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preserving and defending the king's majesty's person and authority in the preservation and defence of the true religion and liberties of the kingdom. 3. The obtaining a free and unlimited Parliament, and a free General Assembly. The second of the above reasons gave offence to many, who believed it worse than useless to speak of defending the king's authority, when he had during a long course of years given so many proofs of his desire to take away liberty, and to rule as an irresponsible monarch.

Of the members of the Privy Council mentioned by James Skene as present at his examination, "York" was the Duke of York, afterwards James VII. of Scotland. Though a Papist, he regularly attended the examinations of the persecuted Presbyterians. When any one was to be struck in the Boots, it had to be done in the presence of the Council. Burnet says: "Upon that occasion, almost all run away. The sight is so dreadful, that without an order restraining such a number to stay, the board would be forsaken. But the Duke was so far from withdrawing, that he looked on all the while with an unmoved indifference, and with an attention as if he had been to look on some curious experiment. This gave a terrible idea of him to all that observed it, as of a man that had no bowels nor humanity in him."

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"Rothes" was the Duke of Rothes, and Lord Chancellor. "Burnet" was Alexander Burnet, Bishop of Glasgow. selled the hanging of all the prisoners taken at Pentland, if they would not renounce the Covenant. He died in 1684.

"Paterson" was John Paterson, Bishop of Edinburgh; translated from the diocese of Galloway in 1679. In 1687, he was appointed Archbishop of Glasgow. The Revolution deprived him of his dignities. He died at Edinburgh in 1708. If the pamphleteers of that age are to be believed, his moral character was not of a high order.

"The Advocate" was Sir George M'Kenzie of Rosehaugh; a man remarkable for his literary attainments, and occupying an honourable place among the writers of his age; but, as a public prosecutor, he was merciless. His remains lie in the Greyfriars Churchyard, and tradition still points out his tomb as that of "bloody M'Kenzie."

"Clerk Paterson" was Sir William Paterson, made clerk to the Privy Council in 1679.


Linlithgow" was the Earl of Linlithgow; who was general over the royal troops previous to Bothwell Bridge, until the chief command was assigned by the king to the Duke of Monmouth.

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"Hatton" was Sir Charles Maitland, Lord Hatton, a younger brother of the Duke of Lauderdale. He was Master-general of the Mint, and for some time was Lord Justice-Clerk. Shortly after. Skene's execution the Duke of Lauderdale died, August 24, 1682, and in the following October Sir Charles Maitland became Earl of Lauderdale. Being accused of malversation in his management of the Mint, he was found guilty, and, in addition to being heavily fined, was deprived of all his offices. With him fell the power of the Maitlands.

Skene mentions that he was accompanied to prison by Archibald Stewart and John Sproul. Stewart's testimony follows Mr Skene's. John Sproul was an apothecary in Glasgow. He was twice put to the torture in the Boots; and, having been fined £500 sterling, was afterwards confined for six years in the Bass Rock. He survived the Revolution, and received from his friends the compellation of "Bass John Sproul," whereof, says Wodrow, he needs not to be ashamed.

Mr M'Ward, mentioned by Skene, was the well-known amanuensis of Samuel Rutherford while at the Westminster Assembly; he succeeded Andrew Gray in Glasgow. In 1661 he was charged with treasonable preaching, and banished the kingdom. He went to

Utrecht, and then to Rotterdam, where he died December 1681. His life is in the "Scots Worthies." The letter referred to is in "Wodrow."-ED.]


HE LAST TESTIMONY of Mr JAMES SKENE, Brother to the Laird of Skene, who suffered at Edinburgh, December 1, 1680.

His Interrogations and Answers before the Privy Council, related by himself in a letter to his Brother:

"DEAR BILLIE [i.e., BROTHER, from same root as the German, 'billig' equal, fair],-To satisfy your desire, I send you this line to let you know, that when I came before the Council (York and Rothes being there, two Bishops, viz., Burnet and Paterson, the Advocate, Clerk Paterson, Linlithgow, and many more, sitters and standers, Dalziel, the General, being porter, walking proudly up and down, not as a servant), none was admitted to come in with me. I saluted them all civilly, and kept off my hat, because they kept off. that they might not say that I was a Quaker.

"Rothes asked me, Was I at Bothwell or Airsmoss? I answered, I was at home in the north both these times.

"They asked, If I did own Sanquhar Declaration and the Testimony at Rutherglen? I told them, I did own them both.

"He asked, Did I own the king's authority? I said, in so far as it was against the Covenant and interest of Christ, I disowned it.

