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of a favage for war, which makes little alteration in his manner of living. In early times accordingly, the men were all warriors, and every known art was exercised by women; which is the cafe at prefent of American favages. And even after arts were fo much improved as to be exercifed by men, none who could bear arms. were exempted from war. In feudal governments, the military fpirit was carried to a great height: all gentlemen were foldiers. by profeffion; and every other art was defpifed, as low, if not contemptible.
Even in this untoward ftate, arts made fome progrefs, not excepting thofe for amusement; and many conveniencies, formerly unknown, became neceffary to comfortable living, A man cannot bear to be deprived of the conveniencies and amusements to which he is accustomed: he hates war, and clings to the fweets of peace. Hence the neceffity of a military establishment, hardening men by strict difcipline to endure the fatigues of war. By standing armies, war is carried on more regularly and scientifically than in feudal governments; and as it is carried on with infinitely greater expence, nations are more reserved in declaring war than formerly. Lang experience has at the same time made it evident, that a nation feldom gains by war; and that agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, are the only folid foundations of power and grandeur: Thefe arts accordingly have become the chief objects of European governments, and the only rational caufes of war. Among the warlike nations of Greece and Italy, how would it have founded, that their effeminate defcendents would yet this employ foldiers by profeffion to fight their battles? And is neceffary, in every country where arts and manufactures flourish; which, requiring little exercise, tend to enervate the body, and of course the mind. Gain, at the fame time, being the fole object of industry, advances selfishnefs to be the ruling paffion, and brings on a timid anxiety about property and felf-prefervation.
Cyrus, tho' flaming with refentment against the Lydians for revolting, liftened to the following fagacious advice, offered by Crofus, their former King. "O Cyrus, destroy not Sardis, an ancient city, famous for arts and arms; but, pardoning what is paft, demand all their arms, encourage luxury, and exhort "them to inftruct their children in every art of gainful comYou will foon fee, O King, that instead of men, they "will be women." The Arabians, a brave and generous people, conquered Spain, and drove into the inacceffible mountains of Biscay and Afturia, the few natives who stood out. When no longer an enemy appeared, they turned their fwords into ploughfhares, and became a rich and flourishing nation. The inhabitants of the mountains, hardened by poverty and fituation, ventured, after a long interval, to peep out from their strong-holds, and to lie in wait for ftraggling parties. Finding themselves now a match for a people, whom opulence had betrayed to luxury, and the arts of peace to cowardice; they took courage to display their banners in the open field; and after many military atchievements, fucceeded in reconquering Spain. The Scots, inhabiting the mountainous parts of Caledonia, were an overmatch for the Picts, who occupied the fertile plains, and at last subdued them *
Before the time that all Scotland was brought under one king, the highlanders, divided into tribes or clans, made war upon each other; and continued the fame practice irregularly many ages after they fubmitted to the king of Scotland. Open war was repreffed, but it went on privately by depredations and reprisals. The clan-spirit was much deprefied by their bad fuccefs in the rebellion 1715; and totally crushed after the rebellion 1745. The mildnefs with which the highlanders have been treated of late, and the pains that have been taken to introduce industry among them, have totally extirpated depredations and reprifals, and have rendered them the most peaceable people in Scotland; but have at the fame time reduced their military fpirit to a low ebb. To train them for war, military difcipline has now become no lefs neceffary than to others.
