Imágenes de páginas


ABANO, Petrus de, surnamed the Reconciler, i. 315; his
great character and ill treatment, ib. and n.

Abassines (Ethiopians), converted to Christianity in iv
cent. i. 39. See Abyssinians.

Abbas, the Great, King of Persia, lays waste Armenia,
in xvii cent. ii. 267; his generosity to the Armenians, and
great character, ib.

Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury, his lenity towards
the Puritans, and character, ii. 247 and n.; zeal for the
doctrinal tenets of Calvin, 248 and sub not.

Abelard, Peter, defends the Monks in xii cent. i. 290;
his character, 292 and n.; commentaries, 295; founder
of the Scholastics properly so called, 296; charged with
errors by St. Bernard, for which he is condemned as an
heretic, 297 and n.; attacks all the heresies in his time,

Abelites, their tenets, i. 64.

Abgarus, the story of him and Christ, if true, i. 17.
Abraxas, used by Basilides, what, i. 62.

Abul Farai, an eminent Syrian writer in xiii cent. i.
311; his works, ib. and n.; expositions of the scriptures,

Abyssinia, Romish mission in xvii cent. ii. 181; how
ruined, ib. and n. entirely banished by Basilides, son of
Seltam Segued, ib. and n,; several attempts for admission
unsuccessful, ib. and n.; 182 and n.; Lutheran missions
unsuccessful, 213.

Abyssinians, the doctrine of the Monophysites when
embraced by them, considered, i. 211; their state in xvi
cent. ii. 70.

Acacius, bishop of Constantinople, opposes the papal
power, i. 137; is excommunicated and deposed by Pope
Felix, ib.

Academics, their impious notions, i. 11.

Academies, two public in the empire, and their founders,
L. 46.

Academies, European, many founded in xiii cent. i. 312;
their state, ib. course of discipline observed by them, ib.
Academies founded by the Lutherans and Calvinists in

xvi cent. ii. 80.

Academies, one at Jena, by the Dukes of Saxe-Wel-
mar, ii. 90.

Academies at Geneva, by Calvin, ii. 102.

Academies of Sciences at Paris, by Lewis XIV. i. 163
and n.

Acephali, an account of, i. 137; their sub-divisions into
three other sects, ib. ; soon extinguished by Baradæus,

Acominatus, Nicetas, his polemic works, i. 335.
Acropolita, a Greek historian of xiii cent. i. 311, 335.
Adalbert, of Gaul, his character, i. 187; forges a letter
from Christ to mankind, ib. condemned at the instigation
of Boniface Winfrid, ib.

Adalbert, bishop of Prague, his vain attempts to con-
vert the Prussians in x cent. i. 244; suffers death for his
pious zeal, ib. his death revenged by Boleslaus, king of
Poland, who compels some of the Prussians to embrace
Christianity, ib.

Adamites, their tenets, i. 64.
Adamites, Bohemian, in xv cent. an account of, i. 395,

396 and n.

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Adrian IV. (Breakspear) Pope, orders Frederic I. Em.
peror to perform the office of equery to him, but his order
is rejected with contempt, i. 285; an open rupture is
expected, but prevented by the death of the Pope, ib
and n

Adrian VI. Pope, his good character, ii. 17; proposes
to reform the abuses in the church, but prevented by
death, ib
Elia Capitolina, a city raised on the ruins of Jerusalem
in ii cent. i. 43.

Emiliani (Jerome), founder of the clerks of St. Maieul,
or the Fathers of Somasquo, in xvi cent. ii. 55.

Eon, different meaning of this word among the Gnos-
tics, i. 26, n.

Erian controversy, and leader's principal tenets, i. 103;
his design to restore the primitive simplicity of Chris
tianity, ib. reflections upon such an attempt, 104 and n.

Africa, English and Dutch Colonies there in xvi cent.
ii. 154; missions. ib. success through the Capuchins, ib.
inaccuracy here, 155, n; why they were alone employ-
ed, ib.

Africans, the nature of their conversion in xv. cent. ex.
amined, i. 375.

Agapetus, his works and character, i. 147, 150.

Agnoetæ, an account of this sect in vi cent. i. 155; their
decline, ib.

