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to their numerous inhabitants the neceffaries of life in profufion. Cotton was in plenty, more than fufficient for the cloathing needed in warm climates: Indian wheat was univerfal, and was cultivated without much labour. The natural wants of the inhabiitants were thus fupplied with very little trouble; and artificial wants had made no progrefs. But the prefent ftate of these countries is very different. The Indians have learned from their conquerors a multitude of artificial wants, good houfes, variety of -food, and rich cloaths, which must be imported, becaufe not ma-nufactured at home. They are prohibited from exercising any art or calling except agriculture, which fearce affords them neceffaries; and this obliges a great proportion of them to live fingle. Even agriculture itself is cramped; for in most of the provinces there is a prohibition to plant vines or olives. In fhort, it is believed that the inhabitants who exifted at the Spanish inyafion are reduced to a fourth part. A The favages also of North America who border on the European fettlements are visibly diminishing. When >the English fettled in America, the five nations could raise 15,000 fighting men at present they are not able to raise 2000. Upon the whole, it is computed by able writers, that the present inhabitants of America amount not to a twentieth part of thofe who exifted when that continent was difcovered by Columbus. This decay is afcribed to the intemperate use of spirits, and to the fmall-pox, both of them introduced by the Europeans *Ils enole

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erit ei vids todÏ mazdauns awo vit duw is strų miang) yedi monte nel ve In all the Weft-Indian colonies, the flaves continually decreafe fo as to need fréquent recruits from Africa. "This decreafe," fays the author of a late account of Guiana, ** is commonly attributed to oppreffion and hard labour; tho' with little reafon, as the flaves are much more robuft, healthy, and vigorous, than their mafters. The true caufe is, the commerce of white men with young negro wenches, who, to fupport that commerce, ufe every mean to avoid conception, and even to procure abortion. By fuch practices they are incapacitated to bear chil"dren .t

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It is obfervable, that every fort of plague becomes more virulent when transplanted, than in its native place. The plague commits lefs ravage in Egypt, its native place, than in any other country. The venereal difeafe was for many ages more violent and deftruetive in Europe, than ever it was in America, where it was first known. The people who failed with Chriftopher Columbus, brought it to Spain from Hifpaniola. Columbus, with thirty or forty of his failors, went directly to Barcelona, where the King then was, to render an account of his voyage. All the inhabitants, who at that time tripled the prefent number, were immediately feized with the venereal disease, which raged so furioufy as to threaten deftruction to all. The fmall pox comes under "the fame obfervation; for it has fwept away many more in America, than ever it did in Europe. In the 1713, the crew of a Dutch veffel infected the Hottentots with the finall pox; which left fcarce a third of the inhabitants. And the fame fate befel the Laplanders and Greenlanders. In all appearance, that disease, if it abate not foon of its tranfplanted virulence, will extirpate the natives of North America; for they know little of inoculation.

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But fpiritous liquors are a ftill more effectual caufe of depopulation. The American favages, male and female, are inordinately fond of fpiritons liquors; and favages generally abandon themfelves to appetite, without the least control from flame, The noxious effects of intemperance in fpirits, are too well known, from

"dren when they fettle in marriage with their own countrymen. That this is the true caufe, will be evident, from confidering, that in Virginia and Maryland, the "stock of flaves is kept up without any importation; because in thefe countries "commerce with Negro women is detefted, as infamous and unnatural." The caufe here affigned may have fome effect: but there is a stronger caufe of depopulation, viz. the culture of fugar, laborious in the field, and unhealthy in the house by boiling, &c. The Negroes employ'd in the culture of cotton, coffee, and ginger, feldom

nced to be recruited.

VOL. II.

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fatal experience among ourselves: before the use of gin was prohibited, the populace of London were debilitated by it to a degree of lofing, in a great measure, the power of procreation. Happily for the human fpecies, the invention of favages never reached the production of gin; for fpirits in that early period would have left, not one perfon alive, not a fingle Noah to restore the race of men: in order to accomplish the plan of Providence, creation must have been renewed oftener than once *.

