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STEVEN WINTHROP of James Street, Westminster, Esq., 3 May 1658, proved 19 August, 1658. To wife Judith the house wherein I now dwell, with the house adjoining, lately erected, for her life, and then to all my children. All the rest to my daughters Margaret, Joanna and Judith and such child or children as my said wife shall now be great withall. To my nephew Adam Winthrop, son of my brother Adam Winthrop deceased; to the children of my brother Deane Winthrop; to my brother Samuel Winthrop's children; to my half brother John Winthrop's children; to my cousin Mary Rainborowe daughter of my brother in law William Rainborowe Esq.; to my cousin Judith Chamberlaine, daughter of my brother in law John Chamberlaine Esq.-sundry bequests. To the poor of Boston in New England one hundred pounds of lawfull money of England upon Condition that the Inhabitants of Boston aforesaid doe build and erect a Tombe or Monument, Tombes or Monuments, for my deceased ffather and Mother upon their graue or graues of ffifftie pounds value att the least, whoe now lyeth buried att Boston aforesaid, according to the Loue and honour they bore to him and her in theire life time." The executors to be my wife Judith Winthropp, my brother in law John Chamberlaine Esq. and Thomas Plampyon, gentleman.
The witnesses were Leo: Chamberlaine, Elizabeth Baldrey and Clement Ragg (by mark). Wootton, 418.
[In Suffolk Registry of Deeds (Book 8, p. 193) may be found record of conveyance made by Judith Winthrop and John Chamberlain, executors of Stephen Winthrop, 20 April, 1671, to Edward Rainborow of London, of all the said Winthrop's land in New England, consisting of one half of Prudence Island and fifteen hundred acres in Lynn or Salem, &c. This latter property included the well known Pond Farm (Lynnfield), originally granted to Colonel John Humfrey.-H. F. W. In addition to the ten letters of Stephen W., printed in Part IV. of the Winthrop Papers (5 Mass. Hist. Coll., viii. pp. 199-218) we have found several others, but they are of no importance. Before his final return to England he was Recorder of Boston and a Representative; and, but for the failure of his health caused by sleeping on the damp ground, there is reason to believe Cromwell would have made him one of his generals, as Roger Williams, writing to John Winthrop, Jr., in 1656, says, Your brother Stephen succeeds Major-General Harrison." By his own desire he was buried with his ancestors at Groton in Suffolk, where were also interred a number of his children, most of whom died young. Only two daughters are known with certainty to have survived him: Margaret, who married 1st, Henry Ward, and 2d, Edmund Willey, R. N., and had issue; and Joanna, who married Richard Hancock, of London, and died s. p. During his military service his wife resided partly at Groton and afterwards at Marylebone Park near London, a portion of which estate he had purchased. This gave rise to an absurd tradition, perpetuated in some pedigrees of the last century, that the Winthrops were "of Marylebone Park before they settled in Suffolk." Besides his house in James Street, Westminster, he owned, at the time of his death, his father's house in Boston, on the southerly portion of which estate the Old South Church now stands; this was subsequently sold by his widow, but whether she ever returned to New England I do not know. My kinsman Robert Winthrop, of New York, has a portrait (of which I have a copy) of a young officer of the Stuart period, which has been in our family for generations, and is called Colonel Stephen Winthrop, M.P." If authentic, it must have either been sent by him as a present to his father before his death, or subsequently procured by his brother John, or his nephew Fitz-John, during their residence in England.-R. C. WINTHROP, JR.]
THOMAS RAINBOROWE of East Greenwich in the County of Kent, gentleman, 24 November, 1668, proved 2 January 1671 by Mary Rainborowe, his widow & executrix. To wife Mary, for life, an annuity bought of Ralph Buskin of Oltham in the County of Kent Esq. one bought of Edward Turner of East Greenwich, gentleman, and all my other goods, moneys, &c.