Agobard, archbishop of Lyons, his character, i. 192,
198. censured for fomenting a rebellion, ib. a vehement
opposer of image-worship, ib. n. ; writes against the Jews,


Agricolo, John, founder of Antinomians in xvi cent. ii.
87; is opposed by Luther, and recants, ib. propagates
his doctrine after Luther's death, ib. his principles exa
mined, ib.

Albert the Great, his character, i. 314; and learning,
336; system of divinity, 338.

Albigenses, Paulicians, so called in xi. cent, and
whence, i. 269, and n.; a term applied by the Latins to all
heretics, 801.

Albizi, Bartholomew, his book of St. Francis' conformi
ties with Christ, i. 335 and n.

Alciat, banished Geneva, ii. 134 and n.; inclines to the
Arian system, 135, n.

Alcuin, preceptor to Charlemagne, his character, i. 180
and n.; expositions, 182; treatise on virtue, 183 and n;
lives of the saints, ib.

Aldhelm, an English prelate, an account of, i. 162 and
n.; his moral treatises, 163.

Alet, bishop of, refuses to transcribe the declaration
against the Jansenists in xvii cent. and the consequence,
ii. 202.

Alexander, of Lycopolis, if a Christian, i. 142 and n.
Alexander III. Pope, confers on the cardinals the sole
right of electing to the pontificate, i. 242, 288; augments
the college of electing cardinals, 244; orders schools to
be erected in monasteries, and cathedrals, 282; his con.
tested election, 285; obnoxious to the emperor Frederic
I. (Barbarossa,) whom he solemnly deposes, 286; i
obliged to fly and to leave his competitor Paschal III. in
the papal chair, ib. his success against Frederic, and inso
lence towards him examined, ib. and n.; dispute with
Henry II. king of England, ib. confirms the privileges of
the church, and extends the authority of the popes, 288
deprives the bishops of the power of canonization, and
confines it to the Roman pontiff, ib. confers the title of
King upon Alphonsus duke of Portugal, ib. his death,
and the troubles of his successor Lucius III. ib. his suc
cessors to Innocent III. ib. 289; condemns the vicious
rage of disputing about religious matters, 296.


Alexander VI. Pope, divides America between the Por
tuguese and Spaniards, i. 362; his infamous character.
387 and n.; is supposed to be poisoned, ib. and n.
Alexander VII. Pope (Chizi), instigated by the Jesuits;

Y y

annuls the sentence of Innocent X. concerning Chinese
rights, ii. 150; his character, 170; contest with Lewis
XIV. and the cause, 184; bull against Jansenius, and de-
claration, 201.

Alexander VIII. Pope (Ottoboni), his character, ii. 171.
Alexander, Natalis, writes against the popish claims, in
xvii cent. ii. 184.

Alexandria, patriarch of, his jurisdiction in the earliest
times of Christianity, i. 95; embassy sent by one to the
pope in xvi. cent. a Jesuitical scheme, ii. 48, 49, and n. ;
the extent of his authority in this cent. 67 and n.

Alfred, his taste for letters, i. 191; his works, ib.
n.; the most eminent learned men under him, ib. n.
Allatius, Leo, his works for uniting the Greek and Ro-
mish churches, ii. 210, and n.; disingenuity censured,

ib. and n.

Alliaco, Petrus de, labours to reform the schoolmen in
xv cent. i. 393.

Almeric, an account of, i. 313; the followers of this
philosopher guilty of enormous errors and vices, ib. n.

Almeric, king of Leon, an eminent patron of letters in
xiii cent. i. 312; the fame he acquired by his astronomi-
cal tables, ib. and n.

Alphonsus VI. king of Naples, a zealous promoter of
letters in xv cent. i. 376.

Altenburg, conference held at, to heal the Lutheran di-
visions, unsuccessful, ii. 92.

Alva, duke of, his cruelty checked by the prudent and
brave conduct of a prince of Orange, gave rise to the
powerful republic of the United Provinces, i. 306.
Amalmunis, Caliph of Babylon, an eminent patron of
letters among the Arabians in ix cent. i. 191.

Amalric, the absurd and impious doctrine taught by
him, i. 349 and n.; his chief disciple, who, ib. if he
adopted Joachim's predictions, ib.

Ambrose, bishop of Milan, his character, 1., 97 and n.;
three books on the duty of ministers, 100; opposes the
principles of Jovinian, 104.

Ambrose of Camalduli, his works, i. 390.

