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dreadfully misled; for how can it be otherwise? not bearing with tender consciences; for they will rather strive to break folk nor [i.e., than] build them up. But how can any that has love to Christ look on them with good-will? I do verily think, if ever they turn again, the world shall hear tell of it. It is beyond all controversy, that they have quit their first works and their first love.

Cleave to your


"Oh! will ye learn to be sober and grave. covenants and engagements; I say, mind your engagements. what becomes of covenant-breakers. I would say unto you, take no courses by the end till God give you clearness. But, indeed, I know that God will reprove many in this generation, because they put away light from them.

"Now ye are deprived of all cleanly preaching. But will ye observe Christ's answer to the spouse in the Song, when she says: 'Where makest thou thy flocks to rest at noon?' He says: 'If thou know not, Oh! thou fairest among women; go out by the shepherds' tents.' Beware of turning aside to the flocks of His


"Beware of these ministers of Charles Stuart, these Indulged, and these Prelatic, these mockers of God and contemners of the godly, these Christ-deserters, these undervaluers of heaven, these scandalous and insignificant time-servers, whom God hath blasted to the conviction of all the generation that see anything; these monsters of men, the disgrace of the ministry, the just contempt of the generation. God hath sometimes had a Church without a ministry, but He never had a ministry without a Church. Doth not the Scriptures say, that for many days Israel shall be without a priest, without teraphim? Do we not see in the Revelation the two witnesses slain, and lie three days and a half? But oh! cry to God, that He would send forth labourers into His vineyard; for verily the harvest is great, but the labourers are few. If there be a casting at [i.e., rejecting] the Gospel on the people's side, then I think they shall be in extreme hazard of losing their souls, if God's mercy prevent it not; for then they refuse to be guided by God. But if when the hireling sees the wolf come, he run away and leave the sheep, because he is an hireling, then I think the mercy of God is engaged for the sheep, because they have no shepherd. It is not the first time that Israel has been scattered as sheep having no shep herd. But it is as sure as the sun shines, none can keep himself nor guide himself; it is not in him that walketh to direct his steps.

And God hath sown a joyful light to the upright. And He has said: 'He that sitteth in darkness and hath no light, let him trust in the Lord, and stay himself upon His God.'

"But could the spouse rest in Jerusalem, and her husband not be found? It is beyond debate, that she made all the fields ado [i.e., sought over all the fields] before she wanted Him. Can the spouse see another wear her husband's clothes and be well satisfied?—yea, one that has robbed, spoiled, and shut him to the doors with disgrace, contempt, and shame, and as one unworthy to manage the affairs of his own house; and has defied him to take anything back again, and has set up legs and arms, heads and hands, and quarters of the children as trophies of victory over the good-man of the house, and has triumphed with spite and contempt, and is only seeking it off the poor widow, the wife and the bairns, to be quiet, and accept of him for a husband and father. So I say, shal! the wife and children of such a husband and father be peaceable to see this? I trow [i.e., believe] there are few earthly folk would do so.

"But oh! who can show the difference here? As to searching out, it cannot be. The Lord keep you from dwelling at ease under one roof with such an one. Beware of making any treaty of peace with such a robber and murderer as this. Beware of feeding these his soldiers, or giving them quarters when they come to your houses. Oh! but the kings of Assyria knew well enough that the kings of Israel were merciful kings! If ye will not use the sword at God's bidding, God will put it (as He hath) into the hands of His and your enemies, to use it against you. Indeed I think, till Saul's sons be hanged up before the Lord, the plague of famine shall not be stayed from Israel.

"Now, in the next place, I witness, by this my testimony, my adherence to the Scriptures of truth, the holy Bible, the Old and New Testaments, which have been made sweet to me. The fault is not in them that we understand them not, but in us; and this we have as our old father Adam's heirship.

"I witness my adherence to the Covenants, National and Solemn League; Confession of Faith; only there is in it something concerning the magistrate calling a synod of ministers, by virtue of his magistratical power, which ought to be cautiously understood, according to the General Assembly's explication.

"I adhere to the Catechisms, Larger and Shorter, Psalms in metre, Directory for Worship, Form of Church Government, the doctrine of

the Church of Scotland as it is held out in the word of God, and laid down in the foresaid papers.

"I adhere to all the faithful testimonies for truth in Scotland, of one sort and another, and particularly these three, the papers found at the Queensferry, of the date the 3d of June [1680], the Sanquhar Declaration, the Rutherglen Testimony, and every paper tending to the good of religion, particularly the Causes of God's Wrath; and I request all to read and consider them.

"I leave my testimony against them that say, that I am a selfmurderer, because I spake that which God gave me to speak before His adversaries. And I think that it is my great mercy, that He hath helped me to be free before them in matters of truth, relating to the disowning of them, and standing to our God's and our own rights.

