, so that we had a distinct view of the N.W. side of the White's 7 summits, ranging N.E. and S.W., the heads of 4 or 5 of them bald. From the accounts I have collected from near observers, as well as my own observations, have no doubt remaining that the sole cause of the bright appearance which these Mountains make is the snow which falls on their bald summits every year as early as September and goes not wholly off till July. The rocks of which the summits are composed are a dark grey covered with a yellowish moss; the appearance at the distance of 10 or 15 miles is brown, excepting some streaks, which, at some seasons, are water-courses; these are of a lighter color, and are plainly discernible with the naked eye to differ from the other parts. There are also dark streaks, which, through the telescope, are seen to be the shaded sides of the long winding and deep valleys which are on every side of the Mountains.

This P.m. a thunder shower. The people of this place, who are 5 or 6 families, assembled in Mr. Whipple's barn, and I preached them a sermon, the first ever preached here, from 1 Cor. 6: 19, 20. Mr. Little baptized 8 of their children. Mr. Cutler made the concluding prayer. 38 people of the place were present, and seemed pleased with the attention paid them.*

* This information I believe was mistaken, and that instead of 3, he should have said 6 weeks. I have reason to think, however, and was so informed, that the snow lies longer on the S. side, where it is seen at Conway, than on the N. or N.W. side. The N.W. wind blows it over the tops of the mountains, and drives it into the long deep vallies or gullies, where it is formed into a very hard body, 20 or 40 feet deep or more.

We attempted to take the height and distance of several of the neighboring Mountains, but they were so obscured by the clouds passing over and rising on them that we were obliged to desist.

Wednesday, July 28. Six o'clock, morning, set out on our return, leaving Dr. Fisher behind, who is collecting birds and other animal and vegetable productions. Passed over part of Pondicherry Mountain, and about quarter past 11 arrived at the Western Notch of the Whites, having crossed Amonoosuck and its branches several times, and seen a bear-trap on the road, constructed like the culheags, but larger and stronger. At the Notch a meadow, through which a brook runs into Saco River. This meadow, surrounded on all sides with mountains, some of them perpendicular, is a singularly romantic and picturesque scene.f Mr. Cutler took an observation to ascertain the latitude. The narrowest part of this passage I measured, from one perpendicular rock to the other, and is 22 feet. The direction of the defile N. and S.; on the W. side runs the brook. The Eastern is formed into a causeway and road with great labor and expense; it was formerly only a rough watercourse, and not known till, about 13 years ago, two hunters passed through it;# soon after which the proprietors of land at the Upper Cohass formed a plan for a road through it, the only practicable pass through these Mountains to the upper settlements on Connecticut River; distance, 25 miles from Northumberland or Lancaster. The proceeds of a confiscated estate, W. Stark's, t have been applied, <£400, toward making this road, which, for 100 rods or more down the southern side and along by the meadow on the top, is a work of great labor. Two streams come down the eastern side of this defile, forming beautiful cascades. One of theril is so narrow as exactly to resemble a flume, and goes by that name. These run under bridges in the road, and wind away down its western side into Saco River. For 2 miles from the summit of this romantic pass the Mountains on each side rise almost, and in some places quite, perpendicular, and shew several bare and whitish rocks with polished sides, totally inaccessible. Some of these, especially when crusted over with ice, may have given rise to the fable of the Carbuncle, with the help of a little imagination and the reflection of the moon or star beams.

* As we passed through Eaton and Conway, the appearance of so many people, more than ever had been seen at once travelling that way, was very amusing to the people. We had 3 guns and 1 pair of pistols in the company. The barometers were slung across the back of one, and the sextant was carried in a large bag. This uncommon appearance was the subject of much speculation; and the good women, understanding there were 3 ministers in the company, were in hopes we should lay the spirits which have been supposed to hover about the White Mountains, an opinion very probably derived from the Indians, who thought these Mountains the habitation of some invisible beings, and never attempted to ascend them.

t The most romantic imagination here finds itself surprized and stagnated. Every thing which it had formed an idea of as sublirne and beautiful is here realized. Stupendous mountains, hanging rocks, chrystai streams, verdant woods, the cascade above the torrent below, all conspire to amaze, to delight, to soothe, to enrapture; in short, to fill the mind with such ideas as every lover of nature and every devout worshipper of its Author would wish to have.

