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of a favage for war, which makes little alteration in his manner of living. In early times accordingly, the men were all warriors, and every known art was exercised by women; which is the cafe at present of American favages. And even after arts were fo much improved as to be exercised by men, none who could bear arms. were exempted from war. In feudal governments, the military fpirit was carried to a great height: all gentlemen were foldiers. by profeffion; and every other art was despised, as low, if not contemptible.
Even in this untoward ftate, arts made fome progrefs, not ex-. cepting thofe for amusement; and many conveniencies, formerly unknown, became neceffary to comfortable living, A man cannot bear to be deprived of the conveniencies and amusements to which he is accustomed: he hates war, and clings to the fweets. of peace. Hence the neceffity of a military establishment, hardening men by strict discipline to endure the fatigues of war. By standing armies, war is carried on more regularly and scientifically than in feudal governments; and as it is carried on with infinitely greater expence, nations are more referved in declaring war than formerly. Long experience has at the fame time made it evident, that a nation feldom gains by war; and that agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, are the only folid foundations of power and grandeur: Thefe arts accordingly have become the chief objects of European governments, and the only rational caufes of war. Among the warlike nations of Greece and Italy, how would it have founded, that their effeminate defcendents would employ foldiers by profeffion to fight their battles? And yet this is neceffary, in every country where arts and manufactures flourifh; which, requiring little exercife, tend to enervate the body, and of course the mind. Gain, at the fame time, being the fole object of industry, advances selfishnefs to be the ruling paffion, and brings on a timid anxiety about property and felf-preservation.
Cyrus, tho' flaming with refentment against the Lydians for revolting, liftened to the following fagacious advice, offered by Crofus, their former King. "O Cyrus, destroy not Sardis, an an"cient city, famous for arts and arms; but, pardoning what is past, demand all their arms, encourage luxury, and exhort "them to inftruct their children in every art of gainful comYou will foon fee, O King, that instead of men, they "will be women." The Arabians, a brave and generous people, conquered Spain, and drove into the inacceffible mountains of Biscay and Afturia, the few natives who stood out. When no longer an enemy appeared, they turned their swords into ploughfhares, and became a rich and flourishing nation. The inhabitants of the mountains, hardened by poverty and fituation, ventured, after a long interval, to peep out from their strong-holds, and to lie in wait for ftraggling parties. Finding themselves now a match for a people, whom opulence had betrayed to luxury, and the arts of peace to cowardice; they took courage to display their banners in the open field; and after many military atchievements, fucceeded in reconquering Spain. The Scots, inhabiting the mountainous parts of Caledonia, were an overmatch for the Picts, who occupied the fertile plains, and at last subdued them *.
Before the time that all Scotland was brought under one king, the highlanders, divided into tribes or clans, made war upon each other; and continued the fame practice irregularly many ages after they fubmitted to the king of Scotland. Open war was repreffed, but it went on privately by depredations and reprisals. The clan-spirit was much depressed by their bad fuccefs in the rebellion 1715; and totally crushed after the rebellion 1745. The mildnefs with which the highlanders have been treated of late, and the pains that have been taken to introduce industry among them, have totally extirpated depredations and reprifals, and have rendered them the most peaceable people in Scotland; but have at the fame time reduced their military fpirit to a low ebb. To train them for war, military difcipline has now become no lefs neceffary than to others.
