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9. Military branch of government,
10. Public police with refpect to the poor,
II. A great city confidered in phyfical, moral,
HISTORY OF MAN.
Progrefs of MEN IN SOCIETY.
Military Branch of Government.
URING the infancy of a nation, every member depends on his own industry for procuring the neceffaries of life: he is his own mafon, his own tailor, his own phyfician; and on himself he chiefly relies for offence as well as defence. Every favage can fay, what few beggars among us can fay, Omnia mea mecum porto; and hence the aptiVOL. III. tude
tude of a favage for war, which makes little alteration in his manner of living. In early times accordingly, the men were all warriors, and every known art was exercifed by women; which continues to be the cafe of American favages. And even after arts were fo much improved as to be exercised by men, none who could bear arms were exempted from war. In feudal governments, the military fpirit was carried to a great height: all gentlemen were foldiers by profeflion; and every other art was defpifed, as low, if not contemptible.
Even in the unnatural state of the feudal fyftem, arts made fome progrefs, not excepting those for amusement; and and many conveniencies, formerly unknown, became neceffary to comfortable living. A man accustomed to manifold conveniencies, cannot bear with patience to be deprived of them; he hates war, and clings to the fweets of peace. Hence the neceffity of a military establishment, hardening men by ftrict difcipline to endure the fatigues of war. By a standing army, war is carried on more regularly and scientifically than in a feudal government; but as it is carried on with infinitely greater expence, na