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who was called the Saint. The matter coming to be more seriously discussed, three plans were suggested-peace, war, or suppression of trade. Finally it was proposed that Capt. Rainsborough should be employed in an expedition against Sallee, and he and Mr. Giles Penn (father of the future Adm. William Penn) were called upon by the King, Dec. 28, to give their opinion concerning the particulars. In a letter, some three weeks earlier, Capt. R., then an invalid at Southwold, on the Suffolk coast, states his great willingness to attend the Lords and further their project, as soon as he can set out for London. The plan, which he subsequently submitted, states that to redeem the captives would require over 100,000/., the payment of which would but encourage the pirates to continue their present course. Whereas to besiege them by sea would not only effect the purpose, but give security for the future, or a fleet might be kept on their coast for two or three years, until their ships were worm-caten. That" the maintenance of the suggested fleet would be very much to the King's honor in all the maritime ports in Christendom, &c." He recommends himself to go as Admiral in the Leopard, Capt. George Carteret as V. Adm. in the Antelope, Capt. Brian Harrison in the Hercules, Capt. George Hatch in the Gt. Neptune, Capt. Th. White in the largest pinnace, and Capt. Edmund Scamon in the lesser. The plan was adopted, and, Feb. 20, 1636-7, Sec. Coke writes from Whitehall to the Lord Dep. Strafford: "This day Capt. Rainsborough, an experienced & worthy seaman, took his leave of his Majesty, and goeth instantly to sea with four good ships and two pinnaces to the coast of Barbary, with instructions & resolution to take all Turkish frygates he can meet, & to block up the port of Sally, & to free the sea from these rovers, which he is confident to perform.

March 4 the little squadron was in the Downs and on the eve of departure. The port of Sallee was reached in good season, and the enemy's cruisers, about to start for England and Ireland, were hemmed in and twenty-eight of their number destroyed. A close siege was now maintained, assisted on the land side by the old Governor of the town, and the place was delivered up to the English, July 28th. The Emperor now agreed to join in a league with King Charles, promising never again to infest the English coasts, and forthwith delivered up some 300 captives, with whom Capt. Carteret immediately returned homeward. Rainsborough, however, on Aug. 21, proceeded to Saffee to treat for about 1000 English captives who had been sold to Tunis and Algiers. Here he remained till Sept. 19, when the Emperor's Ambassador came aboard, accompanied by Mr. Robert Blake, a merchant trading to Morocco, for whom the Emperor had formed a friendship, and who had obtained the position of Farmer of all his Ports and Customs. On the 21st they left the coast, and arriving fifteen days later in the Downs, landed, Oct. 8, at Deal Castle. Detained at Gravesend through sickness, it was not until the 19th that the Ambassador was conducted to London by the Master of Ceremonies, and, landing at the Tower, was taken to his lodgings with much display & trumpeting." In the procession were the principal citizens and Barbary merchants mounted, all richly apparelled, and every man having a chain of gold about him, with the Sheriffs and Aldermen in their scarlet gowns, and a large body of the delivered captives, some of whom had been over thirty years in servitude, arrayed in white, and though it was night, yet the streets" were almost as light as day." Sunday, Nov. 5, the Ambassador was received by the King, to whom he brought, as a present from his imperial master, some hunting hawks and four steeds, "the choicest & best in all Barbary, & valued at a great rate, for one Horse was prized at 1500 pound." These, led by four black Moors in red liveries, were caparisoned with rich saddles embroidered with gold, and the stirrups of two of them were of massive gold, and the bosses of their bridles of the same metal. An account of the proceedings was printed towards the close of the month, entitled, "The Arrival & Entertainment of the Morocco Ambassador Alkaid (or Lord) Jaurar Ben Abdella, from the High & Mighty Prince Mully Mahamed Sheque, Emperor of Morocco, King of Fesse & Susse, &c. Great was the enthusiasm created by the successful issue of the expedition, and even Waller was prompted to eulogize the event in the following rather ponderous lines :

"Salle that scorn'd all pow'r and laws of men,
Goods with their owners hurrying to their den;

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This pest of mankind gives our Hero fame,
And thus th' obliged world dilates his name.

