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bound; because none can be bound, if every one be not bound. Were any difference to be made, perfons of figure and fortune ought first to be called to that service, as being the most interested in the welfare of their country. Listen to a good foldier delivering his opinion on that fubject. "Les levées qui fe font par fu"percherie font tout auffi odieufes; on met de l'argent dans la "pochette d'un homme, et on lui dit qu'il eft foldat. Celles qui "fe font par force, le font encore plus ; c'est une c'eft une defolation publique, dont le bourgeois et l'habitant ne se fauvent qu'à "force d'argent, et dont le fond est toujours un moyen odieux. "Ne voudroit-il pas mieux établer, par une loi, que tout homme, "de quelque condition qu'il fût, feroit obligé de fervir fon prince et fa patrie pendant cinq ans ? Cette loi ne fçauroit être defapprouvée, parce qu'il est naturel et jufte que les citoyens "s'emploient pour la défenfe de l'état. Cette methode de lever "des troupes feroit un fond inépuifable de belles et bonnes recrues, qui ne feroient pas fujetes a déferter. L'on fe feroit même, par la fuite, un honneur et un devoir de ferver fa tâche. Mais, pour y parvenir, il faudroit n'en excepter aucune condition, "être sévére fur ce point, et s'attacher a faire exécuter cette loi "de préférence aux nobles et aux riches. Perfonne n'en mur"mureroit. Alors ceux qui auroient fervi leur temps, verroient


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avec mépris ceux qui repugneroient à cette loi, et infenfiblement on fe feroit un honneur de fervir: le pauvre bourgeois fe"roit confolé par l'example du riche; et celui-ci n'oferoit fe plaindre, voyant fervir le noble (a) *”

(a) Les reveries du Comte de Saxe.


"The method of inlifting men, by putting a trick upon them, is fully as o"dious. They flip a piece of money into a man's pocket, and then tell him he is "a foldier. Inlifting by force is ftill more odious. It is a public calamity, from "which the citizen has no means of faving himself but by money; and it is confequently the worst of all the refources of government. Would it not be more


Take another preliminary confideration. While there remained any portion of our original martial fpirit, the difficulty was not great of recruiting the army. But that talk hath of late years become extremely troublesome; and more difagreeable still than troublefome, by the neceffity of ufing deceitful arts for trepanning the unwary youth. Nor are fuch arts always fuccefsful: in our late war with France, we were neceffitated to give up even the appearance. of voluntary fervice, and to recruit the army on the folid principle of obliging every man to fight for his country: the juftices of peace were empowered by the legislature, to force into the fervice fuch as could be best fpared from civil occupation. If a single clause had been added, limiting the fervice to five or feven years, the measure would have been unexceptionable, even in a land of liberty. To relieve officers of the army from practifing deceitful arts for recruiting their corps, by fubftituting a fair and conftitutional mode, was a valuable improveIt was of importance with refpect to its direct intendment; but of much greater with refpect to its confequences. One of the


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"expedient to enact a law, obliging every man, whatever be his rank, to ferve his "King and country for five years? This law could not be difapproved of, be" caufe it is confiftent both with nature and juftice, that every citizen fhould be r employed in the defence of the ftate. Here would be an inexhaustible fund of good and able foldiers, who would not be apt to defert, as every man would, "reckon it both his honour and his duty to have ferved his time. But to effect "this, it must be a fixed principle, That there fhall be no exception of ranks. This "point must be rigorously attended to, and the law must be enforced, by way of preference, firft among the nobility and the men of wealth. There would not "be a single man who would complain of it. A perfon who had ferved his time, "would treat with contempt another who fhould fhow reluctance to comply with "the law; and thus, by degrees, it would become a task of honour. The poor "citizen would be comforted and infpirited by the example of his rich neighbour; "and he again would have nothing to complain of, when he faw that the nobleman was not exempted from fervice."

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few difadvantages of a free ftate, is licentioufnefs in the common people, who may wallow in diforder and profligacy without control, if they be but cautious to refrain from grofs crimes, punishable by law. Now, as it appears to me, there never has been devised a method more efficacious for reftoring industry and fobriety, than that under confideration. Its falutary effects were confpicuous, even during the short time it fubfifted. The dread of being forc'd into the fervice, rendered the populace peaceable and orderly: it did more; it rendered them induftrious in order to conciliate favour. The most beneficial difcoveries have been accidental: without having any view but for recruiting the army, our legislature stumbled upon an excellent method for reclaiming the idle and the profligate; a matter, in the prefent depravity of manners, of greater importance than any other that concerns the police of Britain. A perpetual law of that kind, by promoting industry, would prove a fovereign remedy against mobs and riots, diseases of a free country, full of people and of manufactures ** Why were the foregoing ftatutes, for there were two of them, limited to a temporary existence? There is not on record another ftatute better intitled to immortality.

