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whom we may name Gerard Winstanley, William Everard, William Earbury, Richard Coppin, and others. About this time, the work entitled, "Eternal Hell Torments Overthrown," was written and published by Samuel Richardson. Soon after this, Jeremy White, who had been à chaplain to Cromwell, published a book in defence of Universalism, entitled, "The Restoration of all Things." Shortly after, and not far from 1700, several eminent men came out against the doctrine of eternal torments, among whom we may name Dr. Henry More, Archbishop Tillotson, Dr. Thomas Burnet, and William Whiston. Dr. Burnet wrote decidedly in favor, of Universalism, in a work entitled, "De Statu Mortuorum." Sir Isaac Newton inclined to the same doctrine. Dr. George Cheyne and the Chevalier Ramsay, both distinguished men, came out in favor of that sentiment. Paul Siegvolk, a learned Geriman, published a work-in defence of the same point, as did also John William Petersen. Many others, very learned men, in Germany, embraced this doctrine. It spread also in Holland, Switzerland, Ireland, and Scotland. In the latter country, Neil Douglass and James Purves distinguished themselves as the defenders and preachers of the doctrine. To return to England, we may name, as eminent Universalists, Dr. David Hart-. ley, who wrote the "Observations on Man," Bishop Thomas Newton, Sir George Stonehouse, John Henderson, James Brown, D. D., Rev. R. Barbauld, and his accomplished lady, Mrs. Anna Letitia Barbauld, the authoress, and Rev. John Brown. Among the English Unitarians we may mention Rev. Theophilus Lindsey, Rev. Joseph Priestley, L: L. D., Rev. John Simpson, and Rev. Messrs. Kenrick, Wright, Estlin, Belsham, Carpenter, Aspland, Grundy, Scott, Fox, Harris, and many others.
James Relly began to preach Universalism in the city of London about 1750, and gathered a congregation of believers there. The celebrated JOHN MURRAY was converted under Mr. Relly's labors, having
formerly been a Methodist. In 1770, Mr. Murray came to America, and was soon called on to preach the doctrine of a world's salvation. He labored abundantly in the good cause, as did also Elhanan Winchester, a convert from the Baptists. The Universalists of the United States are under great obligations to these two men ; and should always respect and venerate their memories. There are now in the United States nearly five hundred preachers of Universalism, and the number of believers, and societies, and churches, is continually increasing.
V. It will be seen, from what has been said, that the views of those persons, who suppose that Universalism was not known until quite recently, are erroneous. is no new doctrine. It had its advocates in the earliest ages of the church, and, with the exception of the dark ages, it has had them ever since. Universalism can claim great antiquity. It has also been embraced and defended by some of the most learned and pious men the world hath ever seen.
It is also worthy of remark, that the Christian Fathers defended Universalism as the doctrine of the sacred Scriptures. Clemens of Alexandria, the renowned Origen, Gregory, of Nyssa, and others, quoted much the same texts to prove that sentiment, that are now quoted for that purpose by Universalists of the present age. They used the words eternal and everlasting, not to signify endless duration when applied to punishment, but they used them in a limited sense. It was not until nearly four hundred years after the death of Christ, that Universalism was regarded as worthy of condemnation, and it was not formally condemned by any general council, until the meeting of the Fifth General Council, in 553. The four previous General Councils had not condemned it, although it had been believed, and eloquently defended, by some of the most eminent fathers in the church. How much more time would have elapsed before the condemnation, had it not been for the quarrel that broke out in the church in regard to
the Origenists, we know not. They were objected to, at first, in respect to other points, and not for many years, on the ground of their being Universalists, although some of their most eminent men, like the distinguished Father from whom they took their name, had held that sentiment, and defended it with much zeal.