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In the temperate climates of the old world, there is great uniformity in the gradual progrefs of men from the favage ftate to the highest civilization; beginning with hunting and fishing, advancing to and herds, and thereafter to agriculture and commerce. One would be much difappointed if he expected the fame progress in America. Among the northern tribes, there is nothing that resembles the fhepherd-state; they continue hunters and fishers as originally; because there is no caufe fo potent as to force them from that state to become fhepherds. So far clear. But there is another fact of which we have no example in the old world, that feems not fo eafily explained: these people, without paffing through the shepherd-state, have advanced to fome degree of agriculture. Before the feventeenth century, the Iroquois, or five nations, had villages, and cultivated Indian corn: the Cherokees have many fmall towns; they raife corn in abundance, and fence in their fields: they breed poultry, and have orchards of peach-trees: the Chickefaws and Creek Indians live pretty much in the fame manner. The Apalachites fow and reap in common;

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* Charlevoix fays, that an Indian of Canada will give all he is worth for a glafs of brandy. And he paints thus the effect of drunkennefs upon them. "Even in

the ftreets of Montreal are feen the most fhocking fpectacles of ebriety; hufbands, wives, fathers, mothers, brothers, and fifters, feizing one another by the throat, and tearing one another with their teeth, like fo many enraged wolves."

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and put up the corn in granaries, to be diftributed among individuals when they want food. The Hurons raife great quantities of corn, not only for their own ufe, but for commerce. Many of these nations, particularly the Cherokees, have of late got horfes, fwine, and tame cattle; an improvement borrowed from the Europeans. But corn is of an earlier date: when Sir Richard Greenville took poffeffion of Virginia in the reign of Queen Elifabeth, the natives had corn; and Hennepin affures us, that the nations bordering on the Miffifippi had corn long before they were vifited by any European. Husbandry, it is true, is among those people still in its infancy; being left to the women, who fow, who reap, who store up in public granaries, and who diftribute as need requires. The inhabitants of Guiana in South America, continue to this day hunters and fifhers. But tho' they have neither flocks nor herds, they have some husbandry; for the women plant cassava, yams, and plantains. They make a liquor, like our ale, termed piworee, which they drink with their food. And tho they are extremely fond of that liquor, their indolence makes them often neglect to provide against want. To a people having a violent propensity to intemperance, as all favages have, this improvidence is a blessing; for otherwife they would wallow in perpetual drunkenness. They are by no means fingular; for unconcern about futurity is the characteristic of all favages. To forego an immediate for a diftant enjoyment, can only be fuggested by cultivated reason. When the Canary islands were first visited by the Europeans, which was in the fourteenth century, the inhabitants had corn; for which the ground was prepared in the following manner. They had a wooden inftrument, not unlike a hoe, with a fpur or tooth at the end, on which was fixed a goat's horn. With this inftrument the ground was ftirred; and if rain came not in its proper season, water was brought by canals from the rivulets. It was the womens province to reap the corn: they took only the ears; which

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they threshed with sticks, or beat with their feet, and then winnowed in their hands. Husbandry probably will remain in its prefent state among American favages; for as they are decreafing daily, they can have no difficulty about food. The fact however is fingular, of a people using corn before tame cattle: there muft be a caufe, which, on better acquaintance with that people, will probably be discovered..

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America is full of political wonders. At the time of the Spanish invafion, the Mexicans and Peruvians had made great advances toward the perfection of society, while the northern tribes, feparated from them by distance only, remained in the original ftate of hunters and fishers, and remain fo at this day. To explain the difference, appears difficult. It is ftill more difficult to explain, why the Mexicans and Peruvians, inhabitants of the torrid zone, were highly polifhed in the arts of fociety and government; confidering that in the old world, the inhabitants of the torrid zone are for the most part slittle better than favages.We are not fufficiently acquainted with the natural hiftory of America, nor with that of its people, to attempt an explanation of these wonders: it is however part of our task, to state the progress of fociety among the Mexicans and Peruvians; which cannot fail to amufe the reader, as he will find these two nations differing effentially from the North-American tribes, in every article of manners, government,, and police.i

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When the Spaniards invaded America, the Mexicans were fkilful in agriculture. Maize was their chief grain, which, by careful culture, produced great plenty, even in the mountainous country of Tlafcalla. They had gardening and botany, as well as agriculture: a phyfic-garden belonging to the Emperor was open to every one for gathering medicinal plants.

The art of cookery was far advanced among that people. Montezuma's table was generally covered with 200 dishes, many of them

exquifitely

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