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him to perform his duty; and when the plague broke out in Dublin, with shameful cowardice he deserted his place, and fled to England, leaving the College to the care of James Ussher. While such were the men selected for the Provostship, we find the notorious Humfrey Fenn, after having escaped from the punishment inflicted upon him along with Cartwright, coming over to Dublin and assisting Dr. Chaloner in his parish, while an allowance was given to him from the College. These examples must have exercised a most pernicious influence upon the minds of the young students in divinity, and it is only surprising that any germ of affection for the doctrine and discipline of the Church of England could have survived in so corrupted an atmosphere. In Ussher we shall see that, however apparent were the traces of early associations, yet, in later years, the effects of this prava disciplina were almost obliterated. The pernicious practice which marred the early progress of the Irish University extended over the whole Irish Church. Whenever a man became so troublesome that it was necessary to get rid of him, whenever powerful interest claimed promotion for an individual whom the Government were ashamed to promote in England, he was sent over to Ireland, and obtained a high station in its Church. This state of things continued after the Restoration; the abuse was strongly and frequently complained of by Primate Boulter, and traces of it have existed even in the memory of the present generation.

As Catechist Ussher distinguished himself in a very remarkable manner. Every week he explained the pure principles of the Christian religion, as professed and maintained by the reformed Churches, in opposition to the errors which had mixed themselves with primitive Christianity in the creed of the Roman Catholic Church; and this task he performed with such a display of accurate knowledge on the most controverted subjects, and such a readiness and fluency of expression, that his friends anxiously pressed him to appear in the pulpit. This he steadily refused, pleading his youth as a sufficient excuse, until he was called forward by an appointment which compelled him to appear in public. Such



was the scarcity of qualified preachers, that when it became necessary to appoint persons to preach at Christ's Church, before the members of the Irish government, a selection was made of three lay Masters of Arts in Trinity College. The persons selected were James Ussher, Abel Walsh, and John Richardson". The duty imposed upon Richardson was to preach every Wednesday, and explain the prophecies of Isaiah. Walsh was to preach on Sundays, in the forenoon, and establish the principal points of theology from the sacred Scriptures. Ussher preached in the afternoon of Sunday, on the principal points of controversy with the Roman Catholic Church. "His part, says Dr. Bernard, "was to handle the controversies for the satisfaction of the Papists, which he did so perspicuously, ever concluding with matter of exhortation, that it was much for the confirmation and edification of the Protestants, which the elder sort of persons living in my time I have heard often acknowledging."

Ussher did not continue long in this strange situation": he felt strong scruples at discharging the office of a preacher without being admitted into holy orders, and procured the removal of the only impediment, want of canonical age, by a special dispensation. He was ordained deacon and

John Richardson was born in England, but educated in Trinity College, Dublin, of which he was first a Scholar and afterwards a Fellow. When Bishop Bedell resigned the bishopric of Ardagh, in order to discourage pluralities, Dr. Richardson was appointed Bishop of Ardagh in 1633; but he certainly did not follow the example of his predecessor, for he held in commendam the archdeaconry of Derry, the rectory of Ardstraw, and the vicarage of Granard. He was distinguished for his acquaintance with the sacred Scriptures; and his Commentaries on the Book of Genesis were published after his death, at the special request of Archbishop Ussher, who bore this strong testimony to his acquirements: "Publici Christi ministerii actus per quatuor Paschata distincta ex quatuor Evangeliorum harmonia hic exhibemus, a viro eruditissimo et in sacrarum literarum studiis longe exercitatissimi, Joanne Richardson, S. Theologiæ Doctore et Ardachadensis in provincia nostra Armachana Ecclesiæ episcopo dignissimo concinnata."-Works, vol. x. p. 532.

Dr. Parr, in his Life of Ussher, makes the appointment to preach at Christ's Church subsequent to his ordination, and in this he has been followed by others; but it is undoubtedly a mistake. The order of events was as here given.

priest on the fourth Sunday in Advent, 1601, by his uncle, Henry Archbishop of Armagh. The first sermon he preached before the State after his ordination was on the 24th of December, which was set apart by special command to pray for the success of the army against the Spaniards, and happened to be the very day of the victory at Kinsale. His text was, "Thou hast a name that thou livest and art dead."

