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thing ought to be more fedulously inculcated into every officer, than to defpife riches, as a mercantile object below the dignity of a foldier. Often has the courage of victorious troops been blunted by the pillage of an opulent city; and may not rich captures at fea have the fame effect? Some fea-commanders have been fufpected, of bestowing their fire more willingly upon a merchantman, than upon a fhip of war. A triumph, an ovation, a civic crown, or fome fuch mark of honour, were in old Rome the only rewards for military atchievements *. Money, it is true, was fometimes diftributed among the private men, as an addition to their pay, after a fatiguing campaign; but not as a recom

* A Roman triumph was finely contrived to excite heroifm; and a fort of triumph no less fplendid, was ufual among the Fatemite Califs of Egypt. After returning from a fuccefsful expedition, the Ca. lif pitched his camp in a spacious plain near his capital, where he was attended by all his grandees, in their fineft equipages. Three days were commonly spent in all manner of rejoicings, feafting, music, fireworks, &c. He marched into the city with this great cavalcade, through roads covered with rich carpets, ftrewed with flowers, gums, and odoriferous plants, and lined on both fides with crouds of congratulating fubjects.


pence for their good behaviour, because all fhared alike. It did not efcape the penetrating Romans, that wealth, the parent of luxury and felfifhnefs, fails not to eradicate the military fpirit. The foldier who to recover his baggage performed a bold action, gave an inftructive leffon to all princes. Being invited by his general to try his fortune a second time; "Invite

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(fays the foldier) one who has loft his baggage." Many a bold adventurer goes to the Indies, who, returning with a fortune, is afraid of every breeze. Britain, I fufpect, is too much infected with the spirit of gain. Will it be thought ridiculous in any man of figure, to prefer reputation and respect before riches; provided only he can afford a frugal meal, and a warm garment? Let us compare an old officer, who never deferted his friend nor his country, and a wealthy merchant, who never indulged a thought but of gain: the wealth is tempting;-and yet does there exist a man of fpirit, who would not be the officer rather than the merchant, even with his millions? Sultan Mechmet granted to the Janifaries a privilege of importing foreign commodities free of duty:


was it his intention to metamorphofe foldiers into merchants, loving peace, and hating war?

In the war 1672 carried on by Lewis XIV. against the Dutch, Dupas was made governor of Naerden, recommended by the Duke of Luxembourg; who wrote to M. de Louvois, that he wifhed nothing more ardently, than that the Prince of Orange would befiege Naerden, being certain of a defence so skilful and vigorous, as to furnish an opportunity for another victory over the Prince. Dupas had served long in honourable poverty; but in this rich town he made a fhift to amafs a confiderable fum. Terrified to be reduced to his former poverty, he furrendered the town on the firft fummons. He was degraded in a court-martial, and condemned to perpetual prison and poverty. Having obtained his liberty at the folicitation of the Viscount de Turenne, he recovered his former valour, and ventured his life freely on all occafions.

But tho' I declare against large appointments beforehand, which, inftead of promoting fervice, excite luxury and effeminacy; yet to an officer of character, who


has spent his younger years in ferving his king and country, a government or other fuitable employment that enables him to pass the remainder of his life in ease and affluence, is a proper reward for merit, reflecting equal honour on the prince who bestows, and on the subject who receives; befide affording an enlivening profpect to others, who have it at heart to do well.

With respect to the private men, the rotation propofed, aims at improvements far more important than that of making military fervice fall light upon individuals. It tends to unite the spirit of industry with that of war; and to form the fame man to be an induftrious labourer, and a good foldier. The continual exercife recommended, cannot fail to produce a spirit of industry; which will occafion a demand for the private men after their seven years fervice, as valuable above all other labourers, not only for regularity, but for activity. And with refpect to fervice in war, conftant exercife is the life of an army, in the literal as well as metaphorical fenfe. Boldness is infpired by strength and agility, to which conftant motion mainly contributes. The Roman citizens, trained VOL. III. F


to arms from their infancy and never allowed to reft, were invincible. To mention no other works, fpacious and durable roads carried to the very extremities of that vaft empire, fhow clearly how the foldiers were employ'd during peace; which hardened them for war, and made them orderly and fubmiffive (a). So effential was labour held by the Romans for training an army, that they never ventured to face an enemy with troops debilitated with idlenefs. The Roman army in Spain, having been worsted in feveral engagements and confined within their entrenchments, were funk in idlenefs and luxury. Scipio Nafica, having demolished Carthage, took the command of that army; but durst not oppofe it to the enemy, till he had accustomed the foldiers to temperance and hard labour. He exercited them without relaxation, in marching and countermarching, in fortifying camps and demolishing them, in digging trenches and filling them up, in building high walls and pulling them down; he himself, from morning till evening, going about, and directing every

(4) Bergiere hiftoire des grands chemins, vol. 2. p. 152.,


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