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he expected a return of his rents, so that he was forced for his present supply to sell or pawn all the plate and jewels he had; this, though a very great tryal, yet made not any change in his natural temper and heavenly disposition, still submitting to God's providence with Christian patience and magnanimity, having long before learned to use the things of this world, as if he used them not; and in whatsoever condition he was, therewith to be content." In the January following he obtained a temporary provision, by a grant from the king, of the see of Carlislee in commendam, vacant by the death of Dr. Potter. The provision, however, was not of any great value, as the revenues of the see were impaired by the encampments of the English and Scottish armies on the borders, and was but of short duration, as the Parliament soon seized upon all the episcopal lands.

Dr. Bernard states that the Primate received from the University of Leyden an offer of the place of Honorary Professor, with a salary larger than had usually been attached to it, and also one from the Cardinal Richelieu to

e "Letters wrote to Dr. Nat. Ellison by Mr. John Nicholson from Rose Castle in Cumberland, Oct. 9, 1703, about Archbishop Usher being Bishop of Carlisle.

"I have now looked into our Register and Court rolls and find that a court was kept at Linstock in Bishop Potters name 13 May 1641 (in which year he dyed) and 16 Feb. 7 Car. I. 1641 a grant to Archbishop Usher of the Bishoprick of Carlisle to be held in commendam with Armagh &c. The letters patent registered here 13 June 1642, the said Archbishop, as Bishop of Carlisle, granted a commission (under his archiepiscopal seal) unto Mr. Isaac Singleton Archdeacon and Chancellor, Dr. Lanc. Dawes, Mr. Rich. Smith, Mr. Lewis West, and Mr. Frederick Tunstall, prebendaries then of Carlisle, Will. Richardson B. D., John Hasty, Lanc. Lowther, Will. Fairfax, Chr. Peale, Charles Usher and Simo Tullie Cl. A. M. for giving institutions in his absence and to visit &c. Severall institutions were accordingly dispatched in the Archbishop's name, the last of which (as here registered) is dated 3 Nov. 1643. He disposed of one of the Prebends of Carlisle to one Mr. Hen. Hutton, the 16 Septr. 1643. There were severall courts held in his Grace's name and tenants admitted &c. but I do not find or have ever heard, that he was here in person. He seems to have had the revenue of this Bishoprick for about two years, which was collected and managed for him by one Captain or Mr. Sharpe.”—Bliss. Ed. of Wood's Athen., vol. iv. pag. 799.

settle in France, where he should enjoy a pension and freedom of religion. However, there is some doubt as to either of these offers having been made, for Dr. Parr states he never heard the Primate mention them. Dr. Smith accounts for the anecdote of Cardinal Richelieu from the fact, that, on the publication of the work De Primordiis Ecclesiarum Britanniarum, the Cardinal sent the Primate a gold medal of considerable value, bearing his likeness, accompanied with a complimentary letter. The Primate, in return, sent the Cardinal a present of two Irish greyhounds, probably the celebrated wolf-dogs. D'Alembert has mentioned this present from the Primate, and considers it as a witty reprimand; but this could never have entered the Primate's mind, and would have been a bad return for so marked a civility. A very slight notice of an invitation to the Primate from the Regent Queen of France, Anne of Austria, appears in a letter of his to Dr. Arnold Brate, dated November, 1651. The whole is contained in these words, "I haves made known to the Queen of France that there can be no possible expectation of my removing to those quarters."

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A solemn fast having been ordered for the 22nd of December, 1641, the Primate preached before the House of Lords. Soon after a bookseller in London published the sermon from notes that he had taken, under the title of Vox Hiberniæ. The Primate petitioned the House of Lords to suppress the work:

"To the Rt Honourable the House of Peeres now assembled in Parliament, the humble petition of James, Archbishop of Armagh.

f"Le Cardinal de Richelieu sensible à toutes les espèces de gloire, ou, si l'on veut, de vanité, avoit aussi voulu pour se faire panegyristes dans toute l'Europe, donner des pensions à quelques savans étrangers. Il en offrit une au savant Usserius, archevêque d'Armagh en Irlande, et très peu riche, tout archevêque qu'il etoit, car l'opulence, disoit il, est reservée aux prelats catholiques. Usserius au lieu d'accepter la gracieuse proposition du Cardinal, lui envoya des lévriers, espèce des chiens qui est excellente in Irlande; cette fière et plaisante réponse dégoûta le ministre de faire à d'autres de pareilles offres, et de s'exposer à un pareil remerciment."-Euvres d'Alembert, tom. ix. p. 224.

8 Letter 294, Works, vol. xvi. pag. 203.

"Humbly Sheweth,

"That whereas your Lordships were pleased to employ your Petitioner in preaching before you on the Fast Day, the 22 of December last (which service, according to his meane abilitie, he was carefull to perform :) so it is that one John Nicholson having got into his hands a collection of some rude and incoherent notes of that sermon, tooke the boldness to publish the same (under the title of Vox Hiberniæ) as a true relation of that which was uttered before your Lordships that day. Which, being in many places void of common sense, and in the whole every way unanswerable to what was fit to be delivered before so Honourable and judicious an audience.

"His humble request is, that your Lordships would be pleased to call in that supposititious pamphlet, &c. &c." Die Veneris, 11 Feb. 1641.