The enforcement of the Act of Uniformity in Ireland had been dormant for many years. The policy of Elizabeth's reign is clearly expressed in the instructions which were sent to Lord Mountjoy, with respect to the demand made for a free toleration of religion by the northern rebels: "Ford Sir Arthur O'Neal's demands," say the Lords of the English Council to the Lord Deputy, "in the first point concerning religion, her Majesty bore with it, because she took it to proceed of his ignorance, not of presumption, only wishing the Lord Deputy to let him see that her Majesty pursued none in those parts for religion, and so to satisfy him, but in no wise by any contract or condition." The attempt to enforce rigidly attendance upon the reformed worship would have been as useless as impolitic. The counsellors of Elizabeth had induced her to sacrifice the very principles of the English Reformation to the scheme of extirpating the Irish language, by enacting that, where a sufficient number did not understand English, Divine service should be performed in Latin, but by no means in Irish. Even in those days of spiritual severity it would have appeared absurdly arbitrary to insist upon attendance where the people could not understand, where there were few teachers to instruct, and where, even of those few, the greater part were scandalously unfit for their sacred office. It appears, then, that the High Commission Court in Ireland did not, as it professed, inspect and reform all offences committed against the Acts of the 2nd of Eliz. It was content with the ordinary instructions to the provincial governors of Ireland: "In all times and in all places where

d Moryson, B. i., chap. ii., p. 67, Ed. 1617.

any great assembly should be made before them, to persuade the people, by all good means and ways, to their seeming good, and especially by their own examples, to observe all orders for Divine Service; and to embrace, and devoutly to observe, the order and services of the Church Established in the realm by Parliament or otherwise." However, after the battle of Kinsale, the hopes of the Roman Catholics were destroyed, and they appear to have submitted themselves to the laws by attending, in great numbers, the different churches. To provide instruction for these numerous congregations, the Lord Deputy and Council directed the different clergymen to distribute themselves among the churches of Dublin, and preach a sermon in the afternoon of every Lord's day. For this purpose James Ussher was appointed to preach in the Church of St. Catherine, where he arranged the heads of each discourse into questions and answers for the following Sunday, on which day many persons of mature age voluntarily presented themselves to repeat the answers before the whole congregation, and thus raised the attention, and contributed to the instruction, of the Roman Catholics present. It is said that the effect of these regulations was such, that not only in Dublin, but in different parts of the kingdom, the Roman Catholics were so diligent in attending divine service, that if on any day they were prevented from being present, they made an apology to the churchwardens. This state of affairs did not continue long. The English government were anxious to prove that they did not persecute for religion, and sent to put a stop to what they deemed an unwarrantable exercise of authority. Lord Mountjoy, the Lord Deputy, in a letter, dated February 26th, 1602–3, thus expresses his satisfaction at the instructions: "And" whereas it pleased your Lordships in your last letters to command us to deal moderately in the great matter of religion, I had, before the receipt of your Lordships letters, presumed to advise such as dealt in it, for a time to hold a more restrained hand therein, and we were both thinking

e Moryson, B. iii., chap. i., p. 267.

ourselves, what course to take in the revocation of what was already done, with least encouragement to them and others, since the fear that this course begun in Dublin would fall upon the rest, was apprehended over all the kingdom, so that I think your Lordships direction was to great purpose, and the other course might have overthrown the means to our own end of reformation of religion. Not that I think too great preciseness can be used in the reforming of ourselves, the abuses of our own clergy, Church livings, or discipline, nor that the truth of the Gospel can with too great vehemence or industry be set forward in all places, and by all ordinary means most proper unto itself, that was set forth and spread in meekness, nor that I think any corporal prosecution or punishment can be too severe for such as shall be found seditious instruments of foreign or inward practices, nor that I think it fit, that any principal magistrates should be chosen without taking the oath of obedience, nor tolerated in absenting themselves from publick divine service, but that we may be advised how we do punish in their bodies or goods any such only for religion, as do profess to be faithful subjects to her Majesty, and against whom the contrary cannot be proved'."

'It appears however, that this pecuniary mulct was not entirely given up, for, in a petition presented to the King, in the year 1613, against the Lord Deputy, it is stated, among other grievances, "that the Statute made the 2nd of Elizabeth, laying a penalty of 12d. every Sunday and holiday for not going to church, is put strictly in execution in many places; but the said money, being a matter of great value over the whole kingdom, is not employed upon the poor, according to the Statute, but brought into the hands of the clerks of those courts, but how they dispose it the parishioners or churchwardens know not." And the Lord Deputy, answering this charge, states, "that the Statute of Recusants hath of late been put in execution in the county of Dublin more strictly than in any other county, in regard the eyes of all the kingdom are upon it, and attend what course the inhabitants of this county will take, to the end they may follow the same. Howbeit, there hath not been levied upon the recusants of this county within these twelve months last past above £14 or £15, or thereabouts; by reason that most of them that were prosecuted did choose rather to come to church than to pay the penalty of 12d. a Sunday; upon which conformity all arrears were remitted unto them; which course, if it be continued in the county as it is begun, and be

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