"This paper I leave as my testimony and formed and deliberate thoughts; and request all to bear with faults of weakness, especially when the sword of the adversary is above a man's head.

"Now farewell world, and all things in it. Welcome Lord Jesus Christ; into thy hands I recommend my spirit.

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JOHN HOWIE in his "Scots Worthies," has given a life of Robert Garnock, taken from a manuscript autobiography written by him while in prison. It is one of the most interesting lives in the volume. He was a smith or hammerman in Stirling. Patrick Walker says he was esteemed by all to be a singular Christian, of deep exercise, high attainments, great knowledge and experience in the way of the Lord. He was apprehended at Stirling May 8, 1679, shortly after a skirmish between upwards of sixty sol

diers and a small number of people who were assembling for a field-preaching in the neighbourhood. He lay in prison for more than two years untried. At last he was tried, October 7, 1681, along with Patrick Forman, David Farrie, James Stuart, and Alexander Russel, whose testimonies follow Garnock's in this volume. George Lapslay, who signed along with them a joint protestation to the jury, had his trial delayed, November 7; but in the interval he escaped from prison.

The substance of Garnock's indictment is in Wodrow. With the other four he was sentenced to be hanged at the Gallowlee. Forman's right hand was to be cut off before death, and the hands and the heads of the others after death. Wodrow says that the sentence was executed against all of them at the Gallowlee, and the reason of this change of place was, that the executions at the Cross and Grassmarket drew so many spectators, and the carriage and last speeches of the sufferers made such an impression, that it was found advisable to take them out of town, to a place where some of the most notorious criminals used to be hanged.

The Gallowlee was in Leith Walk, half-way between Edinburgh and Leith. It was a slight rising ground formed of sand, near the site of the toll-house, and on the west side of the road. When the New Town of Edinburgh was in the course of building, the sand of the Gallowlee was an object of value for mortar, so that, instead of being a rising ground, it became a hollow, and is now a nursery garden. It was the usual place where were suspended all criminals whose bodies were sentenced to be hung in chains. But the bodies of Robert Garnock and his four companions were buried at the gallows foot.

Patrick Walker gives a vivid description of their execution, of what was done with their remains that evening, and of their reinterment many years afterwards:

"The never-to-be-forgotten Mr James Renwick told me that he was witness to this public murder at the Gallowlee, betwixt Leith and Edinburgh, where he saw the hangman hash and hag off all their five heads, with Patrick Forman's right hand. Their bodies were all buried at the gallows foot. Their heads, with Patrick's hand, were brought and put upon five pikes on the Pleasance Port. Some honest old men told me of late, that they were witness to the same, and saw the hangman drive down their heads to the foot of the pike, and thereby broke their skulls. Mr Renwick told me also that it was the first public action that his hand was at, to convene

friends, and lift their murdered bodies, and carry them to the West Churchyard of Edinburgh, and bury them there. Then they came about the city to the Nether Bow Port, with a design to take the heads, hands, and other parts of our martyrs' bodies, down; but a woman, holding over a candle to let some people see the street, marred them. Then they took down these five heads and that hand; and the day being come, they went quickly up the Pleasance, and when they came to Lauristoun Yards, upon the south side of the city, they durst not venture, being so light, to go and bury their heads with their bodies, which they designed; it being present death, if any of them had been found. Alexander Tweedie, a friend, being with them, who at that time was gardener in these Yards, concluded to bury them in his yard, being in a box (wrapped in linen), where they lay forty-five years, except three days, being executed upon the tenth of October 1681, and found the 7th day of October 1726.

"That piece of ground for some years lay unlaboured; and, trenching it, the gardener found them, which affrighted him; the box was consumed. Mr Schaw, the owner of these yards, caused lift them, and lay them upon a table in his summer house. Mr Schaw's mother was so kind as to cut out a linen cloth, and cover them. They lay twelve days there, where all had access to see them. Alexander Tweedie, the foresaid gardener, said, when dying, there was a treasure hid in his yard, but neither gold nor silver. Daniel Tweedie, his son, came along with me to that yard, and told me that his father planted a white rose bush above them, and further down the yard a red rose bush, which were more fruitful than any other bush in the yard. And he is persuaded that some others of our martyrs' heads were buried there, as Archibald Stewart, John Potter, William Cuthill, William Thomson; and others whose heads were fixed upon the West Port, but shortly taken away by friends.

"There were six of us concluded to bury them up, on the 19th day of October 1726, and every one of us to acquaint friends of the day and hour, being Wednesday, the day of the week upon which most of them were executed, and at four of the clock at night, being the hour that most of them went to their resting graves. We caused make a complete coffin for them in black, with four yards of fine linen, the way our martyr-corpses were managed. And having the happiness of friendly magistrates at the time, we went to the present Provost Drummond and Bailie Nimmo, and acquainted them with our conclusions anent them; with which they were pleased, and said,

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