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Even grumbling Master Andrew Burrell, who, in a pamphlet of 1646 condemns the entire Navy, its officers, &c., though he had himself built for them the Marie Rose," the most sluggish ship they had afloat, confesseth that Rainsborough's Fleet 66 performed better service than England's Navie did in 44 years before." The King was very willing and forward to have knighted the gallant Admiral, but he declined the honor, and order was given that he should have a gold chain and medal of the value of 3007.; a memorial of loyal service perhaps still extant, "should not very opposite family feelings have melted it down in the days of the Rump," observes Disraeli in his Life of Charles I. An augmentation to the family arms was undoubtedly conferred at the time in the shape of a Saracen's head couped ppr. in the fesse point."

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Meanwhile the raising of funds and supplies for the equipment of the fleet for the following year had again become necessary, and Strafford, writing to the Abp. of Canterbury from Dublin, 27 Nov., says in connection, "this action of Sallee, I assure you, is so full of honor, that it will bring great content to the subject, and should, methinks, help much towards the ready, cheerful payment of the shipping monies." Early in Feb. 1637–8, the list of ships, which were to keep the seas during the following summer, was published, headed by the Sovereign of the Seas. This vessel, launched at Woolwich the preceding year, had been in progress since May, 1635, and surpassed in size, tonnage and force anything heretofore constructed for the English Navy. Thomas Heywood published an account of it, with a view of this "his Majesty's royal Ship, the Great Glory of the English Nation, and not to be paralleled in the whole Christian World," while Marmaduke Rawdon, of York, mentions in his Life,* a visit, in 1638, to the Royal Sovereign, Capt. Rainsberry, then newly finished and riding at Erith, below Woolwich.

Burrell, in his pamphlet before alluded to, condemns the vessel as "an admirable ship for costly Buildings, & cost in keeping; and, which adds to the miracle, the Royall Ship is never to be used for the Kingdom's good," &c. The Commissioners of the Navy answered in reply: "Capt. Rainsborough, whom Master Burrell confesseth, in his time, was the most eminent Commander in this Kingdom, had the trial of her in the Channel of England, and at his return reported to his Majestie that he never set his foot in a better conditioned Ship in all his life. And as for her Forces, she is not inferior to the greatest Ship in Christendom."+

On Sunday, March 18th, Algernon, Earl of Northumberland, obtained the position of General at Sca, or Lord High Admiral, during his Majesty's pleasure, the King designing to eventually bestow that office upon his younger son, the Duke of York. That Capt. Rainsborough was ever in active naval service after his cruise in the Sovereign does not appear. He and others, owners of the 200 ton ship Confidence of London, were allowed Feb. 19, by the Lords of the Admiralty, to mount her with 20 pieces of cast-iron ordnance, and, during the fall of the year, together with some 155 other sea-faring men, he signed his consent to a proposition made by the Lord High Admiral and the Att. General, that an amount be deducted from their wages for the establishment of the Poor Seamen's Fund, to be administered by the officers of the Trinity House. The following year, as appears by a paper among the Duke

*Camden Soc. Pub.

+ She subsequently did such good service that the Dutch nicknamed her "the Golden Devil."

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of Northumberland's MSS., he submitted a proposition, in the form of articles, suggesting that 10,000 pieces of ordnance, with carriages, &c., be kept in readiness to arm 100 collier-ships, which may fight with a great army; stating their superiority for such service. Commission was given, Oct. 20, 1639, to Sir Edward Littleton, Solic. General, Sir Paul Pindar and Capt. William Rainsborough, to inquire into the truth of the statements made in the petition to the Privy Council, by Edward Deacon, who with his goods had been seized and detained in Sallee for debts there contracted by Mr. Robert Blake, as factor for some London merchants; petitioner having come to England, after leaving his son in Barbary as a pledge, in pursuit of said Blake, who, at the time, or immediately subsequent, was one of the gentlemen of the Council.

