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This conduct of the Irish prelates has drawn upon them the severe reprehension of Bayle, in which he has been followed by many other writers. He says: "Vous remarquerez, s'il vous plait, qu'Usserus et ses sufragans agirent selon les principes de l'intolerance la plus outrée; car ils ne se fonderent point sur des maximes d'Etat, comme font les intolerans mitigez. Ils se fonderent uniquement sur la qualité des cultes de la communion Romaine, sans faire mention de son esprit persecutant, qui est la seule cause pourquoi les tolerans mêmes supposent qu'il ne la faut point tolerer." Bayle is undoubtedly mistaken in his statement with respect to the advocates of toleration. Milton, in his Essay on Toleration, expressly excepts the Romanists on the ground of their idolatry alone. The authority or example of Miltonm would, however, be a bad defence for the Irish bishops. Their best defence is to be found in the state of affairs at that period. The suspension of the Acts prohibiting Roman Catholics from the free exercise of their religion has already been noticed". The effect of this toleration had been to raise the spirits of the Roman Catholics beyond all just bounds, and to excite them not only to display, in an offensive manner, the celebration of their own ritual, but to interrupt the services of the Reformed Church. The bishops were, not without cause, alarmed at the consequences which were likely to ensue, if, instead of a suspension of the laws against them, actual power should be vested in the Roman Catholics, and they were deeply impressed with the conviction that it was a great sin to sell this toleration for money, that it was, in fact, "to set religion to sale." But

" Dr. Aikin, in his Life of Ussher, assigns as the reason for Milton's inconsistency, "his familiarity with the Jewish Scriptures." This is certainly an extraordinary statement. But this advocate of liberality can find one class of men who are to be restrained from interference in public matters. The bishops are not to be allowed to give an opinion in the political concerns of the nation, because "they are influenced by peculiar interests and prejudices." To carry out this principle, all persons ought to be excluded, who had any prejudice in favour of one system of Christianity in preference to another, and our legislators ought to be universal philanthropists, Infidels, or Deists.

" See pag. 21.

that they did not wish to put in force the laws against recusants, is placed beyond doubt by expressions used subsequently by Archbishop Ussher, in his speech at the Privy Council, for he there urges all "to refer it unto the sacred heart of his Majesty how far he will be pleased to abridge or extend his favor of whose lenity in forbearing to execute the Statute, our recusants have found such experience, that they cannot expect greater liberty, by giving any thing that is demanded, than now already they do freely enjoy." In fact, the bishops wanted no more than that the recusants should have the free exercise of their religion as a matter of favor or connivance, not of right; that the legislature should not by any public act give its sanction to a religion which they considered idolatrous. In the age when it occurred, and under the provocations which they had suffered, the exemption from punishment for celebrating the rites of a religion not sanctioned by the State was as much as could be expected, much more than a few years after was granted by the Parliament of England.

The protestation of the bishops had a considerable effect in retarding the project of selling toleration to the Recusants: but as a contribution was absolutely necessary to the success of the King's affairs, Lord Falkland requested the Primate, "in regard of the great esteem in which he was held by both parties, to declare in a speech to the whole assembly the true state of the kingdom and the necessity of a standing army for the defence thereof against any foreign invasion or intestine commotion, and consequently that a competent supply was needful to be granted for that purpose, and that without any consideration whatsoever as well by the Roman Catholic, as Protestant subjects." The Primate was very ready to undertake this office, as it would remove all suspicion of the purity of his conduct, and prove his affection for the service of the monarch. The Lord Deputy summoned the Assembly at the Council Chamber in Dublin Castle, on the 30th of April, when the Primate delivered the following able speech:

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"My Lord, "The resolution of those Gentlemen in denying to contribute unto the supplying of the army, sent hither for their defence, doth put me in mind of the Philosopher's observation,That such as have a respect to a few things, are easily misled:' The present pressure which they sustain by the imposition of the Souldiers, and the desire they have to be eased of that burthen, doth so wholly possess their minds, that they have only an eye to the freeing of themselves from that incumbrance, without looking at all to the desolations, that are like to come upon them by a long and heavy war, which the having of an army in readiness, might be a means to have prevented; the lamentable effects of our last wars in this Kingdom, do yet freshly stick in our memories: neither can we so soon forget the depopulation of our Land, when besides the combustions of war, the extremity of famine grew so great, that the very women in some places by the way side, have surprised the men that rode by, to feed themselves with the flesh of the horse, or the rider: And that now again here is a storm towards, wheresoever it will light, every wise man may easily foresee, which if we be not careful to meet with in time, our State may prove irrecoverable, when it will be too late to think of, Had I wist.

