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On the whole, the several sorts of documents emanating from the Old South have a character of true depiction inversely proportioned to their abundance and accessibility. The statutes, copious and easily available, describe a hypothetical régime, not an actual one. The court records are on the one hand plentiful only for the higher tribunals, whither questions of human adjustments rarely penetrated, and on the other hand the decisions were themselves largely controlled by the statutes, perverse for ordinary practical purposes as these often were. It is therefore to the letters, journals and miscellaneous records of private persons dwelling in the régime and by their practices molding it more powerfully than legislatures and courts combined, that the main recourse for intimate knowledge must be had. Regrettably fugitive and fragmentary as these are, enough it may be hoped have been found and used herein to show the true nature of the living order.

The government of slaves was for the ninety and nine by men, and only for the hundredth by laws. There were injustice, oppression, brutality and heartburning in the régime, but where in the struggling world are these absent? There were also gentleness, kind-hearted friendship and mutual loyalty to a degree hard for him to believe who regards the system with a theorist's eye and a partisan squint. For him on the other hand who has known the considerate and cordial, courteous and charming men and women, white and black, which that picturesque life in its best phases produced, it is impossible to agree that its basis and its operation were wholly evil, the law and the prophets to the contrary notwithstanding.

INDEX

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Black codes, 75-77, 103-112, 489-

514.

administration of, 501-509.
attitude of citizens toward, 503,
512-514.

local ordinances, 497-499.
origin of, in Barbados, 490-492.
in the Northern colonies,
103-112.

in Louisiana, 493, 494.

in South Carolina, 492, 493.

in Virginia, 75-77.

tenor of, in the North, 103-112.
in the South, 499-501.
Bobolinks, in rice fields, 90.
Bonny, 32, 34.

Boré, Etienne de, sugar planter,
164.

Bosman, William, in the Guinea
trade, 25, 34, 44.
Branding of slaves, 26, 63, 304,
328, 454, 555-

Bristol, citizens of, in the slave
trade, 32.

Burial societies, negro, 450-452.
Burnside, John, merchant and

sugar planter, 246.

Butler, Pierce, 129.

the younger, 251.
slaves of, sold, 374.

Cain, Elisha, overseer, 234-238.
Cairnes, J. E., views of, on slav-

ery, 354-357.

Calabar, 2, 44.

New, 32.

Calabar, Old, 32-34.
Cape Coast Castle, 25.
Capers, William, overseer, 203.
Capital, investment of, in slaves,
51, 65, 301, 302, 359, 360,
363.
Charleston, commerce of, 96, 97,

212.

free negroes in, 402, 430.
industrial census of, 402.
racial adjustments in, problem
of, 97.

slave misdemeanors in, 417,
418.

Denmark Vesey's plot, 477-479.
Churches, racial adjustments in,
rural, 314-322.
urban, 418-423.
Clarkson, Thomas, views of, on
the effects of closing the
slave trade, 148, 149.
Columbus, Christopher, policy of,
13.

Concubinage, 193, 194.
Congoes, tribal traits of, 44.
Connecticut, slavery in, 104, 105.

disestablishment of, 120.
Cooper, Thomas, views of, on the

economics of slavery, 348.
Corbin, Richard, plantation rules
of, 261, 265, 273.
Coromantees, conspiracy of, 469.
tribal traits of, 25, 36, 42-44.
Corporations, ownership of slaves
by, 375-379.
Cotton culture, sea-island, intro-
duction of, 150-154.
methods and scale of, 223-
225.
upland, engrossment of thought
and energy by, 212-215,
397.

improvements in, 219-223.

Cotton culture, upland, methods
and scale of, 160-163, 207-

211, 225, 226, 288-290.
stimulates westward migra-
tion, 170-180.

Cotton gin, invention of, 156-
159.

Cotton mills, 378, 389, 396, 397,
406.

slave operatives in, 378, 379-
Cotton plantations, see planta-
tions, cotton.

