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for Cato the elder was wont to fay, that he had obtained more victories by the throats of his foldiers, than by their fwords; and Cæfar applauds his own foldiers, above those of Pompey, for their warlike fhouts. Eagerness to engage is vented in loud cries: and the effects are excellent: they redouble the ardor of those who attack, at the fame time that they strike terror into the enemy. Their armies were formed with ease: the princes of the empire, with the cacics or governors of provinces, were obliged to repair to the general rendezvous, each with his quota of men.

Their fortifications were trunks of large trees, fixed in the ground like pallifades, leaving no intervals but what were barely fufficient for discharging their arrows upon the enemy.

Military orders were inftituted, with peculiar habits, as marks of distinction and honour; and each cavalier bore the device of his order, painted upon his robe, or fixed to it. Montezuma founded a new order of knighthood, into which princes only were admitted, or nobles defcended from the royal stock; and as a token of its fuperiority, he became one of its members. The knights of that order had part of their hair bound with a red ribbon, to which a taffel was fixed hanging down to the fhoulder. Every new exploit was honoured with an additional taffel; which made the knights with ardor embrace every opportunity to fignalize themselves. As nothing can be better contrived than fuch a regulation for fupporting a military spirit, the Mexicans would have been invincible had they understood the order of battle: for want of which that potent empire fell a prey to a handful of strangers. I differ from thofe who afcribe that event to the fire-arms of the Spaniards, and to their horfes. These could not be more terrible to the Mexicans, than elephants were at first to the Romans : but familiarity with thefe unwieldy animals, reftored to the Romans their wonted courage; and the Mexicans probably would


have behaved like the Romans, had they equalled the Romans in the art of war.

When that illuftrious people, by their own genius, without borrowing from others, had made fuch proficiency in the arts of peace, as well as of war; is it not strange, that with refpect to religion they were no better than favages? They not only practifed human facrifices, but dreffed and ear the flesh of those that were facrificed. Their great temple was contrived to raise horror: upon the walls were multiplied the figures of noxious ferpents: the heads of perfons facrificed were stuck up in different places, and carefully renewed when wafted by time. There were eight temples in the city, nearly of the fame architecture; 2000 of a fmaller fize, dedicated to different idols; scarce a street without a tutelar deity; nor a calamity that had not an altar, to which the diftreffed might have recourse for a remedy. Unparallelled ignorance and stupidity, obliged every Emperor, at his coronation, to fwear, that there fhould be no unfeasonable rains, no overflowing of rivers, no fields affected with sterility, nor any man hurt with the bad influences of the fun. In short, it was a slavish religion, built upon fear, not love. At the fame time, they believed the immortality of the foul, and rewards and punishments in a future state; which made them bury with their dead, quantities of gold and filver, for defraying the expence of their journey; and alfo made them put to death fome of their fervants to attend them. Women fometimes, actuated with the fame belief, were authors of their own death, in order to accompany their husbands.

The author that we muft chiefly rely on for an account of Peru is Garcilaffo de la Vega: tho' he may be justly fufpected of partiality; for being of the Inca race, he bestows on the Peruvian government, improvements of later times. The articles that appear the leaft fufpicious are what follow.

The principle of the Peruvian conftitution feems to have been

an Agrarian law, of the ftricteft kind. To the fovereign was first allotted a large proportion of land, for defraying the expences of government; and the remainder was divided among his fubjects, in proportion to the number of each family. These portions were not alienable the fovereign was held proprietor of the whole, as in the feudal system; and from time to time the distribution was varied according to the circumstances of families. This Agrarian law contributed undoubtedly to the populousness of the kingdom of Peru.

It is a fure fign of improved agriculture, that aqueducts were made by the Peruvians for watering their land. Their plough was of wood, a yard long, flat before, round behind, and pointed at the end for piercing the ground. Agriculture seems to have been carried on by united labour: lands appropriated for maintaining the poor were first ploughed; next the portion allotted to foldiers performing duty in the field: then every man separately ploughed his own field; after which he affifted his neighbour: they proceeded to the portion of the curaca or lord: and lastly to the King's portion. In the month of March they reaped their maize, and celebrated the harvest with joy and feasting.

There being no artist nor manufacturer by profeffion, individuals were taught to do every thing for themselves. Every one knew how to plough and manure the land: every one was a carpenter, a mason, a fhoemaker, a weaver, &c.; and the women were the most ingenious and diligent of all. Blas Valera mentions a law, named the law of brotherhood, which, without the prospect of reward, obliged them to be mutually aiding and affifting in ploughing, fowing, and reaping, in building their houses, and in every fort of occupation.

As the art was unknown of melting down metals by means of bellows, long copper pipes were contrived, contracted at the fur


ther end, that the breath might act the more forcibly on the fire; and they used ten or twelve of these pipes together, when they wanted a very hot fire. Having no iron, their hatchets and pick-axes were of copper, and they had neither faw nor augre, nor any inftrument of iron: ignorant of the use of nails, they tied their timber with cords of hemp. The tool they had for cutting stone, was a sharp flint; and with that tool they fhaped the stone by continual rubbing, more than by cutting. Having no engines for raising stones, they did all by ftrength of arm. Thefe defects notwithstanding, they erected great edifices; witnefs the fortress of Cufco, a ftupenduous fabric. It paffes all understanding, by what means the stones, or rather the great rocks, employ'd in that building, were brought from the quarry. One of these stones, measured by Acofta, was thirty feet in length, eighteen in breadth, and fix in thickness.

Having neither fciffars nor needles of metal, they ufed a certain long thorn for a needle. The mirrors used by ladies of quality were of burnished copper: but fuch implements of drefs were reckoned too effeminate for the men.

With refpect to music, they had an instrument of hollow canes glew'd together, the notes of which were like those of an organ. They had love-fongs accompanied with a pipe; and war-fongs, which were their festival entertainment. They compofed and acted comedies and tragedies. The art of writing properly fo called, was unknown: but filken threads, with knots caft upon them of divers colours, enabled them to keep exact accounts, and to fum them up with a readiness that would have rivalled an expert European arithmetician. They had also attained to as much geometry as to measure their fields.

In war, their offenfive arms were the bow and arrow, lance, dart, club, and bill. Their defenfive arms, were the helmet and


target. The army was provided from the King's stores, and was no burden upon the people.

In philofophy, they had made no progrefs. An eclipfe of the moon was attributed to her being fick; and they fancied the milky way to be a ewe giving fuck to a lamb. With regard to the fetting fun, they faid, that he was a good swimmer, and that he pierced through the waves, to rise next morning in the east. But fuch ignorance is not wonderful; for no branch of fcience can make a progrefs without writing.

The people were divided into small bodies of ten families each: every divifion had a head, and a register was kept of the whole; a branch of public police, that very much resembles the English decennaries.

They made but two meals, one between eight and nine in the morning, the other before sunset. Idleness was punifhed with infamy: even children were employ'd according to their capacity. public vifitors or monitors were appointed, having access to every house, for infpecting the manners of the inhabitants; who were rewarded or punished according to their behaviour. Moderation and industry were fo effectually enforc'd by this article of police, that few were reduced to indigence; and these got their food and cloathing out of the King's ftores.

With refpect to their laws and cuftoms, children were bound to ferve their parents until the age of twenty-five; and marriage contracted before that time, without confent of parents, was null. Polygamy was prohibited, and perfons were confined to marry within their own tribe. The tradition, that the Inca family were children of the fun, introduced inceft among them; for it was a matter of religion to preferve their divine blood pure and unmixed.


It was the chief article of the Peruvian creed, upon which eveother article of their religion depended, that the Inca family


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