America, when first visited by the Europeans, i. 378;
its inhabitants converted to Christianity, ib. divided by
Pope Alexander VI. between the Portuguese and Spa-
niards, 375; missionaries sent, ib.

America, English and Dutch colonies there in xvi cent.
ii. 154; Romish missions, 155; method used by the Jesuits
for its conversion, with their views, and Labat's candid
declaration, ib. and n.; Protestant missions, 156; the am-
bition of the Jesuits in Paraguay, ib. sub fin. n.

Ames, William, explains morality, and account of, ii.
116 and n.; treats it as a separate science, 241.

Ammonius Saccas, founder of the new Platonics in ii
cent. i. 47; attempts a coalition of all philosophical sects
and religion with his own system of religion, ib. his
religious notions, if Pagan or Christian, considered, ib. n. ;
the principles of his philosophy, with its chief articles,
48; his moral discipline, ib. delivers his injunctions in
the language of scripture, ib. pretends to the power of
purging the Sensorium, ib. his notions of God and of
Christ, ib. and n.; the many pernicious effects of his phi-
losophy to Christianity, and hence the foundation of the
Monks and Mystics, 49; the rapid progress of his sect, 71
his Harmony of the Gospels, 76.

Amour, Guillaume, doctor of the Sorbonne, a strenu-
ous opposer of the Dominicans, and whence, i. 326; is
banished, and the cause, ib. his works and great cha-
racter, ib. and n.

Amsdorf, denies the necessity of good works, ii. 89; is
opposed by George Major, and the event, ib.

Amsterdam, clergy, and magistrates of, oppose the to-
leration of the Mennonites, in xvi cent. ii. 130.

Amulo, his works against the Jews in ix cent. i. 203.
Amyraut, Moses, account of his works, ii. 241; form of
his doctrine and reconciliatory endeavours, 244 ; meets
with opposition, yet gains ground, ib. proceedings of the
Swiss church against him, 261.

Anabaptists, their enthusiastic, seditious, and vile prin-
ciples in xvi cent. and punishments they undergo, ii. 28
and n.; their residence fixed at Munster, ib.

Anabaptists (Mennonites), their history, ii. 119; origin
obscure, and reason of their names, ib. and n.; insinceri-
ty in declaring their opinions concerning re-baptism, ib.
and n.; account of themselves and adversaries, 120 and
n.; most probable account of their origin, ib. maxim
whence their peculiarities, ib. different ways of thinking
among them about it, ib. their drooping spirits revived
on Luther's, &c. appearance, ib. satisfied with Luther's
plan of reformation, with an account of their first mo-
tions, 121; progress of this sect, ib. distinguished by
the enormity of their crimes, ib. points of doctrine
maintained by the most rational of them, who are not
equally chargeable with fury and brutal extravagance,
122; severe punishments inflicted on them, ib. and n.;
indiscriminate severity, with a discourse thereon, ib.

Anabaptists of Munster, their seditious madness and
ringleaders, ii. 122; their commotions in Holland, parti
cularly Amsterdam, 123 and n.; measures taken to ex-
tirpate them, ib. plot against the magistrates defeated,
ib. n.; how comforted by Menno, ib. questions about
their origin, how resolvable, 124 and n.; origin of the
sects that have started up among them, 125; warm con-
test, and divided into two sects, ib. how denominated,
ib. and n.; new dissensions among them, and division
into three sects, 126; the source of their doctrine, ib.
confession of one of their sects, ib. n.; whether sincere in
their public confessions, ib. their religion reduced into
a system, ib. their leading principle, 127; their religion
differs little from the reformed church, with their creed,
confessions, and peculiar tenets, ib. the fundamental prin-
ciple on which their doctrine is founded, ib. and how de-
viated from it, ib. and n. ; their peculiar tenets in which
they all agree, ib. system of morality, 128; primitive
austerity greatly diminished, ib. and n.; singular opinions
of some sects, ib. state of learning and philosophy among
them, 129, which are rejected by all, except the Water-
landians, ib.; remit some of their ancient rigour, ib. their
division into a multitude of sects, and the causes, ib.
their first solid settlement in the United Provinces, and
by what means, ib. English, called baptists, with an ac-
count of their other different denominations, 130; opi-
nions of the general and particular anabaptists in Eng
land, ib. and n.; account of a singular sect called David
ists, 131; tolerated under Cromwell, and account of,
254 and n.; their history in xvii cent. 275; various tor-
tunes of them, during this cent. ib. and n. ; union restor
ed among them, and how, ib. different sects, and bow
denominated, with their several characters and notions,
276 and n.; external form of their church, ib. three
orders of ministers among them, and their respective
functions, ib. account of the Uckewallists, a sect of the ri
gid Anabaptists, and tenets, ib. Waterlandians, ib. Ga-
lenists, and Apostoolians, 277.

