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URING the infancy of a nation, every member depends on his own industry for procuring the neceffaries of life he is his own mason, his own tailor, his own phyfician; and on himself he chiefly relies for offence as well as defence. Every favage can fay, what few beggars among us can fay, Omnia mea mecum porto; and hence the aptitude VOL. II. A
of a favage for war, which makes little alteration in his manner of living. In early times accordingly, the men were all warriors, and every known art was exercised by women; which is the cafe at present of American favages. And even after arts were so much improved as to be exercised by men, none who could bear arms In feudal governments, the military were exempted from war. spirit was carried to a great height: all gentlemen were foldiers. by profeffion; and every other art was despised, as low, if not contemptible.
Even in this untoward state, arts made fome progress, not excepting those for amufement; and many conveniencies, formerly unknown, became neceffary to comfortable living; A man cannot bear to be deprived of the conveniencies and amufements to which he is accustomed: he hates war, and clings to the fweets of peace. Hence the neceffity of a military establishment, hardening men by ftrict difcipline to endure the fatigues of war. By standing armies, war is carried on more regularly and scientifically than in feudal governments; and as it is carried on with infinitely greater expence, nations are more referved in declaring war than formerly. Long experience has at the fame time made it evident, that a nation feldom gains by war; and that agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, are the only folid foundations of power and grandeur. These arts accordingly have become the chief objects of European governments, and the only rational caufes of war. Among the warlike nations of Greece and Italy, how would it have founded, that their effeminate defcendents would employ foldiers by profeffion to fight their battles? And yet this is neceffary, in every country where arts and manufactures flourifh; which, requiring little exercife, tend to enervate the body, and of course the mind. Gain, at the fame time, being the fole object of industry, advances selfishness to be the ruling paffion, and brings on a timid anxiety about property and self-preservation.
Cyrus, tho' flaming with refentment against the Lydians for revolting, liftened to the following fagacious advice, offered by Crofus, their former King. “O Cyrus, destroy not Sardis, an 'an“cient city, famous for arts and arms; but, pardoning what is "past, demand all their arms, encourage luxury, and exhort them to inftruct their children in every art of gainful com
merce. You will foon fee, O King, that instead of men, they "will be women. The Arabians, a brave and generous people, conquered Spain, and drove into the inacceffible mountains of Biscay and Afturia, the few natives who stood out. When no longer an enemy appeared, they turned their swords into ploughshares, and became a rich and flourishing nation. The inhabitants of the mountains, hardened by poverty and fituation, ventured, after a long interval, to peep out from their strong-holds, and to lie in wait for ftraggling parties. Finding themselves now a match for a people, whom opulence had betrayed to luxury, and the arts of peace to cowardice; they took courage to difplay their banners in the open field; and after many military atchievements, fucceeded in reconquering Spain. The Scots, inhabiting the mountainous parts of Caledonia, were an overmatch for the Picts, who occupied the fertile plains, and at last fubdued them *.
Before the time that all Scotland was brought under one king, the highlanders, divided into tribes or clans, made war upon each other; and continued the fame practice irregularly many ages after they fubmitted to the king of Scotland. Open war was repreffed, but it went on privately by depredations and reprifals. The clan-fpirit was much depreffed by their bad fuccefs in the rebellion 17:5; and totally crushed after the rebellion 1745. The mildnefs with which the highlanders have been treated of late, and the pains that have been taken to introduce industry among them, have totally extirpated depredations and reprifals, and have rendered. them the most peaceable people in Scotland; but have at the fanie time reduced their military fpirit to a low ebb. To train them for war, military difcipline has now become no lefs neceffary than to others.
Where arts, manufactures, and commerce, have arrived at perfection, a pacific spirit prevails univerfally: not a fpark is left of military ardor, nor will any man be a foldier. Hence in fuch a ftate, the neceflity of mercenary troops, hired among nations. lefs effeminate, who fight for pay, not for the ftate they ferve.. Benjamin de Tudele, a Spanish Jew, who wrote in the twelfth century, reports, that the Greeks, by luxury and effeminacy, had contracted a degree of softness, that made them resemble women more than men; and that the Greek Emperor was reduced to the neceflity of employing mercenary troops, to defend his country against the Turks.. And accordingly when, in the year 1453, the city of Conftantinople, defended by a garrifon not exceeding 6000 men, was befieged by the Turks, and reduced to extremity, not a single inhabitant had courage to take up arms, all waiting with torpid despondence the hour of utter extirpation. Venice, Genoa, and other small Italian ftates, became fo effeminate by long and fuccessful commerce, that not a citizen ever thought of serving in the army; which obliged them to employ mercenaries, officers as well as private men. These mercenaries at first fought confcientiously for their pay; but reflecting, that the victors were not better paid than the vanquished, they learned to play booty. In a battle particularly between the Pifans and Florentines, which lafted from fun-rifing to fun-fetting, there was but a. fingle man. loft, who, having accidentally fallen from his horfe, was trode under foot. Charles VIII. of France, when he invaded Italy anno 1498, understood nothing of fuch mock battles; and his men were held to be devils incarnate, who feemed to take delight in fhedding human blood. The Dutch, who for many years have been reduced to mercenary troops, are more indebted to the mutual jealousy of their neighbours for their independence, than to their own army. In the year 1672, Lewis of France invaded Holland, and in forty days took forty walled towns. That country