Where arts, manufactures, and commerce, have arrived at perfection, a pacific fpirit prevails univerfally: not a spark is left of military ardor, nor will any man be a foldier. Hence in fuch a ftate, the neceffity of mercenary troops, hired among nations. lefs effeminate, who fight for pay, not for the ftate they ferve.. Benjamin de Tudele, a Spanish Jew, who wrote in the twelfth century, reports, that the Greeks, by luxury and effeminacy, had contracted a degree of foftness, that made them refemble women more than men; and that the Greek Emperor was reduced to the neceflity of employing mercenary troops, to defend his country against the Turks. And accordingly when, in the year 1453, the city of Conftantinople, defended by a garrifon not exceeding 6000 men, was besieged by the Turks, and reduced to extremity, not a single inhabitant had courage to take up arms, all waiting with torpid defpondence the hour of utter extirpation, Venice, Genoa, and other fmall Italian ftates, became fo effeminate by long and fuccefsful commerce, that not a citizen ever thought of ferving in the army; which obliged them to employ mercenaries,. officers as well as private men. These mercenaries at first fought confcientiously for their pay; but reflecting, that the victors were not better paid than the vanquished, they learned to play booty.. In a battle particularly between the Pifans and Florentines, which lafted from fun-rifing to fun-fetting, there was but a fingle man loft, who, having accidentally fallen from his horfe, was trode under foot. Charles VIII. of France, when he invaded Italy anno 1498, understood nothing of fuch mock battles; and his men were held to be devils incarnate, who feemed to take delight in fhedding human blood. The Dutch, who for many years have been reduced to mercenary troops, are more indebted to the mutual jealoufy of their neighbours for their independence, than to their own army. In the year 1672, Lewis of France invaded Holland, and in forty days took forty walled towns.
country was faved, not by its army, but by being laid under water. Frost, which is usual at that season, would have put an end to the feven United Provinces.
The finall principality of Palmyra is the only instance known in hiftory, where the military spirit was not enervated by opulence. Pliny describes that country as extremely pleasant, and bleffed with plenty of fprings, tho' furrounded with dry and fandy deferts. The commerce of the Indies was at that time carried on by land; and the city of Palmyra was the centre of that commerce between the Eaft and the Weft. Its territory being very small, little more than fufficient for villas and pleasure-grounds, the inhabitants, like thofe of Hamburgh, had no way to employ their riches for profit but in trade. At the fame time, being fituated between the two inighty empires of Rome and Parthia, it required great address, and the most affiduous military discipline, to preferve the inhabitants from being fwallowed up by the one or the other. This ticklish fituation preferved them from luxury and effeminacy, the ufual concomitants of riches. They made a better figure with their fuperfluous wealth: they laid it out on magnificent buildings, and adorning their country-feats. The fine arts in general, were among them carried to a high degree of perfection. The famous Zenobia, their Queen, led captive to Rome after being deprived of her dominions, was admired and celebrated for fpirit, for learning, and for an exquifite tafte in the fine arts.
Thus, by accumulating wealth, a manufacturing and commercial people become a tempting object for conqueft; and by effeminacy become an eafy conqueft. The military spirit seems to be much decayed in Britain; and ere it be gone, will no phantom. appear, even in a dream, to disturb our downy reft? Formerly, the culture of corn in the temperate regions of Europe and Afia, proved a tempting bait to northern favages who wanted bread:
have we no cause to dread a fimilar fate from fome warlike neighbour, impelled by hunger, or by ambition, to extend his dominions? The difficulty of providing for defence, without hurting induftry, has produced a general opinion among political writers, that a nation, if it will preferve its military fpirit, muft exclude industry; and, if it will preferve its industry, muft give up all hopes of retaining its military fpirit. In the former cafe, we are fecure against any invader: in the latter, we indeed make a confiderable figure, but lie open to every invader. Happy would Britain be, could the fpirit of war and of commerce be made compatible by fome military plan, that would protect us against enemies, without hurting our industry and manufactures. That fuch a plan is not abfolutely impracticable, will, I hope, appear from what follows; tho' I am far from hoping that it will meet with univerfal approbation. To prepare the reader, I fhall premise an account of the different military establishments that exist, and have existed, in Europe, with the advantages and disadvantages of each. In examining these, who knows whether fome hint may not occur of a plan more perfect than any of them.
The most illustrious military establishment of antiquity is that of the Romans, by which they fubdued almost all the known world. The Roman citizens were many of them husbandmen, and all of them foldiers. The inhabitants of Rome, in particular, lived upon their pay when in the field; but if they happened not to be fuccessful in plundering, they had no means of living at home. An annual diftribution of corn among them became neceffary, which in effect corresponded to the halfpay of our officers. It is believed, that fuch a conftitution would not be adopted by any modern ftate. It was a forc'd conftitution; contrary to nature, which gives different difpofitions to men, in order to fupply hands for every necessary art. It was, at the fame time, extremely precarious, there being in it no medium between uni