Anachorites, a monastic order in iv cent. i. 102; their
remarkable aversion to society, ib.

Anastasius, how the cause of the Nestorian controver-
sy, i. 133; his sentiments explained by Nestorius, al-
though keenly opposed, yet gain ground, ib.

Anastasius, of Sinai, his writings, an account of, i. 147,
148, and n.

Anastasius, the emperor, attached to the Acephali, pro.
tects them, i. 154.

Anastasius, of Palestine, author of some tracts against
the Jews in viii cent. i. 183.

Anastasius, an historian in ix cent. i. 192.
Anchialus, patriarch of Constantinople, an eminent pa.
tron of letters in xii cent. i. 279 and n.; seems to have
been attached to the Aristotelian philosophy, ib.

Andræas, Antonius, a Latin writer in xiv cent. i. 368.
Andreæ, James, employed in reconciling the Lutheran
doctors, ii. 92. See Form of Concord.

Andrew, bishop of Crete, his homilies considered as
spurious, i. 161.

Andronicus, emperor of Greece, forbids all controver
sies concerning speculative points of theology, in xii cent.
i. 299 and n.

Angelome, a monk of Lysieux, an acute, but fantastic
writer in ix cent. i. 201, 202 and n.; his expositions,


Angers, bishop of, refuses to subscribe the declaration
against the Jansenists, and the consequence, ii. 202.

Anglo-Saxons, oppress the Christians, i. 110; some few
converted by Augustin the Monk, 141; an universal con.
version among them in vii cent. 156; the causes of this
conversion considered, ib.

Anhalt, princes of, embrace Calvinism, and the reason,
ii. Ill and n.

Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, improves the science
of logic, i. 238; inventor of the famous argument ascrib
ed to Des Cartes, ib. his character and works, 239, n. and
259; the first who composed a system of divinity, 261 ;
eminent for his moral treatises, 262, and controversial
.writings, ib.

Anselm, of Laon, his character, i, 292.

Anselm, of Havelsberg, strenuous advocate for the La-
tins against the Greeks in xii cent. i. 298.

Ansgar, converts the Swedes in ix cent. i. 188; is creat
ed archbishop of Hamburgh, ib. founder of the Cimbrian,
Danish, and Swedish churches, ib. n.

Anthropomorphites, a sect in x cent. i. 229; why en-
couraged and admired, 230.

Antichrist, ensigns of, what so called by the Puritans,
ii. 108.

Antidico-marianites, a sect in iv cent. i 116; their
tenets, ib.

Antinomians, their rise among the Lutherans in xvi.
cent. ii. 87; suppression by Luther, ib. tenets, ib. English,
their rise in xvii cent. and pernicious tenets, 112 and

Antioch, Patriarch of, his jurisdiction in iv cent. i 95;
the extent of his power in xvi cent. ii. 67; four bishops
claim the title, ib. n.

Antiochus, a monk of Seba, his character, l. 162; and
work, or Pandect of the Holy Scriptures, 163.

Antonines, their characters, i. 41.

Antoninus Marcus, listens to calumnies, and persecutes
the Christians, i. 45; many apologies published, ib. false
witnesses suborned by his judges against the Christians,
ib. his partiality to the Stoics, and its effects upon learn.
ing, 46; an ornament to the Stoics, ib.

Antoninus, Pius, persecution under him, i. 45; his edict
in favour of the Christians, ib. and n.

Antonius Paulus, endeavours to correct the abuses
among the clergy in xvii. cent. ii. 228, 229.

Antony, forms in Egypt the solitary Monks into a body,
i. 101; the rapid progress of this order in the east, and
maxims of their philosophy which seduced the Christians,
ib, the state of this order in xi. cent. 258.

Apocryphal, and spurious writings, many in i cent. i.
31 and я.

Apocryphal books, reading of them in the church dis-
liked by the Puritans, ii. 108.