Cotton prices, sea-island, 152,
153, 225.

upland, 159, 160, 162, 183, 212,
215, 227, 336, 370-375,
chart facing, 370.
Cottonseed, oil extracted from,

221.

used as fertilizer, 220, 221.
Covington, Leonard, planter, mi-
gration of, 177, 178.
Creoles, Louisiana, 163, 166.
Criminality among free negroes,
449, 504.

among slaves, 454-488.
Cuba, 15, 66, 165.

Dabney, Thomas S., planter, mi-
gration of, 179.

Dahomeys, 29.

Dale, Sir Thomas, 68, 228.
Davis, Joseph and Jefferson, plan-
tation policy of, 296.
Delaware, slavēs and free ne-
groes in, 121.

forbids export of slaves, 202.
Depression, financial, in Missis-
sippi, 372, 373.

in Virginia, 183, 391.
Dirt-eating, among Jamaica
slaves, 58.

Discipline, of slaves, 63, 262, 269, | Factorage, in the slave trade, in

270, 275-281, 284, 293-296,

306-308, 414, 415.

American ports, 41.

in Guinea, 25, 29, 39.

Diseases, characteristic, in Af- Farmers, free negro, 437-

rica, 4.

among Jamaica slaves, 53.
venereal, 235-
Doctors, black, in Jamaica, 58.
in South Carolina, 323.
in Virginia, 322, 323.
"Doctoress," slave, in Georgia,
263.

Drivers (plantation foremen),
60-62, 237, 240, 281, 304.
Driving of slaves to death, ques-

tion of, 62, 382-386.

Dutch, in the slave trade, 22-26,

30, 37, 107-109.

Dutch West India Company, 107-
109.

Early, Peter, debates the closing
of the foreign slave trade,
140-143.

East India Company, in the slave
trade, 24.

Eboes, tribal traits of, 43, 44.
El Mina, 25.

Elliott, William, planter, 152.

economic views of, 214.
Ellsworth, Oliver, 129.
Emancipation, see manumission.
Encomiendia system, in the

Spanish West Indies, 15.
England, policy of, toward the
slave trade, 23, 25.
Epitaph of Peyton, a slave, 292.
Evans, Henry, negro preacher,
430, 431.

Factorage, in planters' dealings,
236-239.

white, in the Piedmont, 154-

156, 160-162, 207.

in the plantation colonies,
46-49, 66, 72-78, 80, 81, 86,
93-96.

segregation of, 331-336.
in the westward movement,
169-176, 186.

Federal Convention, 129.
Festivities, of slaves, 312-316.
Fithian, Philip V., observations
by, 324, 325.

Foremen, plantation, 60-62, 237,
240, 281, 304.
Foulahs, 26, 31.
Fowler, J. W., cotton picking
records of, 210, 299.

plantation rules of, 262-274.
Franklin and Armfield, slave-
dealers, 194-196.

Free negroes, 50, 75, 104, 107,
112, 425-453, 504.
antipathy toward, 439-441.
criminality among, 449, 504.
discriminations against, 448,

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Free negroes, prominent charac-

ters among, 428-433.

processes of procuring free-

dom by, 75, 425-430.

Gowrie, rice plantation, 254-256,

297.

Grandy King George, African
chief, wants of, 34.

qualities and status of, 428- Guiana, British, invites free ne-

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slave imports forbidden in, 93. Hayti (Hispaniola), 14, 15, 23,

permitted in, 94, 95.

restricted by, 133.

uplands, development of, 154-
163.

Gerry, Elbridge, 129.

Gibson, Arthur H., views of, on
the economics of slavery,
358-360, 394.

Godkin, Edwin L., on the migra-
tion of planters, 181, 182.
Gold Coast, 6, 25, 27, 32.
Goodloe, Daniel R., views of, on
slavery, 349, 351.

65, 447.

Hearn, Lafcadio, on sugar-cane

harvesting, 56, 57.

Helper, Hinton R., views of, on
slavery, 350.

Hemp, 155, 169, 390.
Henry, Patrick, 118.

Henry, Prince, the Navigator,

II, 12.

Heyward, Nathaniel, planter,
249, 250.
Hodgson, W. B., planter, 234,
238, 239, 503.

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