Let it be observed, also, that Universalism was not put down, by reason, by argument, by appeals to the word of God, but it was crushed by the arm of power. It was the arm of usurped power that crucified the Son of God; it was the arm of usurped power that persecuted the infant church; and it was the arm of usurped power that condemned and crushed Universalism, in 553. During the dark ages, when the Pope held undisturbed dominion, and the whole Christian world trembled at his nod, when the light of science almost expired, and wickedness of every description stalked abroad at noonday, then little was known of Universalism; while the contrary doctrine of endless misery flourished abundantly, and furnished ground for the contending ecclesiastics to anathematize, first, each other,. and then the world, and proclaim the sentence of eternal banishment from immortal blessedness. But we have shown, that no sooner was the arm of usurped power broken, than Universalism once more appeared. It rose gently, but irresistibly, winning admirers among the greatest and best of men, and pouring peace, consolation, and joy into every heart. Not so with the doctrine of endless misery. From 553, the nearer we approach to the days of the Saviour, the less we find of that doctrine; and it was not fully established until the Fifth General Council. During the dark ages, very few persons, if any, doubted the truth of that sentiment. It was one of the strong pillars that upheld priestcraft, papal corruption, and ecclesiastical oppression. But no sooner did the light of Reformation shine, than this doctrine was disputed, it was soon declared to be unscriptural, dishonorable to God, injurious to man; and from that time to the present it has been losing more and more its power over the human mind.
We refer those, who wish to see a fuller account of Universalism from the time of the Reformation to the year 1830, to the "Modern History of Universalism," by the author of this work.
CHAPTER II. ".
WHAT DO UNIVERSALISTS BELIEVE?
I. THE sentiment by which Universalists are distinguished, is this: that at last every individual of the human race shall become holy and happy. This does not comprise the whole of their faith; but merely that feature of it, which is peculiar to them, and by which they are distinguished from the rest of the world.
II. Universalists are not infidels. It is sometimes very indiscreetly said, that Universalism is but a species of infidelity; that Universalists are not Christians, and cannot be so considered. We shall have no lengthened argument on this point; but we desire one question settled, touching this matter. If the doctrine of Jesus concerning the resurrection of the dead is not true, how is the doctrine of Universalism to be established? It evidently cannot be. If the doctrine of Jesus concerning a future life fails, what becomes of Universalism? It is gone like a dream. Why, then, should Universalism be called infidelity? If it cannot rest unless it rest on Christianity, is it not a very singular kind of infidelity? It is just such infidelity as Jesus taught, when he said, the dead shall become as the angels of God in heaven, neither shall they die any more, but shall be the children of God, being the children of the resurrection. It is such infidelity as Paul cherished, when he said, "God will have all men to be saved," "the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed," "God shall be all in all;" such
is the infidelity of Universalism. It is the infidelity the angels were infected with, when they came down and sung, "Glory to God in the highest; peace on earth, and good will to men." It is just such infidelity as distinguished the patriarch Abraham, when he trusted in God's promise, that all the nations of the earth should be blessed in his seed, Christ. Finally, it is the same infidelity that made the apostles so obnoxious wherever they preached; and caused the people to say, "those who have turned the world upside down, are come hither also."
III. An attempt has been recently made to distinguish Universalists only by a disbelief in future punishment. Such an attempt is unjustifiable. They agree in the great doctrine of the final holiness and happiness of all men; and they leave every man to form his own opinion in regard to the times and seasons when this great event shall transpire.
There has been some discussion, within a few years past, on the appellation Universalist. The question seems to have been, whether this word ought to be applied to all who believe in the eventual restoration of all mankind, or only to a particular class of them. On this subject we have never had but one opinion, and that opinion we have frequently expressed, viz. that all persons, who truly believe in the eventual salvation of all mankind by the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, are Universalists. This is the rule laid down in the "Modern History of Universalism." For instance, Richard Coppin and Jeremy White, who both flourished in the time of Cromwell, are put down in that work as Universalists, although they differed much in opinion on minor points, the latter being a Trinitarian and a believer in future punishment, the former discarding that doctrine. So also Archbishop Tillotson and Dr. T. Burnet are put down as Universalists, who were both believers in future punishment. The same may be said of the Chevalier Ramsay and many others. The rule which we prescribed to ourselves in the compilation of