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tions are more referved in declaring war than formerly. Long experience has at the fame time made it evident, that a nation feldom gains by war; and that agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, are the only folid foundations of power and grandeur. These arts accordingly have become the chief objects of European governments, and the only rational causes of war. Among the warlike nations of Greece and Italy, how would it have founded, that their effeminate defcendents would employ foldiers by profeffion to fight their battles! And yet this is unavoidable in every country where arts and manufactures flourish; which, requiring little exercise, tend to enervate the body, and of course the mind. Gain, at the fame time, being the fole object of industry, advances felfishness to be the ruling paffion, and brings on a timid anxiety about property and self-prefervation. Cyrus, tho' enflamed with refentment against the Lydians for revolting, liftened to the following advice, offered by Crofus, their former King.

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"O Cyrus, destroy not Sardis, an ancient city, famous for arts 46 and arms; but, pardoning what is past, "demand

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xury, and exhort them to inftruct their "children in every art of gainful commerce. You will foon fee, O King, that "instead of men, they will be women." The Arabians, a brave and generous people, conquered Spain; and drove into the inacceffible mountains of Bifcay and Afturia, the few natives who ftood out. When no longer an enemy appeared, they turned their fwords into ploughfhares, and became a rich and flourishing nation. The inhabitants of the mountains, hardened by poverty and fituation, ventured, after a long interval, to peep out from their ftrong holds, and to lie in wait for ftraggling parties. Finding themfelves now a match for a people, whom opulence had betrayed to luxury, and the arts of peace to cowardice; they took courage to display their banners in the open field; and after many military atchievements, fucceeded in reconquering Spain. The Scots, inhabiting the mountainous parts of Caledonia, were an overmatch for the Picts, who occupied the fertile plains, and at last fubdued them*.

* See the note on the following page.


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Benjamin de Tudele, a Spanish Jew, who wrote in the twelfth century, obferves, that by luxury and effeminacy the Greeks had contracted a degree of foftnefs, more proper for women than for men; and that the Greek Emperor was reduced to the neceffity of employing mercenary troops, to defend his country against the Turks. In the year 1453, the city of Conftantinople, defended by a garrifon not exceeding 6000 men, was befieged by the Turks, and reduced to extremity; yet

A note referred to in the preceding page.

* Before the time that all Scotland was brought under one king, the highlanders, divided into tribes or clans, made war upon each other; and continued the fame practice irregularly many ages after they fubmitted to the king of Scotland. Open war was repreffed, but it went on privately by depredations and reprifals. The clan-fpirit was much depreffed by their bad fuccefs in the rebellion 1715; and totally crushed by the like bad fuccefs in the rebellion 1745. The mildness with which the highlanders have been treated of late, and the pains that have been taken to introduce induftry among them, have totally extirpated depredations and reprisals, and have rendered them the moft peaceable people in Scotland; but have at the fame time reduced their military fpirit to a low ebb. To train them for war, military difcipline has now become no lefs neceffary than to others.


not a fingle inhabitant had courage to take arms, all waiting with torpid defpondence the hour of utter extirpation. Venice, Genoa, and other small Italian ftates, became fo effeminate by long and fuccessful commerce, that not a citizen ever thought of serving in the army; which obliged them to employ mercenaries, officers as well as private men. These mercenaries at first, fought confcientiously for their pay; but reflecting, that the victors were no better paid than the vanquished, they learned to play booty. In a battle particularly between the Pifans and Florentines, which lafted from fun-rifing to fun-fetting, there was but a fingle man loft, who, having accidentally fallen from his horse, was trodden under foot. Men at that time fought on horfeback, covered with iron from head to heel. Machiavel mentions a battle between the Florentines and Venetians which lafted half a day, neither party giving ground; fome horses wounded, not a man flain. He obferves, that fuch cowardice and diforder was in the armies of those times, that the turning of a fingle horfe either to charge or retreat, would have decided a battle.


Charles VIII. of France, when he invaded Italy anno 1498, understood not fuch mock battles ; and his men were held to be devils incarnate, who feemed to take delight in fhedding human blood. The Dutch, who for many years have been reduced to mercenary troops, are more indebted to the mutual jealousy of their neighbours for their independence, than to their own army. In the year 1672, Lewis-of France invaded Holland, and in forty days took forty walled towns. That country was faved, not by its army, but by being laid under water. Froft, which is usual at that feafon, would have put an end to the feven United Provinces.

The fmall principality of Palmyra is the only inftance known in hiftory, where the military spirit was not enervated by opulence. Pliny describes that country as extremely pleasant, and blessed with plenty of fprings, tho' furrounded with dry and fandy deferts. The commerce of the Indies was at that time carried on by land; and the city of Palmyra was the centre of that commerce between the East and the Weft. Its territory being very small, little more than fufficient for villas and plea


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