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culties, than if it had no being: and we see the eternal world, piercing through the veil which hangs between time and eternity. Clouds and darkness then rest upon it no inore, but we already see the glory which shall be revealed.
2. Taking the word in a more particular sense, faith is a divine evidence and conviction, not only that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself ; but also that Christ loved me, and gave himself for me. It is by this faith, (whether we term it, the essence, or rather a property thereof) that we receive Christ, that we receive him in all his offices as our prophet, priest, and king. It is by this that he is atade of God unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and san&tification, and redeinption.
3 3." But is this the faith of assurance, or faith of adherence ?" The scripture mentions no such distinction. The apostle says, I bere is one faith, and one hope of our calling, one Christian, saving faith, as there is one Lord, in whom we believe, and one God and Father of us all. And it is certain this faith necessarily implies an assurance (which is here only another word for evidence, it being hard to tell the difference between them) that Christ loved me, and gave himself for me. For he that believeth, with the true, living faith, hath the witness in himself. The spirit witnesseth with his spirit, that he is a child of God. Because he is a Son, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into his heart, crying Abba, Father : giving him an assurance that he is so, and a childlike confidence in him. But let it be observed, that, in the very nature of the thing, the assurance goes before the confidence. For a man cannot have a childlike confidence in God, till he knows he is a child of God. Therefore confidence, trust, reliance, adherence, or whatever else it be called, is not the first; as some have supposed, but the second branch or act of faith.
4. It is by this faith we are saved, justified and sanctified, taking that word in its highest sense. But how are we justified and sanctified by faith? This is our third head of enquiry. And this being the main point in question, and a point of no ordinary importance, it will not be improper, to give it a more distinct and particular consideration.
III. 1. And first, how are we justified by faith? In what sense is this to be understood ? I answer, Faith is the condition, and the only condition of justification. It is the condition: none is justified but he that believes ; without faith no man is justified. And it is the only condition ; this alone is sufficient for justification. Every one that believes is justified, whatever else he has or has not. In other words: no man is jus:ified, 'till he believes : every man when he believes is justified.
2.“ But does not God command us to repent also ? Yea, and to bring forth fruits meet for repentance ? To cease, for instance, from doing evil, and learn to do well ? And is not both the one and the other of the utmost necessity ? Insoniuch, that if we willingly neglect either, we cannot reasonably expect to be justified at all ? But if this be so, how can it be said, that faith is the only condition of justification ?"
God does undoubtedly command us, both to repent, and to bring forth fruits meet for repentance : which if we willingly neglect, we cannot reasonably, expect to be justified at all: therefore both repentance, and fruits meet for repentance, are in some sense necessary to justification. But they are not necessary in the same sense with faith, nor in the same degree. Not in the same degree ; for those fruits are only necessary conditionally ; if there be time and opportunity for them. Otherwise a man inay be justified without them, as was the thief upon the cross : (if we may call him so ; for a late writer has discovered, that he was no thief, but a very honest and respectable person !) But he cannot be justified without faith : this is impossible. Likewise let a man have ever so much repentance, or ever so many of the fruits meet for repentance, yet all this does not at all avail : he is not justified 'till he believes. But the moment he believes, with or without those fruits, yea, with more or less repentance, he is justified. Not in the same sense ; for repentance and its fruits are only remotely necessary, necessary in order to faith : whereas faith is immediately and diretly necessary to justification. It remains, that faith is the only condition, which is immediately and proximately
. necessary to justification.
3. .“. But do you believe, we are sanctified by faith? We know you believe, that we are justified by faith : but do not you believe, and accordingly teach, that we are sanctified by our works ?"
So it has been roundly and vehemently affirmed, for these five and twenty years. But I have constantly declared just the contrary : and that in all manner of ways. I have continually testified in private and in public, that we are sanctified, as well as justified, by faith. And indeed the one of those great truths does exceedingly illustrate the other. Exactly as we are justified by faith, so are we sanctified by faith.' Faith is the condition, and the only condition of sanctification, exactly as it is of justification. It is the condition ; none is sanctified but he that believes; without faith no man is sanctified. And it is the only condition: this alone is sufficient for sanctification. Every one that believes is sanctified, whatever else he has, or has not. In other words : no man is sanctified till he believes : every man when he believes is sanctified. 4.