As William Rainsborough, Esq., he, with Squire Bence, merchant, were members from Aldborough, a seaport of co. Suffolk, in the Fourth Parl. of Charles I., held at Westminster from 13 April to 5 May, 1640; as also in the Parliament which convened 3 Nov. following; that most notable of English Parliaments, before which, a week later, Thomas, Earl of Strafford, was accused of high treason. May 27, 1641, he with others took the oath of Protestation, for the defence of the religion established, of the King's person, and the liberty of the subject: the same having been assented to by both houses on the 3d and 4th of the same month. Aug. 25th Capt. R. was at the head of the committee for taking the whole state of the navy into consideration, and providing ships for transporting the ordnance and ammunition from Hull and other parts of the north. Five days later the merchants' petition for erecting a Company for America and Africa, &c., was referred to Sir John Colpeper and Mr. Pymm especially, assisted by twenty-three other members, among whom was Capt. Rainsborough. The same day he was included in a committee to whom had been referred the Act for making Wapping Chapel parochial. He was also appointed, Sept. 9, a member of the Recess Committee, during the adjournment of Parliament till Oct. 20th; and on Nov. 19, was on a committee for naval affairs, with some other members, including Sir Henry Vane. Three days later it was ordered that citizens that serve for the City of London and Capt. Rainsborough do inform themselves what shipping are now in the River that are fit to transport the Magazine at Hull to the Tower, and to give an account of it to-morrow morning"; this was in pursuance of a resolution of the 3d.

And so ends his life and public services, for no more is heard of him till Feb. 14, 1641-2, when the Speaker of the Ilouse was ordered to issue a warrant to the Clerk of the Crown in Chancery for a new writ to be issued forth for the election of a new Burgess to serve for the town of Alborough in co. Suffolk, in the room and stead of Capt. Rainsborough deceased, and Alex. Bence, Esq., was accordingly elected. On the 17th his body was interred in St. Catherine's (Tower), London. At the time of his decease the Captain was a widower, his wife Judith, a daughter of Renold and Joane Hoxton, having been buried at Wapping, 3 March, 1637-8. The will of William Rainsborow of London Esq., dated 16 July, 1638, with codicil of 1 Feb. 1641 proved 8 April, 1642, has been already given.

1. THOMAS RAINSBOROWE, Esq., of Whitechapel, co. Midd. (William,2 Thomas1), commonly known in history as Col. Rainsborough. A naval captain at first under the L. H. Adm. Warwick; then a colonel of infantry under the Parliament, and finally V. Adm. of their Fleet. A member of the Long Parliament. A more detailed account of this prominent and distinguished individual may be given hereafter. Suffice it to say that the Rev. Hugh Peters, alluding to the services of this officer at the taking of Worcester, that last stronghold for the King (in July, 1646), observes, and truely I wish Colonell Rainborow a suitable employment by Sea or Land, for both which God hath especially fitted him; foraine States would be proud of such a Servant."* Resisting a seizure of his person on the part of the royalists, he was killed at Doncaster, 29 Oct. 1648, and buried at Wapping, 14 Nov. Administration on his estate was granted, 24 Nov., to his widow Margaret, maiden name probably Jenney.

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1. William, eldest son; mentioned in wills of his grandfather 1638, and his unclé Edward 1677. He was a Captain in the army, it would appear, during the Protectorate, and judging from the Winthrop Letters (Mass. Hist. Soc. Col. 5, viii.) was in Boston, N. E., 1673; living 1687.

2. WILLIAM3 RAINSBOROW (William,2 Thomas1); mentioned in Savage's Geneal. Dic. as being of Charlestown, Mass. Col. 1639; Artillery Co. same year; purchas

* King's Pamphlets, Brit. Mus., E. 351.

ed 17 Dec. 1640, of Th. Bright, house and land in Watertown, which had been the homestall of Lt. Robt. Feake. Budington mentions his purchase of the old meeting-house. He was evidently a trader or sea-captain. March 7, 1643-4, the treasurer of the Colony was ordered to attend to the discharge of Mr. Rainsborow's debt, with allowance of £20 forbearance for the time past, and the loan of two sachars for two great pieces for one voyage. He had been in England in 1642, when in April his name, and that of his brother Thomas, are found on the list of the proposed Adventurers by Sea, against Ireland. This was the expedition against Galway, &c., whereof, under Lord Forbes, his brother Thomas was commander, and the Rev. Hugh Peters chaplain.