Apollinarian heresy, its rise, i. 113; author and tenets
maintained by him, ib. the consequences deduced from
the sentiments of Apollinaris seem unjust, ib, and n; its
fate, ib. and n.

Apollonius Tyaneus, comparison of Christ and him per-
nicious, i. 90.

Apollonius, his controversies about the power of the ma-
gistrate, in church affairs, ii. 257; occasions a flaming
dispute between Spanheim and Vander Wayen, 262.

Apologies, many produced in defence of Christianity
in ii. cent. i. 52.

Apostles of Christ, why limited to twelve, i. 18; the
success of their ministry, after the effusion of the Holy
Ghost, ib. the election of one in the room of Judas, ib.
founded many churches, 19; fables related of them, ib.
their authority and office, 28; left the external form of
the church undetermined, ib. and n.; they and their dis-
ciples the principal writers, 31; the creed, by whom com-
posed, 33 and #, instituted many rites, 35.

Apostles, account of a sect in xiii cent. i. 350; made
no alterations in the doctrinal part of the public religion,
ib. their leaders and extirpation, ib. and n.

Apostolic Fathers, their general character, i. 32.
Apostolics, a sect in xii cent. i. 306; the remarkable
purity of their lives, ib. some peculiarities among them
deserve censure, ib. the credit given by them to the pre-
dictions of the Abbot Joachim, 350.

Apostoolians, an inferior sect of Anabaptists or Men
nonites in xvii cent. ii. 277; their founder Samuel Apos
tool, who opposes Galen Haan, with an account of his
controversy and tenets, ib.

Appellants, great number of them in France, and why
so called, ii, 286, and n.

Aquinas, Thomas, a very powerful advocate for the
philosophy of Aristotle, and gives a new translation of
his works, i. 314 and n.; called the Angelic Doctor, ib.
his character, 336 and n.; method of explaining the
Scriptures, 338; orthodoxy questioned, 339; famous sum,
what, 340, polemic work against the Gentiles, ib. several
of his doctrines opposed by John Duns Scotus, 369; hence
the origin of the sect of the Thomists, ib.

Arabian philosophers, their tenets, and reason of their
name, i. 83; confuted by Origen, abandon their erroneous
sentiments, and return to the church, ib. found schools in
Spain and Italy, in x cent. 220; and source of know-
edge among the Europeans, ib. and 237; authors of
divination and astrology in the West, ib. many of their
works translated into Latin in xii cent. 282 and n.

Arabians, in Spain, converted in xiii cent. i. 309; but
expelled by the order of Pope Clement, ii. 39 and n
Arabs, converted by Origen in iii cent. i. 67.
Arator, his works and character, i. 148.
Arbricelles, Robert, founds a monastry at Fontevraud
n xii cent. i. 290; one singularity in his rule, ib. charge
against him, ib. and n.; some nuns in England, ib.

Archbishops, the extent of their authority in iv cent.

L 91.

Archelaus, succeeds his father Herod in the kingdom
of Judea; is infamous for his vices, and dethroned, i. 12.
Arianis a. its rise in iv cent. i. 110 and n.; the tenets
held by it author, 111; its progress before the first
Nicene co u cil, in which the sentiments of its founder are
condemned, ib. its history after this time, ib. state under
the sons of Constantine, 112; Constantius forces prose
lytes, ib. under Julian, who favours neither side, ib. under
Jovian, a defender of the Nicenians, ib. under Valenti-
nian, an enemy to the Arians, particularly in the West,
ib. under Valens, a friend to the Arians, ib. under Gra-
tian and Theodosius the Great, who favour the Nice-
nians, ib. excesses on both sides, ib. various sects of it,
which may be reduced to three classes, 113; this division

detrimental to the Arians, lb. is encouraged by the Van-
dals in Africa, 132; its state in vi cent. 153; encour-
aged by the Lombards in vii cent. 165.

Arians, two eminent writers among them in xvii cent.
ii. 279 and n.; to whom the denomination of Arian is ap
plicable, ib. most eminent patrons in xviii cent, ib. bad
consequences of Arianism, 293, n.; points of its doctrine
adopted by Mr. Whiston, and consequence, ib. contro
versy occasioned by Dr. Clarke's opinions concerning the
Trinity, and by whom opposed, ib. no end to be gained by
these disputes, with Dr. Stillingfleet's excellent admoni
tion to the disputants, 294 sub n.

