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believed, after they have violated all that human wisdom could devise to bind them:

"Upon these accounts they reject that king and those associated with him in the government, and declare them henceforth no lawful rulers, as they had declared them to be no lawful subjects-they having destroyed the established religion, overturned the funda‍ mental laws of the kingdom, taken away Christ's church-government, and changed the civil government into tyranny, where none are associated in partaking of the government, but only those who will be found by justice guilty as criminals; and declare they shall, God giving them power, set up government and governors according to the Word of God and the qualifications required (Exod. xviii. 21); and shall not commit the government to any single person or lineal succession; being not tied, as the Jews were, to one single family, and that kind being liable to most inconveniences, and aptest to degenerate into tyranny. And moreover, that these men set over them shall be engaged to govern principally by that civil and judicial law (not that which is any way typical) given by God to His people Israel--as the best, so far as it goes, being given by Godespecially in matters of life and death, and other things, so far as they reach and are consistent with Christian liberty-exempting divorces and polygamy, etc.

"6. Seeing the greatest part of ministers not only were defective in preaching against the rulers for overthrowing religion, but hindered others also who were willing, and censured some that did it; and have voted for acceptation of that liberty, founded upon and given by virtue of that blasphemously arrogated and usurped power, and appeared before their courts to accept of it, and to be enacted and authorised their ministers, whereby they have become ministers of men, and bound to be answerable to them as they will; and have preached for the lawfulness of paying that tribute declared to be imposed for the bearing down of the true worship of God; and advised poor prisoners to subscribe that bond, which, if it were universally subscribed, they should close that door, which the Lord hath made use of in all the churches of Europe, for casting off the yoke of the whore, and stop all regress of men, when once brought under tyranny, to recover their liberty again. They declare they neither can nor will hear them, etc., nor any who encouraged and strengthened their hands, and pleaded for them, and trafficked for union with them.

"7. That they are for a standing Gospel ministry, rightly chosen and rightly ordained, and that none shall take upon them the preaching of the Word, etc., unless called and ordained thereunto. And whereas separation might be imputed to them, they refel [i.e., disprove] both the malice, and the ignorance of the calumnyfor if there be a separation, it must be where the change is; and that was not to be found in them, who were not separating from the communion of the true Church, nor setting up a new ministry, but cleaving to the same ministers and ordinances that formerly they followed, when others have fled to new ways and a new authority, which is like the old piece in the new garment.

"8. That they shall defend themselves in their civil, natural, and divine rights and liberties. And if any assault them, they shall look on it as a declaring a war, and take all advantages that one enemy does of another; but trouble and injure none, but those that injure them."

A List of the Banished.

T the time the "Cloud of Witnesses" was drawn up, the compilers do not seem to have had access to such full information as Wodrow. Hence the list of the banished giver. by them is far from being full. It is, however, generally accurate so far as it goes. The additional information given has been inserted in brackets throughout the list.-ED.]


O speak nothing of those whom the cruelty of the persecutors forced to a voluntary exile, of whom there can be no particular account had, besides the six or seven ministers [i.e., James Simpson of Airth, Robert M'Ward of Glasgow, John Brown of Wamphray, John Livingston of Ancrum, John Nevay of Newmilns, Robert Trail of Edinburgh, and James Gardiner of Saddle] that were banished and went to Holland, and seven or eight country people to France, several others [were banished] to Barbadoes, before the year 1666.

[Wodrow gives an account of the banishment of William Gordon of Earlstoun to Holland; of four boys in 1664 to the Barbadoes; of two brothers to Virginia; of John Sproul, apothecary, Glasgow, who, on his return, in 1680, from Holland, in order to take his wife and family to Rotterdam, was apprehended, and put to the torture, as stated in a former note (p. 98); and of several persons in 1665, whose names are not given, to the Barbadoes.--ED.]

After the year 1678, there were banished to be sold for slaves, for the same cause for which others suffered death at home, of men and women about 1700-viz.:

NNO 1678.—To Virginia 60, whereof three or four were ministers, who were all by the mercy of God delivered at London.