She to be executrix and to pay two hundred pounds (on a bond which testator made to his mother*). I give to my brother's son Edward Rainborowe twenty pounds, to my brother's daughter Judith Winthrop twenty pounds and to my said brother's daughter Joane Chamberlaine fifty pounds. To the poor of East Greenwich ten pounds. The witnesses were William Richardson & John Fuller. Eure, 7. [The following notes on the Rainsborough family, collected some years ago, will throw light on Mr. Waters's abstracts :
1537.-Reynold Ravynsbye, freeman of the Co. of Cloth Workers, London. 1598.-Roger Rainseburye of Stawley, co. Somerset. Will dated July 24, proved Aug. 23, 1598. Bequeaths to the poor of Kettleford 3-4. To the poor of Ashbrittle 3-4. To his goddaughter Agnes Gover 20s. To each of his other godchildren, not named, 4d. To Edward Blackaller his wife's godson 20s. Residue to wife Honor, whom he appoints executrix, and her friends John Gover and William Golde overseers.-Book Lewyn, fo. 68.
1603.-Nicholas Rainbury of Stawley. Will dated April 19, 1603; proved May 4, 1611. To the poor of Stawley the interest of £10,-to be used in keeping them at work. To each of his godchildren, not named, 6s. To Mary, dau. of Richard Wyne 20s. To each of the children of John Grover 12d. To the poor of Ashbrittle 108. To the poor of Kettleford 58. To each of the ringers 12d. To Parson John Blackealler 10s. Residue to his sister-in-law Honour Rainsbury, whom he appoints executrix, and William Golde and John Gover, overseers.-Book Wood, fo. 46. Stanleigh or Stowley, Kittesford and Ashbuttel, all in Milverton Hundred. 1615.-Henry Raygnesburye of Culmstock, co. Devon, husbandman. Will dated Feb 8, 1615; proved March 9, 1615. To his son Henry £60. To daughter Alice R. £80, to be paid to her uncle Christopher Baker, clothier, for her use. To George, son of Andrew Bowreman 10s. To each of his godchildren, not named, 124. To the poor 20s. Residue to wife Susan whom he appoints executrix.-Book Cope, fo. 29.
During the Protectorate the Baker family held the Manor of Columbstock, Hemyoke Hundred, co. Devon.
1636.-Henry Raynsbury, of the parish of St. Austin (Augustine) in London, factor. Will dated March 15, 1636, proved May 8, 1637. To Mr. Stephen Denison, Doctor and Lecturer, of Great All Hallows, 10s, to preach a sermon at his burial, and to the minister of the parish, where he shall be buried, for giving him way to preach the sermon £5. To each poor man and woman of the parish as the church wardens may select 10s. To the parish of Cullumstock, co. Devon, where he was born £100-for the use of the poor forever, the interest to be divided once a year among eight poor men and women. To the poor of Samford Arundel (Milverton Hund.) co. Somerset, £10-for the use of the poor forever. To his sister Alice Wood, widow, of Henryoke, co. Devon, all his inheritage lands in the county of Lincoln, during her life, then to be divided among her five children. To Mrs. Susan Fleming, wife of Mr. John Fleming of St. Austin's, London £109. To their three children, Roland, Mary and Susan, each £10. To each of his godchildren, not named, 20s. To ten poor laboring porters of Blackwall Hall (market for selling woolen cloths), each 108. To cousin Edward, son of cousin Edward Baker of Henryoke £20. To ten poor servant-maids of Cullumstock, each 20s. Residue to his godson Henry Baker, son of cousin John Baker the elder, of Culiumstock, clothier, when 21 years of age. Appoints the said John Baker executor, and his uncle Christopher Baker, cousin Henry Holwaye, and gossip John Rew, overseers, and gives each of them £5.-Book Goare, fo. 59.
The Hundreds of Milverton, co. Somers and Henryoke, co. Devon adjoin.
The parish registers of Whitechapel, co. Mid., which begin in 1558, record the marriage of
THOMAS RAINEBOROW and Martha Moole, Nov. 11, 1582.
In Chancery Proceedings, temp. Elizabeth, P.p. No. 23, occurs a bill, filed 1641; Thomas Raynsbury and others, to vacate an annuity charged by George Peirce plaintiff on a freehold messuage in Gate Lane, parish of St. Mary Staynings, London, for use of plaintiff's daughter Eliz. Peirce.
Thomas Rainborowe of East Greenwich, mariner, had a lease of certain lands, 28 Sept. 1619, at Claverhambury, co. Essex, from Lord Edward Denny, which manor,
His mother had been dead many years.
with Hallyfield Hall, &c., had been granted by Henry VIII., 1542, to his lordship's grandfather Sir Anthony Dennye.