Aristotelian philosophy, admired by the Nestorians in
vi cent. i. 144, its progress in viii cent. 172; the persons
to whom its success was due, ib. taught by the reformed
church in xvi cent. ii. 115; introduced into theology, and
bad consequence, 116 and n.; its state in xvii cent. 164.
Aristotelians, poor subterfuge used by them before the
inquisition in xv cent. i. 378.

Aristotle, his notions of God and the human soul, 1. 11;
has many admirers in xiii cent, and the prejudice done by
them to Christianity, 310, 311 and .; the reading of
his works condemned by the bishops at Paris, 319; if
preferable to Plato, debated in xv cent. 378.

Arius, opposes the opinions of Alexander on the second
person of the Trinity, i. 110; expelled from the church,
111; defends his opinions with success, ib. brings over
Eusebius Bishop of Nicomedia to his cause, ib. Constan.
tine, after fruitless admonitions, calls a council at Nice,
at which Arius is condemned, and Christ is declared con-
substantial, ib. recalled from exile, 112 and n.; is received
into the church, and invited to Constantinople, ib. is
reinstated with his followers in their privileges, but is
denied a place among the presbyters by the people of
Alexandria, ib. dies a miserable death, with some reflec
tions on t! e manner, ib. and n.

Armagh, the see of, erected by Patrick in v cent. I.
118 and n

Armagh, Richard of, attacks the Mendicants in xiv
cent. i. 360,

Armenia, Great and Less, Christianity established there
in iv cent. i. 90; a church founded at, by Gregory the
Enlightener, ib.

Armenians, an account of, in xvi cent. ii. 71 and n. ¡
have three patriarchs, 72 and n.; their titular ones, ib.
their state in xvii cent. 213; country laid waste by Ab
bas the Great King of Persia. ib. and his generous be
haviour towards them, ib. the advantages they received
from the settlement of a great number of Armenians in
different parts of Europe, 214 and n. religious books
printed for their use in Europe, particularly in Holland
and England, ib.

Arminianism, its rise and progress in xvi cent. ii. 262.
See Church Arminian.

Arminians, their leading maxim adopted by the Lu
therans in xvii cent. ii. 223; their rise and schism in this
cent. 242; condemned at the Synod of Dort, ib. the ef
fects of this schism in Holland, ib. gain ground in Eng-
land through Archbishop Laud, 243; favoured in France,
Brandenburg, Bremen, and Geneva, ib. the farther pro
gress of this sect. See Church Arminian.

Arminius, James, his tenets, and by whom opposed,
with the decision of the Synod of Dort, ii. 242; founder
of the Arminian church, 261; his great character and
account of, ib. professes publicly his opinions about pre-
destination and grace, &c. in opposition to those of Calvin
262; two favourable circumstances for him, ib. by whom
opposed, and controversy thereupon, with his death, ib
and n. ; progress of his sect after his death, ib.

Arnauld, his dispute with the Jesuits concerning a fre-
quent approach to the holy communion, ii. 63 and n.;
improves and illustrates the doctrine of Des Cartes,
192 and n.; a patron of the Jansenists, 199; flies into
Holland, 202; and the consequences to the Jesuits, ib.
and n.; his dispute with Claude concerning transubstan-
tiation, 211.

Arndt, a moral writer in xvii cent. ii. 205; debates
relating to, 234; his good character and works, parti-
cularly his True Christianity, ib. is censured by some,
and by whom defended, ib. a Paracelsist, ib.

Arnobius, character of his polemic works against the
Gentiles in iii cent. i. 74.

Arnobius, the younger, an account of, i. 125.

Arnold, of Brescia, account of him and his sect in xil
cent. i. 303; is justly censured for the violent impetuosity
of his temper, but discovered in his character several
things worthy of esteem, 304; is greatly admired, and his
followers called Arnoldists, ib.

Arnold, of Villa Nova, his extensive learning, i. 315;
unjust punishment, ib.

Arnold, Godfrey, disturbs the Lutheran church, and
his character, ii. 231; his ecclesiastical history censured,
ib. his partiality in favour of heretics, which he quitted
when old, ib. and n

Arsenius, his synopsis of the Greek canon law, in xifi |
tent. i. 237.


Artemon, his tenets, L 65; uncertainty about these,

Arts, seven, the wretched manner of teaching them in
viii cent. i. 172; divided into the Trivium and Quadri-
vium, 173; the works of Cassiodore and Boethius recorn-
mended for further progress, ib.

