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head extremely grofs, hands and feet very fmall. That they are tame and gentle appears from what Ellis fays in his account of a voyage, anno 1747, for discovering a north-west passage, that they offered their wives to the failors, with expreffions of fatisfaction for being able to accommodate them. But above all, their beard and complexion make the strongest evidence of a diftinct race. There were lately at London, two Efquimaux men and their wives; and I have the best authority to affirm, that the men had a beard, thin indeed like that of a Nogayan Tartar; that they were not of a copper colour like the other Americans, but yellow like people in the North of Afia.

It has been lately discovered, that the language of the Efquimaux is the fame with that of the Greenlanders. A Danifh miffionary, who by fome years refidence in Greenland had acquired the language of that country, made a voyage with Commodore Pallifer to Newfoundland ann. 1764, Meeting a company of about two hundred Efquimaux, he was agreeably surprised to hear the Greenland tongue. They received him kindly, and drew from him a promise


to return the next year. And we are informed by Crantz, in his history of Greenland, that the fame Danish miffionary vifited them the next year, in company with the Rev. Mr Drachart. They agreed, that the difference between the Efquimaux language and that of Greenland, was not greater than between the dialects of North and South Greenland, which differ not fo much as the High and Low Dutch. Both nations call themfelves Innuit or Karalit, and call the Europeans Kablunet. Their ftature, features, manners, drefs, tents, darts, and boats, are entirely the fame. As the language of Greenland refembles not the language of Finland, Lapland, Norway, Tartary, nor that of the Samoides, it is evident, that neither the Efquimaux nor Greenlanders are a colony from any of the countries mentioned. Geographers begin now to conjecture, that Greenland is a part of the continent of North America, without intervention of




* The Danes had a fettlement in Greenland long before Columbus faw the Weft Indies. Would it not appear paradoxical to fay, that America was


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From the preceding facts it may cluded with the highest probability, that the continent of America fouth of the river St Laurence was not peopled from Afia. Labrador on the north fide of that river, is thin of inhabitants; no people having been difcovered there but the Efquimaux, who are far from being numerous. they have plenty of food at home, they never could have had any temptation to fend colonies abroad. And there is not the flighteft probability, that any other people more remote would, without neceffity, wander far from home to people Canada or any country farther fouth. But we are scarce left to a conjecture. The copper colour of the Canadians, their want of beard, and other characteristical marks above mentioned, demonftrate them to be a race different from the Efquimaux, and different from any people inhabiting a country on the other fide of Labrador. Thefe diftinguishing marks cannot be owing to the climate, which is the fame on

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difcovered by the Danes long before the time of Columbus, and long before they knew that they had made the discovery?




both fides of the river St Laurence. I add, that as the copper colour and want of beard continue invariably the fame in every variety of climate, hot and cold, moist and dry, they must depend on fome invariable cause acting uniformly; which may be a fingularity in the race of people (a), but cannot proceed from the climate.

If we can rely on the conjectures of an eminent writer (b), America emerged from the fea later than any other part of the known world: and fuppofing the human race to have been planted in America by the hand of God later than the days of Mofes, Adam and Eve might have been the first parents of mankind, i. e. of all who at that time exifted, without being the first parents of the Americans. The Terra Auftralis incognita is feparated from the rest of the world by a wide ocean, which carries a fhip round the earth without interruption *. How has that con

(a) Preliminary Difcourfe.

(3) M. Buffon.

*Late difcoveries have annihilated the Terra Auftralis incognita. The argument however remains in force, being equally applicable to many iflands fcattered at a great diftance from the continent in the immenfe South Sea.


tinent been peopled? There is not the flightest probability, that it ever has been joined to any other land. Here a local creation, if it may be termed fo, appears unavoidable; and if we must admit more than one act of creation, even the appearance of difficulty, from reiteration of acts, totally vanifheth. M. Buffon in his natural history affirms, that not a fingle American quadruped of a hot climate is found in any other part of the earth: with refpect to these we must unavoidably admit a local creation; and nothing feems more natural, than under the fame act to comprehend the first parents of the American people.

It is poffible, indeed, that a fhip with men and women may, by contrary winds, be carried to a very diftant fhore. But to account thus for the peopling of America, will not be much relifhed. Mexico and Peru must have been planted before navigation was known in the old world, at least before a fhip was brought to fuch perfection as to bear a long courfe of bad weather. Will it be thought, that any fuppofition ought to be embraced, however improbable, rather than admit a separate

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