Judging from the discharge of his debt and the loan of cannon, Capt. R. again returned to the old country in 1643-4, and though there are subsequent entries as to the debt, the moneys are always to be paid to parties abroad on R.'s account. He immediately espoused the people's cause and joined that division of the army which was in the west under Lord Essex. Finding himself in a critical position, the Lord General despatched Stapleton, his General of Horse, to Parliament, calling for aid, and on the night of Aug. 30th, Sir William Balfour, his Lieut. General, passed safely through the King's Quarters with 2300 horse, and reached London. Two nights thereafter Essex himself and Lord Roberts fled in a cock-boat to Plymouth, and the following day, Sept. 2, 1644, the commanding officer, Serj. Major General Skippon, surrendered with all the infantry and a few horse. According to a return* found in the quarters of Sir Edward Dodsworth, Com. Gen. of the Horse, we find that the cavalry had previously mustered at Tiverton, co. Devon, 39 troops, 420 officers and 2785 men. The first division of 8 troops, 639 men, under Sir Philip Stapleton, Major Gen. Philip Skippon and Maj. Hamilton; the six troops of the second division (62 officers, 432 men), being commanded by Sir William Balfour, 14 officers, 100 men; Major Balfour, 9 officers, 77 men; Sir Samuel Luke (Gov. of Newport Paganel, co. Bucks), 10 officers, 72 men; Capt. Rainsborow, 9 officers, 57 men; Capt. Sample, 10 officers, 61 men; Capt. Boswell, 10 officers, 65 men.

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Prestwich's " Respublica" describes the cornet of Capt. Rainsborough's troop as follows: "Azure; from the sinister base point all over the base, and up to the middle of the dexter side, clouds Argent, shaded with black and crimson; near the middle or base, a book in pale closed and clasped and covered Or, on the front or side thus: between this book and the dexter side, and a little above the base, an armed arm and hand uplifted, as issuant from the clouds, and as in pale, holding in his hand a Hussar's sword as barrways, and waved on both sides, and the point burning and inflamed with fire proper, hilted Or; in chief a scroll, its end turned or doubled in, and then bent out and split, and fashioned double like two hooks, endorsed Argent, lined Or, and ends shaded with crimson and Argent, and in Roman capital letters Sable, VINCIT VERITAS. Arms.-Chequered Or and Azure, and in fess a Moor's head in profile, bearded and proper, his head banded with a wreath Argent."

In the list of officers for the New Model of the army, which was sent up from the House of Commons to the House of Lords, 3 March, 1644-5, and approved on the 18th, Col. Sheffield's squadron of horse consisted of his own troop and those of Major Sheffield and Captains Eveling, Rainsborow, Martin and Robotham. He subsequently obtained the rank of Major, and Whitelock informs us of letters received, July 2, 1647, from the Commissioners in the Army, certifying "that the General had appointed Lt. Gen. Cromwell, Cols. Ireton, Fleetwood, Rainsborough, Harrison, Sir Har. Waller, Richard Lambert and Hammond, and Major Rainsborough, or any five of them, to treat with the Parliament's Commissioners upon the papers sent from the Army to the Parliament, and their Votes."

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From the Journals of the House of Commons, under date of 27 Sept. 1650, we read that “Mr. Weaver reports from the committee for suppressing lycentious and impious practices, under pretence of religious liberty, &c., the confession of Lawrence Clackson (or Claxton), touching the making and publishing of the impious and blasphemous booke called the Single Eye,' and also Major Rainsborrow's carriage in countenancing the same. Claxton, departing from the established church, appears to have joined all the prominent sectaries of the day, and from a tract of his published in 1660, entitled "the Lost Sheep Found," we gather that much of his trouble and imprisonment resulted from his own licentious behavior, he maintaining that "to the pure all things are pure." He was sent to the house

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* Symond's Diary of Marches, Camden Soc. Pub.

of correction for one month and then banished, and his book was burned by the common hangman. Major Rainsborough, residing at the time at Fulham, was one of his disciples, "and seems to have been an apt scholar in improving his relations with the female part of the flock."* It was resolved by the House that he be discharged and disabled of and from being and executing the office of Justice of Peace in co. Middlesex, or any other county within England or Wales.