His children, baptized at Whitechapel, were:
1. 1583, April 28.
Barbara,2 m. Thomas Lee, armorer, of London, and after Mr. Burbridge, or Buckridge.
The name is spelled variously on the registers, as Rain(e) borow (e), Rain (e)sborow(e), Raynsborow, Raineburrow (e), Rainsberry, and, though possibly it is synonymous with Ramesbury or Remmesbury [of co. Wilts, &c.), the armorial bearings of the two families do not coincide, the Rainsborowe arms being similar to those of the Raynes, Reynes, or Reymes.
The will of Thomas Rainborowe, mariner of East Greenwich, co. Kent, dated 4 Dec. 1622, and proved 23 Feb. 1623, is given in this article by Mr. Waters, as also that of the widow, Martha Rainborowe, who afterwards resided in the parish of St. Bridget's, London, where she died in 1631.
Before considering the elder son William, it may be briefly stated that the second son
THOMAS RAINBOROW, bapt. at Whitechapel 15 Oct. 1594, in his will of 24 Nov. 1668, proved 2 Jan. 1671 (as given by Mr. Waters), is styled "of East Greenwich, gent. He evidently died without issue surviving him, though he had a son Thomas, bapt. at Whitechapel, 18 Sept. 1614. The will of his widow is as follows: Mary Rainborow of Greenwich, co. Kent, widow; dated 11 Feb. 1677, proved 9 Apr. 1678. Whereas she has heretofore expressed her kindness to her brother and sister, not named, to the utmost of her ability, she now gives them but twelve pence. Appoints her niece Sarah Trott, who now lives with her, cxecutrix, and makes her residuary legatee.-Book Reeve, fol. 37.
WILLIAM RAINBOROW (eldest son of Thomas1), bapt. at Whitechapel, 11 June, 1587. In Nov. 1625, we find him a part owner and in command of the Sampson of London, 500 tons, built at Limehouse, and now granted the privilege of carrying great guns. His name occurs frequently in the Cal. Dom. State Papers. Secretary Lord Edward Conway writes him, 20 March, 1626, relative to taking aboard the trunks, &c. of Sir Thomas Phillips, Ambassador for Constantinople. Letters of Marque were granted 24 Oct. 1627, and finally, when the reconstruction of the navy was paramount with King Charles, the merchantman Sampson, well fortified with iron ordnance, was one of the vessels presented, in Dec. 1634, by the City of London, for his Majesty's service. Williain Raynisborowe, as one of the inhabitants in the vicinity of the Tower, complained, in the summer of 1627, of the nuisance of an alum-factory erected at the west end of Wapping. Five years later we find his knowledge and experience of maritime matters duly recognized by the Lords of the Admiralty, who in their order of 21 April, 1632, appoint Capt. Rainsborough one of the gentlemen to attend a meeting of the Board on the 26th, to give their opinion concerning the complements and numbers of men to be allowed for manning each of his Majesty's ships.