“ Bat is there not a repentance consequent upon, as well as a repentance previous to, 'justification? And is it not incumbent on all that are justified, to be zealous of good works? Yea, are not chese so necessary, that if a man willingly neglect them, he cannot reasonably expect that he shall ever be sanctified in the full sense, that is, perfeEted in love ? Nay, can he grow at all in grace, in the loving knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ ? 'Yea, can he retain the grace which God has already given him? Can be continue in the faith which he has received, or in the favour of God? Do not you yourself allow all this, and continually assert it? But if this be so, how can it be said, that faith is the only condition of sanctification.
5. I do allow all this, and continually maintain it, as the truth of God. I allow, there is a repentance, consequent upon, as well as a repentance previous to justification. It is incumbent on all that are justified, to be zealous of good works. And these are so necessary, that if a man willingly neglect them, he cannot reasonably expect, that he shall ever be sanctified. He cannot grow in grace, in the image of God, the mind which
was in Christ Jesus. Nay, he cannot retain the grace he has received, he cannot continue in faith, or in the favour of God.
What is the inference we must draw here from? Why, that both repentance, rightly understood, and the practice of all good works, works of piety, as well as works of mercy, (now properly so called, since they spring from faith) are in some sense necessary 10 sandification 6. I say, “ Repentance righily understood.”
.For this must not be confounded with the former repentance. The repentance consequent upon justification is widely different from that which is antece lent to it. This implies no guilt, no sense of condemnation, or consciousness of the wrath of God. It does not suppose any doubc of the favour of God, or any fear that bath torinent. I: is properly a conviction wrought by the Holy Ghost, of the sin which still renains in our heart, of the opornua sap*5*, the carnal mind, which “ does still remain," as our church speaks, · even in them that are regenerate :" although it does no longer reign, it has tot now dominion over them. It is a conviction of our proneness to evil, of an heart bent to backsliding, of the still continuing tendency, of the flesh to lust against the spirit. Sometimes, unless we continually watch and pray, it lustcth to pride, sometimes to anger, sometimes io love of the world, love of ease, love of honour, or love of pleasure more than of God. It is a conviction of the tendency of our heart to self-will, to atheism, or idolatry : and above all 10 unbelief, whereby, in a thousand ways, and under a thousand pretences, we are ever departing, more or less, from the living God.
7. With this conviction of the sin remaining in cur hearts, there is joined a clear conviction of the sin remaining in our lives, still cleaving to all our words and ac.tions. In the best of these we now discern a mixture of evil, either in the spirit, the matter or the manner of them: something that could not endure the righteous judgment of God, were he extreme to mark what is done avriss. Where we least suspected it, we find a taint of pride or self-will, unbelief or idolatry : so that we are not more ashamed of our best duties, than formerly of our worst sins : and hence we cannot but feel, that these are so far ftom
having any thing meritorious in them, yea so far from being able to stand, in sight of the divine justice, chat for those also we should be guilty before God, were it not for the blood of the covenant.
8. Experience shews, that together with the conviction of sin remaining in our hearts and cleaving to all our words and actions, as well as the guilt which on account thereof we should incur, were we not continually sprinkled with the atoning blood; one thing more is implied in this repentance, namely, a conviction of our belplessness, of our utter inability to think one good thought, or to form one good desire į and much more to speak one word aright, or to perform one good action, but thro' his free, almighty grace first preventing us, and then accompanying us every moment. 9.
" But what good works are those, the practice of which, you affirm to be necessary to sanctification.” First, all works of piety, such'as public prayer, family prayer, and praying in our closet : receiving the supper of the Lord: searching the scriptures, by hearing, reading, meditating: and using such a measure of fasting or abstsnenceas our bodily health allows.
10. Secondly, All works of mercy, whether they relate to the bodies or souls of men : such as feeding the hungry, cloathing the naked, entertaining the stranger, visiting those that are in prison, or sick, or variously afficted : such as the endeavouring to instruct the ignorant, to awaken the stupid sinner, to quicken the lukewarm, to confirm the wavering, to comfort the feebleminded, to succour the tempted, or contribute in any manner to the saving of souls from death. This is the repentance, and these the fruits meet for repentance, which are necessary to full sanctification. This is the way wherein God hath appointed his children to wait for compleat salvation.
11. Hence may appear the extreme mischievousness of that seemingly innocent opinion, That " there is no sin in a believer; that all sin is destroyed, root and branch, the moment a man is justified.” By totally preventing that repentance, it quite blocks up the way to sanctification. There is no place for repensance, in him who believes there is no sin either in his life or heart. Con