Where arts, manufactures, and commerce, have arrived at perfection, a pacific fpirit prevails univerfally: not a spark is left of military ardor, nor will any man be a foldier. Hence in fuch a ftate, the neceffity of mercenary troops, hired among nations. lefs effeminate, who fight for pay, not for the ftate they ferve. Benjamin de Tudele, a Spanish Jew, who wrote in the twelfth century, reports, that the Greeks, by luxury and effeminacy, had contracted a degree of foftness, that made them resemble women more than men; and that the Greek Emperor was reduced to the neceflity of employing mercenary troops, to defend his country against the Turks. And accordingly when, in the year 1453, the city of Conftantinople, defended by a garrison not exceeding 6000 men, was befieged by the Turks, and reduced to extremity, not a fingle inhabitant had courage to take up arms, all waiting with torpid defpondence the hour of utter extirpation, Venice, Genoa, and other fmall Italian ftates, became fo effeminate by long and fuccessful commerce, that not a citizen ever thought of ferving in the army; which obliged them to employ mercenaries,. officers as well as private men. These mercenaries at first fought confcientiously for their pay; but reflecting, that the victors were not better paid than the vanquifhed, they learned to play booty. In a battle particularly between the Pifans and Florentines, which lasted from fun-rifing to fun-fetting, there was but a single man loft, who, having accidentally fallen from his horfe, was trode under foot. Charles VIII. of France, when he invaded Italy anno 1498, understood nothing of fuch mock battles; and his men were held to be devils incarnate, who feemed to take delight in fhedding human blood. The Dutch, who for many years have been reduced to mercenary troops, are more indebted to the mutual jealousy of their neighbours for their independence, than to their own army. In the year 1672, Lewis of France invaded Holland, and in forty days took forty walled towns. That
country was faved, not by its army, but by being laid under water. Froft, which is ufual at that feafon, would have put an end to the feven United Provinces.
The finall principality of Palmyra is the only instance known in history, where the military spirit was not enervated by opulence. Pliny defcribes that country as extremely pleasant, and bleffed with plenty of fprings, tho' furrounded with dry and fandy deferts. The commerce of the Indies was at that time carried on by land; and the city of Palmyra was the centre of that commerce between the Eaft and the Weft. Its territory being very small, little more than fufficient for villas and pleasure-grounds, the inhabitants, like those of Hamburgh, had no way to employ their riches for profit but in trade. At the fame time, being fituated between the two imighty empires of Rome and Parthia, it required great address, and the most affiduous military discipline, to preferve the inhabitants from being fwallowed up by the one or the other. This ticklifh fituation preferved them from luxury and effeminacy, the ufual concomitants of riches. They made a better figure with their fuperfluous wealth: they laid it out on magnificent buildings, and adorning their country-feats. The fine arts in general, were among them carried to a high degree of perfection. The famous Zenobia, their Queen, led captive to Rome after being deprived of her dominions, was admired and celebrated for fpirit, for learning, and for an exquifite taste in the fine arts.
Thus, by accumulating wealth, a manufacturing and commer-cial people become a tempting object for conqueft; and by effeminacy become an eafy conquest. The military spirit seems to be much decayed in Britain; and ere it be gone, will no phantom. appear, even in a dream, to disturb our downy reft? Formerly, the culture of corn in the temperate regions of Europe and Afia, proved a tempting bait to northern favages who wanted bread:
have we no cause to dread a fimilar fate from fome warlike neighbour, impelled by hunger, or by ambition, to extend his dominions? The difficulty of providing for defence, without hurting induftry, has produced a general opinion among political writers, that a nation, if it will preferve its military fpirit, muft exclude industry; and, if it will preferve its industry, must give up all hopes of retaining its military spirit. In the former cafe, we are fecure against any invader: in the latter, we indeed make a confiderable figure, but lie open to every invader. Happy would Britain be, could the fpirit of war and of commerce be made compatible by fome military plan, that would protect us against enemies, without hurting our industry and manufactures. That fuch a plan is not abfolutely impracticable, will, I hope, appear from what follows; tho' I am far from hoping that it will meet with univerfal approbation. To prepare the reader, I fhall premife an account of the different military establishments that exist, and have existed, in Europe, with the advantages and disadvantages of each. In examining thefe, who knows whether fome hint may not occur of a plan more perfect than any of them.
The most illustrious military establishment of antiquity is that of the Romans, by which they fubdued almost all the known world. The Roman citizens were many of them husbandmen, and all of them foldiers. The inhabitants of Rome, in particular, lived their upon when in the field; but if they happened not pay to be fuccessful in plundering, they had no means of living at home. An annual diftribution of corn among them became neceffary, which in effect correfponded to the halfpay of our officers. It is believed, that fuch a conftitution would not be adopted by any modern ftate. It was a forc'd conftitution; contrary to nature, which gives different difpofitions to men, in order to fupply hands for every neceffary art. It was, at the fame time, Extremely precarious, there being in it no medium between univerfal