Jan. 2, 1634-5, the King in Council had expressed his desire that the Merhonour, the Swiftsure, the City of London and other vessels should be presently put forth to sea. The order was confirmed March 10, and the first named vessel was ordered to be fitted out and victualled by April 24 for six months' service, the charge to be defrayed with moneys paid by the several ports and maritime places. To the Merhonour, at Chatham, the Lords of the Admiralty appoint Capt. William Rainborough, March 30, with Capt. William Cooke as Master. This 44 gun vessel (800 tons), sometimes called the May Honora, had been rebuilt and launched, 25 April, 1614, at Woolwich, by Phineas Pett. Other vessels commissioned at the time were the Constant Reformation, Capt. Thomas Ketelby; the Swallow, Capt. Henry Stradling; the Mary Rose, Capt. George Carteret; the Sampson, Capt. Thomas Kirke, &c. &c.; and these were under the command of Sir William Monson, Vice Adm. in the James, and Sir John Pennington, Rear Adm. in the Swiftsure. Since the death of the Duke of Buckingham in 1628, the office of Lord Admiral had remained in commission, but on May 14, 1635, one of the Navy Commissioners, Rob
ert Bertie, Lord Willoughby de Eresby and Earl of Lindsey, was appointed Admiral, Custos Maris, General and Governor of His Majesty's Fleet, for the guard of the Narrow Seas. He was to defend the King and the Kingdom's honor, which had been lately called in question by a fleet of French and Dutch off Portland, and to exact the due homage of the sea" from passing ships, and so restore to England her ancient sovereignty of the Narrow Seas; he was also to clear the neighboring waters of pirates and Turks; to convoy merchants and others desiring it; to guard against any infringement of the custom on the part of returning vessels, &c. About the middle of April the Merhonour repaired to Tilbury Hope to receive the remainder of her stores; and on May 16 the Admiral came on board, the ships meeting twelve days later in the Downs. Rainsborough's vessel, though a good sailer, proved somewhat leaky, and the Admiral was desirous at first of changing to the Triumph; however, the leaks having been found and her foremast repaired, he concluded she would do well for her present employment, and continued cruizing in her until he brought the fleet into the Downs once more on Oct. 4. Most of the ships were now ordered to Chatham and Deptford, though a few continued out under Sir John Pennington. The Earl despatched his journal of the expedition to the King, and hoped he might, with his Majesty's favor, return home. The Hollanders, who in pursuit of the Dunkirk frigates, had been accustomed to land on the English coast, committing depredations upon the inhabitants, had been checked; one of their armed bands had been arrested at Whitby, and a vessel of 21 guns had been taken and sent into Hull; moreover, Capt. Stradling, in the Swallow of 30 guns, being off the Lizard alone, had met the French Admiral Manti with two vessels, who after receiving an admonitory shot apiece, had each struck their flags and topsails, and saluted with three pieces of ordnance.
Writs were now sent to the sheriffs of the various counties of England, to levy money to defray the charge of a fleet for next year of double the strength of that which had just been employed, and attention was paid to the improvement of the vessels in the removal of the cumbersome galleries, as suggested by Capt. Rainsborough. This gentleman, together with one of the commissioners, Sir John Wostenholm and others, was appointed Dec. 9 to inquire into the institution, state, order and government of the Chest at Chatham, as established in 1588 by Queen Elizabeth, with Adms. Drake and Hawkins, for the relief of wounded and decayed seamen, and to certify their doings to the Co. of Chancery.
Towards the close of Feb. 1635-6, a list of Naval Captains, twenty-five in number, was handed in for the year, with Algernon, Earl of Northumberland, as Adm., Sir John Pennington as V. Adm., and Sir Henry Mervyn as Rear Adm. The Earl, in the Triumph, had chose Rainborow as his Captain, with William Cooke as Master, and during the next month he desired the Lords of the Admiralty that his Captain's pay might be made equal to theirs, and that he might have a Lieut., as he had more business to do than any other captain of the fleet. April 9, the ships at Portsmouth were awaiting the arrival of Capt. R. to take them out to sea, the Admiral having promised to send him down for that purpose.
At this time, and for a long series of years previous, England was and had been suffering from a grievous scourge, viz.: the pirates from the north of Africa. So bold and venturesome had they become during the summer of 1636, as to land within twelve miles of Bristol and successfully carry off men, women and children. Their chief place of refuge was the port of Cardiff and its vicinity, whence they carried on their depredations along either coast of the St. George's Channel. No relief, save an occasional collection for the redemption of captives, had heretofore been devised, and numerous were the petitions and statements now being presented to the King and the H. of Lords. The Court was moved to proclaim a general fast, and a sermon was preached in October by the Rev. Charles Fitz-Geffry, of St. Dominick, in Plymouth, from Heb. 13, 3; this was printed at Oxford, and entitled, "Compassion towards Captives, chiefly