"The dangers that now threaten us, are partly from abroad, and partly from home; abroad, we are now at odds with two of the most potent Princes in Christendom; and to both which, in former times, the discontented persons in this Country have had recourse heretofore, profferring the Kingdom it self unto them, if they would undertake the conquest of it: for it is not unknown unto them that look into the search of those things, that in the days of King Henry the Eighth, the Earl of Desmond made such an offer of this Kingdom to the French King, (the instrument whereof yet remains upon record in the Court of Paris) and the Bishop of Rome afterwards transferred the title of all our Kingdoms unto Charles the Fifth, which by new grants was confirmed unto his Son Philip, in the time of Queen Elizabeth, with a resolution to settle this Crown

upon the Spanish Infanta: Which donations of the Pope's, howsoever in themselves they are of no value, yet will they serve for a fair colour to a potent Pretender, who is able to supply by the power of the sword, whatsoever therein may be thought defective. Hereunto may we add, that of late, in Spain, at the very same time, when the treaty of the match was in hand, there was a book published with great approbation there, by one of this Country birth, Philip O'Sullevan, wherein the Spaniard is taught, that the ready way to establish his Monarchy (for that is the only thing he mainly aimeth at, and is plainly there confessed) is, first to set upon Ireland, which being quickly obtained, the conquest of Scotland, next of England, then of the Low countries, is foretold, with great facility will follow after.

"Neither have we more cause in this regard to be afraid of a foreign invasion, than to be jealous of a domestick rebellion. Where, lest I be mistaken, as your Lordships have been lately, I must of necessity put a difference betwixt the inhabitants of this Nation; some of them are descended of the race of the ancient English, or otherwise hold their Estates from the crown, and have possessions of their own to stick unto, who easily may be trusted against a foreign invader, although they differ from the State in matter of Religion: For proof of which fidelity in this kind, I need go no further than the late wars in the time of the Earl of Tyrone, wherein they were assaulted with as powerful temptations to move them from their loyalty, as possibly hereafter can be presented unto them: For, at that time, not only the King of Spain did confederate himself with the Rebels, and landed his forces here for their assistance, but the Bishop of Rome also, with his Breves, and Bulls, solicited our Nobility, and Gentry, to revolt from their obedience to the Queen, declaring that the English did fight against the Catholick Religion, and ought to be repugned as much as the Turks, imparting the same favours to such as should set upon them, that he doth unto such as fight against the Turks; and finally, promising unto them, that the God of Peace would tread down their

enemies under their feet speedily. And yet for all the Pope's promises, and threatnings, which were also seconded by a declaration of the Divines of Salamanca and Valladolid, not only the Lords and Gentelmen did constantly continue their allegiance unto the Queen, but also were encouraged so to do by the Priests of the Pale, that were of the Popish profession: who were therefore vehemently taxed by the traytor O Sullevan, for exhorting them to follow the Queen's side; which he is pleased to term "Insanam, & venenosam doctrinam, & tartareum dogma; a mad and venemous doctrine, and a hellish opinion." But besides these, there are a great number of Irish, who either bear a secret grudge against the English, planted amongst them, or having nothing at all to lose upon the first occasion, are apt to joyn with any foreign invader; for we have not used that policy in our Plantations, that wise States have used in former times. They, when they settled new Colonies in any place, did commonly translate the ancient inhabitants to other dwellings. We have brought new planters into the land, and have left the old inhabitants to shift for themselves; who being strong in body, and daily increasing in number, and seeing themselves deprived of their means and maintenance, which they and their ancestors have formerly injoyed; will undoubtedly be ready, when occasion is offer'd, to disturb our quiet; whether then we cast our eyes abroad, or look at home, we see our danger is very great.

"Neither may you, My Lords, and Gentlemen, that differ from us in point of Religion, imagine that the community of profession will exempt you, more than us, from the danger of a common enemy. Whatsoever you may expect from a foreigner, you may conjecture by the answer which the Duke of Medina Sidonia gave in this case in 88; That his sword knew no difference between a Catholick and a Heretick, but that he came to make way for his Master: And what kindness you may look for from the countrymen that joyn with them, you may judge, as well by the carriage which they ordinarily use towards you and yours, both in the Court, and in the Colledges abroad, as by the advice not long since presented by them unto the Council



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