"He asked me, Thought I it not a sinful murder the killing of the Arch-prelate [James Sharp]? I said, I thought it was their duty to kill him when God gave them opportunity; for he had been the author of much bloodshed.

"They asked me, Why I carried arms? I told them it was for selfdefence, and the defence of the Gospel.

"They asked me, Why I poisoned my ball? I told them I wished none of them to recover whom I shot.

"He asked me, Why I carried a durk? I told them they might ask Mr George Mackenzie, if it was not our country fashion; and he presently told the Chancellor that it was so.

They asked if I knew Cargill? I said it was my comfort I knew him. Then they reproached him, and me for conversing with him. I said, I bless God, He gave me sweet peace in it.

"They asked, Would I kill the soldiers, being the king's? I said it was my duty, if I could, when they persecuted God's people.

“They asked, If I would kill any of them? I said they were all stated [i.e., declared] enemies of our Lord Jesus Christ, and, by the Declaration at Sanquhar, I counted them my enemies.

"They asked, If I would think it my duty to kill the King? I said, he had stated himself an enemy to God's interest, and there was war declared against him. I said, the Covenant made with God was the glory of Scotland, though they had unthankfully counted it their shame. And in direct terms I said to the Chancellor, 'Sir, I have a parchment at home wherein your father's name is, and you are bound by that as well as I.'

"They asked, Why I called the Chancellor 'Sir.' I said, 'Sir' was a title for a king, and it might serve him.

"The Chancellor asked, If I knew his Royal Highness? I said I never saw such a person.

"York looks out by [i.e., from where he was], for he sat in the shadow of Bishop Burnet, and said, Why did I wish the king so ill? I told, I wished no ill to any, but as they were in opposition to God, I wished them brought down. And he spoke no more.

"The Chancellor said, Would I not adhere to the Acts of Parliament of this kingdom? I said, I would not own any of them which were in opposition to God and His Covenant.

"Mr Mackenzie said, 'If the king were riding by in coach, would ye think it no sin to kill him?' I said, by the Sanquhar Declaration, there was war declared against him, and so he needed not put that in question.

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"So Mr Mackenzie came out by to the bar, and said, 'I know your relations and mine are sib, [.e., connected by blood] be ingenuous in all that is demanded of you, and I will save you from torture.'

"I said, 'Sir, I know you, and ye know me and my relations. I have been as free and ingenuous as I could imagine, because I reckon it my credit and my glory to give a full and free confession for my blessed Lord's interest that is reproached and borne down.'

"They asked me, where I saw Cargill last? I said, I met with him last in the West Bow, to my comfort.

"They asked me, Who were owners of the house? I said, I really could not tell them; I knew them not.

I said, Yes.

"They said, Would I know the house? "They said, Would I show it to some whom they would send with me? I told them I was free in what concerned myself; but to hurt any else, I could not mar my peace with God; but if they were advertised to go out of the house, I should show it them.

"Then they desired me to go my ways. The General [Dalziel] opened the door, and rounded [i.e., whispered] in my ear, 'Ye must go down with some soldiers, and show them that house.' I said, 'I will not do it to hurt any: these indwellers must be advertised to flee the house first.'

"Then I was ordered to the guard, which was of Linlithgow's soldiers, which took me, and walked (after Archibald Stewart and John Sproul, who were examined) to the Tron; and back to the Council house of the town, I being alone, and only six soldiers with me. I took me to prayer, and was comforted; and then sent money for meat and drink and then worshipped in public with the soldiers. At night, a person from J-, kindly wakened me, and brought me bread and ale and sugar, and some confected caraway. After that I was carried to a committee, where were present the Chancellor, Hatton, Paterson, Justice-Clerk, Wigtown, and Linlithgow; and they showed me two letters of mine to Mrs Simpson, wherein I owned the Declaration at Sanquhar, and told I would do much to persuade many that it was just, from Mr M'Ward's advice that was given to the prisoners. I owned the letters, and told them I did what I could to dissuade professors from paying them cess, which they ordered for bearing down the Gospel: at which they laughed.

"The Chancellor said, Why did I not call him Lord? I told him, were he for Christ's interest, I would honour him. Then he said, he cared not for my honour; but he would have me to know he was Chancellor. I said, I knew that. He said I was not a Scotsman but a Scots-beast. At which Wigtown gloomed [i.e., frowned] at him, and he laughed. He then rounded [i.e., whispered] to me, that he would be my friend, would I be ingenuous. I told him, I wished him no ill.

"They asked me, What Mr William Alexander was it, that I wrote of? I said that Mr Paterson the bishop, and Mr Ross, at Glasgow, knew him, and persecuted him unjustly. I then related to them how it was. Paterson said, I told that which I knew not

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