The Mountains continue on each side of the road at the distance of not more than a mile, and, in some places, not so much, for a long way, 8 or 10 miles from the Notch; and Saco River runs between them. This River is well known to rise and fall very quick; its descent is rapid and full of falls. Passed by Sawyer's Rock, down which last summer a moose fell, and 2 men who saw him cut his hamstrings and his throat with a pocket-knife. Several of the branches of Saco River are now entirely dry. In one place the river threatens to cut off the road and change its course, as it has done before. At night got to Enoch Emery's,* and lodged there.f

* Nash and Sawyer. — Eds.

t Col. William Stark, a brother of Gen. John, the hero of Bennington. He was one of the proprietors of Fryburg. He joined the British at the Kevolution, and his estate was confiscated. — Eds.

Thursday, July 29. Breakfasted at McMillan's, % parted with Mr. Cutler and company, and, with Mr. Little, proceeded toward Fryeburg. Dined with Mr. Porter. Afternoon rode to Fryeburg; visited Lovel's Pond, the scene of a memorable battle with the Indians in 1725. Lovel's march from Great Ossapy, which is not more than 20 or 22 miles, brought him to the W. side of this Pond, where he saw, on a rocky point of land opposite, the distance of a mile or more, an Indian fishing, with a fowling-piece with which he had just before fired at some ducks. He was not set for a decoy, and has no pretensions to the character of an hero, as has been represented. To come at him they had to march 2 or 3 miles round the N.E. end of the Pond. They met him returning to the Indian fort, about 1 and a half miles from the Pond; he fired - and wounded Lovel, and they killed him. They had left their packs on the pitch pine land at the N.E. end of the Pond. While they were gone after this Indian, 2 companies of Indians under Captains Paugus and Nathaniel, who had been down Saco River and were returning, came on their track and followed them to where they had left their packs, which they seized, and by that means found their number 34; their own, 41. (This account I had from Evans, who had it from one of the Indians that was in the fight.) They then lay in ambush for them among the brakes and wind-falls and shrub oaks on the pitch pine plain adjoining the Pond; and, when Lovel's men returned to where they had left their packs, the Indians rose and fired on both sides of them. Lovel and some others were killed; the rest, thinking to secure themselves, retreated (through a bog of 2 or 3 rods width and 12 or 14 long) to the sandy beach of the Pond, hoping to screen themselves behind the trees which grew to the water's edge, or some rising near the beach.#

* InBartlett —Eds.

t We encompassed the White Mountains in riding about 70 miles, and, considering the distance at which we were from them in some part of the compass, we judged the base of the Mountains would not be less than an N.w. area of 60 miles. The peaks or summits within this space we could not enumerate; but all this body may properly be called one ridge or cluster of mountains, and the range extends N.E. and S.W. to an unknown distance. The form of this cluster which we encompassed seems to be about the form of an isosceles triangle, whose longest extremity is toward the S.

Observed as we came along that the people made little smokes in their cow« yards to defend their cows against the flies and mosquitoes.

X In Conway. — Eds.


The place where they retreated is singularly situated. The Pond was in their rear, which here forms a cove; in their front was a bog; on their right; a brook, then unfordable; on their left, a rocky point; from this point, and from the bushes beyond the brook, the Indians enfiladed them, and fired at them from behind the bog. The beach being only a level sand, they were exposed on every side. A few pitch pine trees stood between the bog afid the water; but these could afford them no shelter, as the enemy were on three sides of them. The trees still retain the marks of the balls, and the letters of the names of the dead who were buried here. It is astonishing that the Indians ever left the ground, as they had this company completely in their power, there being no possibility of their escape. Their situation was to the greatest degree hazardous and forlorn; more so than can be conceived by any person who has not visited the spot.

Major Osgood told me he was one of a party who helped to run the Province line, some years ago, — the 60 miles end at the edge of the interval on Captain Brown's land.

* The Indians immediately drew off from Pigwacket, and left their own dead unburied, and ours not scalped.'

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