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spirited ministry! In the prefent course of advancement, a youth of quality who aspires to ferve his country in a civil employment, has nothing to rely on but parliamentary intereft. The military education propofed, would afford him opportunity to improve his talents, and to convince the world of his merit. Honour and applause thus acquired, would intitle him to demand preferment; and he ought to be employed, not only as deferving, but as an encouragement to others. Frequent inftances of neglecting men who are patronized by the public, might perhaps prove dangerous to a British minister.

If I have not all this while been dreaming, here are display'd illustrious advantages of the military education proposed. Fondness for the fubject excites me to prolong the entertainment; and I add the following reflection on the education of fuch men as are difpofed to serve in a public ftation. The fciences are mutually connected: a man cannot be perfect in any one, without being in fome degree acquainted with every one. The fcience of politics in particular, being not a little intricate, cannot be acquired in perfection by



any one whose studies have been confined to a single branch, whether relative to peace or to war. The Duke of Marlborough made an eminent figure in the cabinet, as well as in the field; and fo did equally the illuftrious Sully, who may ferve as a model to all ministers. The great aim in modern politics is, to fplit government into the greatest number poffible of departments, trusting nothing to genius. China affords fuch a government in perfection. tional affairs are there fo fimplified by divifion, as to require fcarce any capacity in the mandarines. Thefe officers, having little occafion for activity either of mind or of body, fink down into floth and fenfuality motives of ambition or of fame make no impreffion: they have not even the delicacy to blufh when they err: and as no punishment is regarded but what touches the perfon or the purse, it is not unufual to fee a mandarine beaten with many ftripes, fometimes for a very flight tranfgreffion. Let arts be fubdivided into many parts: the more fubdivifions the better. But I venture to pronounce, that no man ever did, nor ever will, make a capital figure in the government of a state, whether


whether as a judge, a general, or a minifter, whose education is rigidly confined to one science *

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Senfible I am that the foregoing plan is in feveral respects imperfect; but if it be found at bottom, polifh and improvement are easy operations. My capital aim has been, to obviate the objections that prefs hard against every military plan, hitherto embraced or proposed. A standing army in its prefent form, is dangerous to liberty; and but a feeble bulwark against fuperior force. On the other hand, a nation in which every fubject is a foldier, must not indulge any hopes of becoming powerful by manufactures and commerce: it is indeed vigorously defended, but is fcarce worthy of being defended. The golden mean of rotation and conftant labour in a standing army, would discipline multitudes for peace as well as for war. And a nation fo defended would be invincible.

* Phocion is praised by ancient writers, for ftruggling against an abufe that had crept into his country of Attica, that of making war and politics different profeffions. In imitation of Ariftides and of Pericles, he ftudied both equally.





Public Police with respect to the Poor.

A Mong the induftrious nations of Europe, regulations for the poor make a confiderable branch of public police. These regulations are fo multiplied and so anxiously framed, as to move one to think, that there cannot remain a single perfon under a neceffity to beg. It is however a fad truth, that the disease of poverty, inftead of being eradicated, has become more and more inveterate. England in particular overflows with beggars, tho' in no other country are the indigent fo amply provided for. Some radical defect there must be in these regulations, when, after endless attempts to perfect them, they prove abortive. Every writer, diffatisfied with former plans, fails not to produce one of his own; which, in its turn, meets with as little approbation as any of the foregoing.

The first regulation of the ftates of Hol


land concerning the poor, was in the year 1614 prohibiting all begging. The next was in the year 1649. "It is enacted, "That every town, village, or parish, "shall maintain its poor out of the in"come of its charitable foundations and "collections. And in cafe these means "fall fhort, the magiftrates fhall maintain "them at the general expence of the in"habitants, as can most conveniently be "done: Provided always, that the poor "be obliged to work either to merchants, farmers, or others, for reafonable wages, "in order that they may, as far as pof


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fible, be supported that way; provided

alfo, that they be indulged in no idle"nefs nor infolence." The advice or instruction here given to magiftrates, is fenfible; but falls fhort of what may be termed a law, the execution of which can be enforc'd in a court of juftice.

In France, the precarious charity of monasteries proving ineffectual, a hospital was erected in the city of Paris anno 1656, having different apartments; one for the innocent poor, one for putting vagabonds to hard labour, one for foundlings, and one for the fick and maimed; with cer

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