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only one given in full, and the date, evidently by the printer's error, given as May 19, instead of March 9. Of the others, there are merely the extracts that immediately follow. Richmond's testimony first occurs in the third edition, and Stewart's in the fourth. All of them justify Wodrow's encomium, that they were "five worthy and good men."

Their bodies were buried in the churchyard of the Cathedral of Glasgow. A monument to their memory, and that of Robert Bunton, John Hart, Robert Scott, and Matthew Patoun, who suffered martyrdom December 19th, 1666, for their share in the Pentland rising, has been put upon the outer wall of one of the crypts of the Cathedral, at the north side. Its inscription is in the Appendix. There is also a monument to John Richmond in Galston Churchyard.

Gavin Wotherspoon, mentioned in a note of the Compilers, was an intimate friend of James Renwick. He was a man of large stature, and once when in company with Renwick, both were surprised and pursued by the soldiers. In his flight he lost his shoe, which his pursuers picked up, and seeing it to be very large, they concluded he must be a very strong man whose foot filled it, and that it would be dangerous for their small number to attack him, and thus both he and Renwick escaped. One of the best of Renwick's letters is that called forth by a letter which Gavin Wotherspoon had received from Robert Langlands, who had separated from and maligned the societies. Renwick answered the letter. In it occurs the often-quoted passage,


I beg ye would not give ear to busy bodies and tale bearers, their whispering in your ears. Such have had no small hand in widening of our breaches. I wish they may have pardon of God for what they have done. O that the Lord's elect were agreeing together in truth! O that all these that shall agree in heaven, were agreeing upon earth! I think if my blood could be a means to procure it, I could willingly offer it up upon that account. But I speak as a fool." Gavin Wotherspoon took a prominent part in the business of the societies after the Revolution. His name occurs several times in their minutes in MS. in possession of the Reformed Presbyterian Synod.

As is the case with several of the preceding testimonies in this volurne, John Main testifies against John Gib. The reason for this was not anything worthy of notice in Gib or his followers, but the assertions of the enemies of the persecuted Presbyterians that they were identical in sentiment. Indeed, the publisher or editor of Sir George Mackenzie's "Vindication" goes so far as to put Gib's state

ment of his views alongside of the Solemn League and Covenant, in order, he says, to inform strangers of the seditious principles of the Scots Presbyterians. Hence the sufferers felt themselves called upon to repudiate the idea of their similarity, and the compilers of the "Cloud" to give prominence to their repudiation.-ED.]


HE LAST TESTIMONY of JOHN MAIN, who lived in the parish of West Monkland, and suffered at the Cross of Glasgow, March 19, 1684.

"It cannot be expected, everything considered, that ye shall have such a testimony under my hand, as ye have had from the hands of many that have gone before me; but seeing God in His infinite wisdom hath seen it fit to bring me upon the stage for truth, I thought myself bound and obliged in His sight, to testify before the world my close adherence to His written Word, and what is conform thereto.

"And first, I testify my adherence to the Bible, the Old and New Testaments, as the only and alone rule of faith and obedience. I know it stands not in need of my approbation, but to let the world know I die not as a fool, I think it my duty to assert my adherence unto it, declaring, that I take it for my only rule, rejecting the traditions of men as not canonical.

"2. I testify my adherence to the Confession of Faith (saying nothing to that fourth article of the twenty-third chapter, but only that it is misconstructed, and made use of for another end than ever the honest and faithful ministers of Christ had before them, when they gave their approbation of the same), and Catechisms Larger and Shorter, our Covenants National and Solemn League, Acknowledgment of Sins and Engagement to Duties, the Sum and Practical Use of Saving Knowledge.

"3. To the work of Reformation as it was reformed from Popery, Prelacy, and Malignancy; even to that work, as it is a direct opposition to every sin, and motive to every duty; and particularly to the remonstrances, protestations, and testimonies against the malignant party and malignant actions, they being found out to be inconsistent with and contrary to the written Word of God, and the sworn prin

ciples of the Church of Scotland, and being found to be hurtful to Christian society, not only by the effects of them, but as to the nature and quality of them, even simply considered in themselves, besides the bad effects aggravating them in the sight of the truly godly, and rightly zealous ministers and professors of this Church.

"4. To the faithful preaching of the Gospel, upon moors and mountains, and high places of the fields, and particularly the preaching down the sins of the time, and up duty.

"5. I leave my testimony to the lifting arms for personal defence, and for defence of the Gospel. For, seeing that other means were failed, and an occasion offering for that, the law both of God and nature does warrant and allow the same. I need not go to quote Scripture for the probation of it, since the whole scope of it runs upon this strain; and also ye may read several places of Scripture, particularly and expressly allowing, yea, commanding the same, and many imitable Scripture examples, where the people of God lifted arms against kings; as the people's resisting of Saul. I testify to the lawfulness of that hostile defence at Pentland and Bothwell Bridge, and several field-meetings, where they were put to it by the violent and bloody assaults of their enemies.