towards our Brethren & Countrymen who are in such miserable bondage in Barberie." A cotemporaneous document reads: "It is certainly known that there are five Turks in the Severne, wher they weekly take either English or Irish; and that there are a great number of their ships in the Channell, upon the coast of France and Biscay. Whereby it is come to passe that our mareners will noe longer goe to sea, nor from port to port; yea, the fishermen dare not putt to sea, to take fish for the country. If timely prevention be not used, the Newfoundland fleet must of necessity suffer by them in an extraordinary manner." The greater part of the captives, reported to be some 2000 in number, had been taken within the last two years, and the sea-rovers, most to be dreaded, were the pirates of New Sallee, who had revolted from the Emperor of Morocco, headed by a rebel
who was called the Saint. The matter coming to be more seriously discussed, three plans were suggested-peace, war, or suppression of trade. Finally it was proposed that Capt. Rainsborough should be employed in an expedition against Sallee, and he and Mr. Giles Penn (father of the future Adm. William Penn) were called upon by the King, Dec. 28, to give their opinion concerning the particulars. In a letter, some three weeks earlier, Capt. R., then an invalid at Southwold, on the Suffolk coast, states his great willingness to attend the Lords and further their project, as soon as he can set out for London. The plan, which he subsequently submitted, states that to redeem the captives would require over 100,000/., the payment of which would but encourage the pirates to continue their present course. Whereas to besiege them by sea would not only effect the purpose, but give security for the future, or a fleet might be kept on their coast for two or three years, until their ships were worm-eaten. That "the maintenance of the suggested fleet would be very much to the King's honor in all the maritime ports in Christendom, &c." He recommends himself to go as Admiral in the Leopard, Capt. George Carteret as V. Adm. in the Antelope, Capt. Brian Harrison in the Hercules, Capt. George Hatch in the Gt. Neptune, Capt. Th. White in the largest pinnace, and Capt. Edmund Scamon in the lesser. The plan was adopted, and, Feb. 20, 1636-7, Sec. Coke writes from Whitehall to the Lord Dep. Strafford: "This day Capt. Rainsborough, an experienced & worthy seaman, took his leave of his Majesty, and goeth instantly to sea with four good ships and two pinnaces to the coast of Barbary, with instructions & resolution to take all Turkish frygates he can meet, & to block up the port of Sally, & to free the sea from these rovers, which he is confident to perform."
March 4 the little squadron was in the Downs and on the eve of departure. The port of Sallee was reached in good season, and the enemy's cruisers, about to start for England and Ireland, were hemmed in and twenty-eight of their number destroyed. A close siege was now maintained, assisted on the land side by the old Governor of the town, and the place was delivered up to the English, July 28th. The Emperor now agreed to join in a league with King Charles, promising never again to infest the English coasts, and forthwith delivered up some 300 captives, with whom Capt. Carteret immediately returned homeward. Rainsborough, however, on Aug. 21, proceeded to Saffee to treat for about 1000 English captives who had been sold to Tunis and Algiers. Ilere he remained till Sept. 19, when the Emperor's Ambassador came aboard, accompanied by Mr. Robert Blake, a merchant trading to Morocco, for whom the Emperor had formed a friendship, and who had obtained the position of Farmer of all his Ports and Customs. On the 21st they left the coast, and arriving fifteen days later in the Downs, landed, Oct. 8, at Deal Castle. Detained at Gravesend through sickness, it was not until the 19th that the Ambassador was conducted to London by the Master of Ceremonies, and, landing at the Tower, was taken to his lodgings with much display & trumpeting.' the procession were the principal citizens and Barbary merchants mounted, all richly apparelled, and every man having a chain of gold about him, with the Sheriffs and Aldermen in their scarlet gowns, and a large body of the delivered captives, some of whom had been over thirty years in servitude, arrayed in white, and though it was night, yet the streets "were almost as light as day." Sunday, Nov. 5, the Ambassador was received by the King, to whom he brought, as a present from his imperial master, some hunting hawks and four steeds, "the choicest & best in all Barbary, & valued at a great rate, for one Horse was prized at 1500 pound." These, led by four black Moors in red liveries, were caparisoned with rich saddles embroidered with gold, and the stirrups of two of them were of massive gold, and the bosses of their bridles of the same metal. An account of the proceedings was printed towards the close of the month, entitled, "The Arrival & Entertainment of the Morocco Ambassador Alkaid (or Lord) Jaurar Ben Abdella, from the High & Mighty Prince Mully Mahamed Sheque, Emperor of Morocco, King of Fesse & Susse, &c. Great was the enthusiasm created by the successful issue of the expedition, and even Waller was prompted to eulogize the event in the following rather ponderous lines:
"Salle that scorn'd all pow'r and laws of men,
This pest of mankind gives our Hero fame,