For almost nine years we hear nothing of him, but on Tuesday, 19 July, 1659, he presented a petition to the Ilouse on behalf of the Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace and Gentry of the co. of Northampton, and on the same day was made a Commissioner for the Militia for the same county. In accordance with a report from said commissioners, he was appointed by Parliament, Aug. 9, Colonel of a Regiment of Horse in co. Northants. After the Restoration, a warrant was issued, 17 Dec. 1660, to Lieut. Ward for the apprehension of Col. William Rainsborough at his residence, Mile End Green, Stepney (near London), or elsewhere, for treasonable designs, and to bring him before Secretary Sir Edward Nichols. He was accordingly arrested and confined in the Gatehouse. On his examination next day he declared he was a Major of horse, but dismissed by Cromwell in 1649; that the Rump Parliament made him a Colonel of Militia-horse, 1659, but nothing was done; that he had bought 40 cases of pistols for militia, and had since tried to dispose of them. He gave bond for 500l., Feb. 7, 1661, with Dr. Richard Barker of the Barbican as security for his good behavior.

His wife's name was Margery, and, as we have seen before, the will of Capt. Rowland Coytmore of Wapping, in 1626, mentions a son-in-law William Rainsborough, mariner, of Wapping; while the will of Stephen Winthrop, 1658, leaves a legacy to "cousin Mary Rainsborowe, daughter of my brother-in-law William Rainsborowe, Esq." From the Winthrop Letters (Mass. Hist. Soc. Coll. 5, viii.) he appears to have been in Boston, N. E., in 1673, with his nephew William.

3. MARTHA, bapt. at Whitechapel, 20 April, 1617; married at Wapping, 14 June, 1635, Thomas Coytmore,‡ son of Capt. Rowland Coytmore, an East India trader. He came to N. England next year and was wrecked, 27 Dec. 1644, on the coast of Spain, leaving issue. Her second husband, whom she married 4 Dec. 1647, was Gov. John Winthrop, to whom she was fourth wife; he died 26 March, 1649, aged 61. She married thirdly, 10 March, 1652, John Coggan of Boston, as his third wife; he died 27 April, 1658, leaving issue. Disappointed of a fourth marriage, we are given to understand that she committed suicide in 1660.

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4. JUDITH, bapt. at Wapping, 14 Sept. 1624; married about 1644, Stephen Winthrop, son of Gov. John W., born 24 March, 1619. He returned to England 1645, became a Colonel of Horse under Parliament, receiving 4741. 10s. per annum, and in 1656 was M.P. for Banff and Aberdeen. Resided at time of decease in James Street, Westminster. His will of 3 May, proved 19 Aug. 1658, mentions three daughters, Margaret, Joanna and Judith, as before given. She is mentioned 1668, in her uncle Thomas's will.

5. SAMUEL,3 b. ob. infs.; buried at Wapping, 24 Nov. 1628.

6. JOANE, b. m. John Chamberlain, a captain under Parliament; living in May, 1687, a brewer at Deptford, co. Kent. She is mentioned 1668 in her uncle Thomas's will. The will of S. Winthrop, 1658, mentions their daughter Judith.

7. REYNOLD,3 bapt. at Whitechapel, 1 June, 1632.

8. EDWARD, bapt. at Whitechapel, 8 Oct. 1633. Richard Wharton, writing from Boston, N. E., Sept. 24, 1673, to a kinsman of rank and influence in England, suggests that his Majesty should send out two or three frigates, by the ensuing February or March, with some 300 soldiers, for the recapture of New York from the Dutch. That the expedition should be assisted by a colonial force, the whole to be under the command of some native leader, such as Maj. Gen. Daniel Dennison. He continues: for a more certain knowledge of the constitutions of or government & complexions of the people I refer you to Mr Edwd Rainsborough an intelligt

*Notes and Queries, 4th Series, xi. 487.

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In the limits of Charleton, parish of Newbottle, co. Northants, is a camp and hill commonly called "Rainsborough Hill," supposed to be of Danish origin.

Katherine, daughter of Thomas and Martha Quoitmore, bapt. at Wapping, 13 April, and buried 19 April, 1636.

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