"6. In a word (for I study brevity, being necessitate), to all the faithful testimonies of the godly, given on scaffolds, and some other testimonies given in hostile manner, viz., the testimony given at Rutherglen, May 29, 1679, and the declarations published at Lanark, in the year 1680 and 1682. I disown and testify against the declaration published at Hamilton, in the year 1679, particularly because it takes in the interest of Charles Stuart; for though he was once king, he is now a tyrant, by his cutting the neck of the noble government established in this land, and overturning the main and fundamental conditions whereupon he was constituted; and it is notour to all in this kingdom, and I believe to part of our neighbour nations also, that he carries on a course contrary to the word of God and light of nature, and destructive to all Christian and human society; yea, a course that very heathens would abhor, even the thing itself, abstract from its aggravations.

"I come now, in short (desiring ye may pardon escapes) to let you know what I testify against.

"1. (And not to go further back) I leave my testimony against many Ministers, for their leaving their master's work at the simple command of usurpers, as if they had been only the servants of men; and I

declare my disapprobation, yea, my testimony against the sinful silence of ministers, after they had left their vineyard, where their master had placed them to labour, and their not acknowledging publicly their unfaithfulness; for which (together with their other grievous failings) the Lord is this day contending with them. I know not what plagues are so sad as to be plagued by the hand of God, by being laid aside from His work; I say, their unfaithfulness in not standing in the way of the people, when they were so generally drawn away to hear curates. Mistake me not, thinking that I look upon the people as innocent when I speak of the sins of the ministers; for I see it my duty to testify against both, and there will not one of them excuse another. But remember, that the ministers must count for the people who perish through their default.

"2. Against the ministers, their tampering with that woeful and hell-hatched Indulgence, and more particularly their accepting thereof. I testify against the actual accepters of it, and against a woeful connivance in the non-accepters of the same; whereas there ought to have been an open testifying and protesting against it. I shall study to say but little ; but I die in the faith of it, that God shall send a clear discovery of matters, and these that have betrayed their trust, and have not been as they should and ought to have been, shall see and be ashamed; but Lord grant that many may see the evil of their doings in time, and may mourn for the same, or otherwise it will be sad for them; but every one shall see first or last. But remember Esau, who found no place for repentance, though he sought it carefully with tears.

"3. Against the ministers, their woeful yielding unto and joining with the malignant party and interest at Bothwell Bridge, and their woeful yielding unto the usurpation made upon the prerogatives royal of our wronged Lord and prince Jesus Christ, by their acceptance of liberty granted after Bothwell Bridge, and taking occasion to preach in houses according to the liberty granted, refusing to preach without doors, notwithstanding of the great necessity sometimes requiring the same, and many of them refusing to preach when any of the people stood without doors; this was notourly known in the time, and I think it be not yet forgot, and however it may be forgot by us, yet I assure you, it is not forgot by a holy God. I testify against their sinful silence, and not jeoparding their lives for their wronged Lord and provoked Master, especially at the time when Mr Richard Cameron and Mr Donald Cargill went to the fields. I

testify against their condemning of these two worthies in discourse and preaching, and also in their practice. In short, against everything in ministers and professors contrary unto, or inconsistent with the Presbyterian principles of the Church of Scotland.

"4. I leave my testimony against Popery, Prelacy, and Erastianism, and everything contrary to the word of God, and particularly against Quakerism, Anabaptism, Independency, and all Sectarians and whatsoever is not warranted by the holy Scriptures.

"5. Against the imposing of that cursed Cess; not that I call cess-lifting in itself unlawful; but that cess I call unlawful, which was imposed by a corrupt convention of estates who met at Edinburgh, in the year 1673. For some things that are in themselves lawful, are sometimes so circumstantiated, as that they become unlawful; as sometimes the end of an action makes the action unlawful. I may give the cess for an instance of this, for the end of imposing it (as themselves declare) was mainly to bear down field-meetings, and other innocent associations of the people of God, disdainfully and wickedly called by them 'rendezvous of rebellion' [in the Act against Conventicles, 5th Act of Second Session of Second Parliament of Charles II., passed, Edinburgh, August 13, 1670.-ED.], which meetings all Scotland was bound to maintain; but they ought to have been in the places constitute for worship, and would have been there had bonds and engagements been conscientiously minded by all that were under them. Oh! let not this perfidious generation think that they are loosed from the ties of these Covenants; for as sure as God is in the heavens He will make them know another thing, even that it was not in their power to rescind these Covenants, and that by going about so to do, they have brought much wrath upon themselves and their posterity after them, if they repent not. But oh! do they not look like a generation of His wrath? And not to pass the bounds of charity, I fear they will be the objects of His wrath; and it will be a dreadful day, see it who will, when the wicked shall be as stubble and tow, and the wrath and vengeance of God shall seize upon them as fire, and burn them up; for they will not escape.

"6. Against the payers of the Cess; for it was a sad thing in a people (that should have opposed all courses of that kind), instead of opposing, to contribute to the carrying on of that very course that they ought to have opposed. Oh! that they would consider, and lay it to heart, and set themselves to redeem time-misspent and abused time!

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