And now to the project, which, after all my efforts, I produce | with trepidation; not that I doubt of its folidity, but as ill fuited i to the prefent manners of this ifland. To hope that it will be put in practice, would indeed be highly ridiculous: this can never happen, till patriotism flourish more in Britain than it has done for fome time paft. Suppofing now an army of 60,000 men to be

* Several late mobs in the fouth of England, all of them on pretext of fcarcity, greatly alarmed the adminiftration. A fact was difcovered by a private perfon (Sixweeks tour through the fouth of England), which our minifters ought to have difcovered, that thefe mobs conftantly happened where wages were high and provisions low; confequently that they were occafioned, not by want, but by wantonnefs.




fufficient for Britain, a rational method for raifing fuch an army, were there no ftanding forces, would be, that land-proprietors, in proportion to their valued rents, fhould furnifh men to ferve feven years, and no longer. But as it would be no lefs unjuft than imprudent, to difband at once our prefent army, the soft and natural way is, to begin with moulding gradually the old army into the new, by filling up vacancies with men bound to ferve feven years and no longer. And for raising proper men, a matter of much delicacy, it is propofed, that in every fhire a fpecial commiffion be given to certain landholders of rank and figure, to raise recruits out of the lower claffes, felecting always those who are the leaft useful at home. -¿'


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Second. Those who claim to be difiniffed after ferving the ap pointed time, fhall never again be called to the fervice, except in case of an actual invasion. Every one of them fhall be intitled to a premium of eight or ten pounds, for enabling him to follow a trade or calling, without being fubjected to corporation-laws.. The private men in France are inlifted but for fix years; and that mode has never been attended with any inconvenience.

Third. With respect to the private men, idleness must be totally and for ever banifhed. Suppofing three months yearly to be 'fufficient for military difcipline, the men, during the rest of the year, ought to be employ'd upon public works, forming roads, erecting bridges, making rivers navigable, clear-Ing harbours, &c. &c. Why not alfo furnish men for halfpay to private undertakers of ufeful works? And fuppofing the daily pay of a foldier to be ten pence, it would greatly encourage

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In Denmark, every land-proprietor of a certain rent, is obliged to furnish a militia-man, whom he can withdraw at pleafure upon fubftituting another; an ex-. 'cellent method for taming the peasants, and for rendering them induftrious.


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extenfive improvements, to have at command a number of flout fellows, under ftrict difcipline, at the low wages of five pence aday. An army of 60,000 men thus employ'd, would not be fo expensive to the public, as 20,000 men upon the prefent establifhment: for beside the money contributed by private undertakers, public works carried on by foldiers, will be miferably ill contri ved, if not cheaply purchased with their payal,


The most important branch of the project, is what regards the officers. The neceflity of reviving in our people of rank foine portion of military fpirit, will be acknowledged by every person of reflection; and in that view, the following articles are propofed. First: That there be two claffes of officers, one ferying for pay, one without pay. In filling up every vacant office of cornet. or enfign, the latter are to be preferred; but in progreffive advancement, no diftinction is to be made between the claffes. An officer who has ferved feven years, without pay, may retire with honour..; on fortnit com veillea to shit Second. No man fhall be privileged to reprefent a county in parliament, who has not ferved seven years without pay; and, excepting an actual burgess, none but those who have performed that fervice, fhall be privileged to represent a borough, The fame qualification fhall be neceflary to every one, who afpires to ferve the public or the King in an office of dignity, excepting only churchmen and lawyers, with regard to offices in their respective profeffions. In old Rome, none were admitted candidates for any civil employment, till they had ferved ten years in the army.

Third.. Officers of this clafs, are to be exempted, from the taxes

* Taking this for granted, I bring only into the calculation the pay of the three months fpent in military difcipline; and the calculation is, very fimple, the pay of 20,000 for twelve months amounting to a greater fum than the pay of 60,900 for three months.

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