"Ordered by the Lords in Parliament, that a Booke concerning the L. Archbishop of Armagh, being published and printed by John Nicholson, shall be called in and suppressed.

"To the Wardens and company

of the Stationers of London.


"Cleric. Parliam."

In this year a collection of Tracts in defence of Episcopacy was published at Oxford, which were selected from the writings of distinguished English divines, Hooker, Andrews, and Meerwood. In this collection appeared two

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h Milton published a reply to the tracts in this collection, with the title, "Of prelatical episcopacy, and whether it may be deduced from the apostolical times by virtue of those testimonies which are alledged to that purpose in some late treatises; one whereof goes under the name of James Archbishop of Armagh.' Dr. Johnson remarks upon this: "I have transcribed this title to shew by his contemptuous mention of Usher, that he had now adopted the puritanical savageness of manners." This answer was soon followed by "The Reason of Church Government urged against Prelacy," which was particularly directed against Bishop Andrews and Primate Ussher, and is written in the scurrilous and irreverent strain which distinguishes all the writings of Milton against episcopacy. He discovers in it that "Lucifer was the first prelate angel;" and, though writ

tracts of Archbishop Ussher, one "the Original of Bishops and Metropolitans briefly laid down;" the other “ A geographical and historical Disquisition touching the Asia properly so called.” The first of these the Primate wrote at the request of Bishop Hall; and in it he demonstrates, from the writings of the Fathers of the second and third century, that the succession of Bishops can be deduced from the days of the apostles; that by "the angels of the seven churches" are to be understood "seven singular bishops who were the constant presidents over these

ing by name against two such distinguished individuals, he ventures to say, "it were a great folly to seek for counsel in a hard intricate scruple from a dunce prelate, when there might be found a speedier solution from a grave and learned minister." In Milton's eyes, all the learning and virtues of Andrews and Ussher were annihilated by their acceptance of the episcopal office. Johnson was not too severe when he said, "Such is the controversial merriment of Milton; his gloomy seriousness is yet more offensive. Such is his malignity that hell grows darker at his frown.” ' The request was conveyed in the following letter :

"To the Most Reverend Father in God, and my Most Honoured Lord, the Lord Arch Bishop of Armagh, and Primate of Ireland.


'Most Reverend, and my most worthily Honoured Lord.

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That which fell from me yesterday suddenly and transcursively, hath since taken up my after-midnight thoughts, and I must crave leave, what I then moved, to importune, that your Grace would be pleased to bestow one sheet of paper upon these distracted times, in the subject of Episcopacie, shewing the Apostolical original of it, and the grounds of it from Scripture, and the immediately succeeding antiquity; Every line of it coming from your Grace's hand would be super rotas suas :' as Solomons expression is, very Apples of Gold, with Pictures of Silver, and more worth than volumes from us: Think, that I stand before you like the Man of Macedon, and that you heare me say, Come and help us: And as your Grace is wholly given up to the common good of the Church, say, whether you can deny it? and if it please your Grace to take your rise from my humble motion to expresse your self in this question, wherein I am publikely interested, or otherwise, to professe your voluntary resolutions for the setling of many, either misled, or doubting soules, it will be the most acceptable, and (I hope) the most successefull work, that your Grace hath ever undertaken; It was my earnest motion long ago to (μɛyas ris) to intreat this labour from your Grace, which now comes from my meannesse; your gratious humility will not even from so low hands disregard it; with my zealous suit, and hopefull expectation of a yielding answer, I humbly take leave, and am

"Your Graces humbly, and heartily devoted

"Jos. Exon."


churches ;" and that these seven cities were metropolitical, to which several neighbouring towns were subject,—an arrangement which took place in other parts of the Roman empire, in conformity with the civil divisions, so that there can be no doubt of the existence of an archiepiscopal government, according to the ancient canons of the Church.

In his disquisition touching Asia, he clearly pointed out the distinction between Asia Minor and the Lydian Asia, so often mentioned in the New Testament, which, by ecclesiastical and other writers, was frequently called Proconsular Asia and the Asian diocese. The provinces of Asia Minor were distinguished by Cicero into four, Phrygia, Mysia, Caria, and Lydia, by which division he must have comprehended Æolia and Ionia under Mysia and Lydia. The Primate then proceeds to prove, that the Asia mentioned in the New Testament, and more particularly the seven Churches, are contained within the limits of Lydia, and that each of these seven cities was a metropolis, and that they were made choice of to be the seats of the principal Churches, in consequence of the civil division of the country.

In the next chapter he points out the changes which occurred in the distribution of the provinces, from the time of Augustus to that of Constantine. In the time of Augustus the Proconsular Asia extended as far as the division pointed out by Cicero ; but in the reign of Constantine it was confined within the bounds of the Lydian Asia, and a distinction was made between the Proconsular Asia and the Asian diocese, the one being put under the command of the Proconsul of Asia, and the other under the government of the Vicarius of Asia or the Asian diocese. Nor did the variations cease with the reign of Constantine; many changes were made in the reigns of succeeding Emperors.

It appears that, when under the first Emperors there were several metropolitical cities in the same province, great disputes arose between the different cities of Proconsular Asia respecting precedency. Constantine, in order to

* Orat. pro Flacco.

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