[In May 1678, a conventicle was held at Williamwood, in the parish of Cathcart, Renfrewshire. John Campbell of Sorn, Matthew Crawford of Eastwood, and some others not mentioned, preached. An alarm was given which dispersed the meeting. Several of the ministers escaped, but the dragoons pursued the people that had been assembled, and about seventy were taken prisoners to Glasgow. Among others were the well-known Alexander Peden, Robert Meikle, chaplain to Sir James Stewart, and Adam Abercorn, chaplain. After a few days' confinement they were taken to Edinburgh. On May 28th, and June 13th, the Council banished them to his majesty's plantations in the Indies, and Ralph Williamson of London gave security that he would transport them and sell them to the best advantage. They lay in prison till December, when a warrant was given to deliver them to Edward Johnston, captain of the St Michael of Scarborough, lying at Leith. Their names, amounting to sixty-seven, are given in Wodrow. The passage between Leith and Gravesend was five days longer than Williamson had expected, and when the ship arrived he was not to be found. The captain waited for some time, and as provisions ran short, and Williamson did not appear, he set them ashore and left them to shift for themselves. Wodrow says that the country people were very kind to them when they knew the cause of their sufferings, and they generally got home safe after they had been absent from their homes about nine months. Wodrow also gives, under the same year 1678, the sentence of banishment passed upon William Temple, James Miller in Kirkcaldy, David Barclay, Robert Marnock, and seven or eight more; John Harroway, Alexander Buchanan in Bucklyvie, and three or four others there; Andrew Buchanan in Shargarton, and three more tenants there; Thomas and William Govans, and nine others.-ED.]

NNO 1679.--Of the prisoners taken at Bothwell were banished to America, 250 [rather 257. See fuller account in prefatory note to the testimony of John Malcolm, p. 66], who were taken away by (William) Paterson, merchant in Leith, who transacted for them with Provost Milns, laird of Barnton [and bailie or provost of Linlithgow], the man that first burned the Covenant: whereof

two hundred were drowned by shipwreck at a place called the Moul Head of Deerness, in Orkney, being shut up by the said Paterson's order beneath the hatches; fifty only escaped. The names, so many of them as could be had, follow; those who escaped being marked with a star for distinction's sake.

Out of the shire of CLYDESDALE :

City of Glasgow, Francis Wodrow, Walter M'Kechnie, Alexander Pirie, William Miller.

Parish of Govan, Andrew Snodgrass.

Parish of Kilbride, Robert Auld, John Struthers, James Clark,
John Clark, William Rodger.

Parish of Shotts, Peter Lermont, Robert Russel, John Aitkin,
Robert Chalmers, John Thomson,* John Killen, Alexander

Parish of Cambusnethan, William Scular.*

The Monklands, William Waddel,* William Grinlaw, Thomas
Mathie, William Miller, John Wynet, James Waddel, John
Gardner,* Thomas Barton,

Parish of Bothwell,

More,* William Breakenrig.

Parish of Evandale, John Cairnduff, John Cochran, Robert
Alison, Andrew Torrence, Thomas Brownlee, John Watson,

William Alison, Andrew Aiton.

Parish of Cadder, William Fram.*

Parish of Glassford, John Miller, John Craig.

Parish of Carnwath, Thomas Crighton, James Couper.

Parish of Quathquan, James Penman,* James Thomson,
Thomas Wilson.

Parish of Carstairs, Thomas Swan.*

Parish of Biggar, John Rankin.

Parish of Lesmahagow, George Weir, Robert Weir, George Drafin,* [after his escape he was conveyed to America.—-ED.] Out of the shire of AYR:

Parish of Fenwick, James Gray, Andrew Buckle, David Currie,
David Bitchet, Robert Tod, John White, Robert Wallace,*
John Wylie, William Bitchet.

Parish of Loudon, Thomas Wylie.

Parish of Dalmellington, Hugh Simpson, Walter Humper,
Walter Humper, younger,* Hugh Cameron,* Quintin

Parish of Cumnock, John Gemill, James Mirrie.

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