Ascetics, their rise and principles, i. 54; why certain
Christians became of this sect, ib. the progress of this dis-
cipline, ib.

Asculanus, Ceccus, a famous philosopher in xiv cent.
i. 355; imprudently mingles astrology with his philosophy,
ib. is accused of dealing with infernal spirits, and burnt
by the inquisitors at Florence, ib. and n.

Asia, Protestant missions there, in xvi cent. ii. 154;
English and Dutch colonies, ib.

Asiatic, Gnostic, sect in ii cent. and tenets, an account
of, i. 60.

Asinus, John Pungens, substitutes consubstantiation in-
stead of transubstantiation in xiii cent. i. 341.

Astesanus, his character, i. 368, 370.

Astrog, synods held there in xvi cent. ii. 111; their
happy effects, ib.

Astrology, mixed with philosophy, considered as magic
in xiv. cent. i. 355.

Asylum, right of, contest about, between Pope Inno-
cent XI. and Lewis XIV. ii. 185 and n.

Athanaric, king of the Goths, persecutes the Christian
Goths, in iv cent. i. 92.

Athanasius, account of him and his works, i. 96 and n. ;
refuses to restore Arius, 112; is deposed by the council of
Tyre, and banished into Gaul, ib.

Atheists, few, if any, to be met with in xviii cent. ii.
284; and those chiefly followers of Spinoza, ib.

Athenagoras, an excellent writer in ii cent. i. 50.
Atto, bishop of Vercelli, his works useful in describing
the genius of the people, in x cent. i. 225.

Audæus, excommunicated for censuring the licentious
clergy in iv cent, and forms a sect, i. 115; his principles
imbibed by the Goths, ib. errors falsely imputed to him,

Augsburg, an account of the conference held at, between
Luther and Cajetan, in xvi cent. ii. 10; and its issue, ib.
and n.; the famous diet held by Charles V. emperor, 25;
famous confession made by the Protestants ib. and n.;
its style justly admired, ib. ts matters, supplied by Lu
'ther, but received its form from Melancthon, ib. contains
twenty-eight chapters, and to what they refer ib. and n.;
a refutation of it attempted by the Roman Catholics, ib.
and Melancthon's answer to it, which is called, A De-
fence of the Confession of Augsburg, 26; three methods
proposed for terminating these religious dissensions, ib.
conferences judged the most effectual way to put a period
to them, and why, ib. and n.; but proved to be ineffec-
tual, 27; the severe decree against the reformers, ib. and
n.; religious peace concluded at the second diet held
here, 33; acts favourable to the Protestants passed, ib. re-
marks upon, and proofs of, the ignorance and superstition
of the times, ib, confession of, and its defence, 77; and in-
terpolations by Melancthon, ib. and n.; its associates,

Awerri, in Africa, king of, converted to Christianity by
the Capuchins in xvii cent. ii. 151.


BACON, John, an account of, i. 368.

Bacon, Roger, his great character, i. 313 and ». ; and
336 n.; his extensive progress in the sciences, 314, 315,
and n.; unjust imprisonment, 315.

Bacon, Lord Verulam, his character, ii. 162 and n.
Baius, his disputes about grace in xvi cent. ii. 64; is ac
cused and condemned, with his unjust treatment, ib.
and n.
Balbi, John, promotes the study of the Greek language
in xiii cent. i. 313.

Balduin, his controversy concerning the merits of
Christ, ii. 234.

Baldus, his character, i. 354.

Balsamon, Theodorus, his erudition and diligence in ex-
plaining the civil and ecclesiastical laws of the Greeks in
xii cent. i. 292 and n.

Bancroft, his sermon at Paul's Cross, on the divine
right of bishops, exasperates their contest with the Puri.
tans, and the effects, ii. 106.

Baptism, not to be considered as a mere ceremony, i
35; the manner of celebration in i cent. 36.

Baptism, in iv cent, by the bishop with lighted tapers,
and on the vigils of Easter and Whitsuntide, i. 107.
Baptismal fonts introduced into the porches of churches,
when, i. 107.

Baptists, general (Arminian,) their doctrine, ii. 130; in
what they agree with the particular baptists, ib.

Baptists, particular (Calvinistical,) their tenets, ii. 130;
settle in London, ib.

Baradæus, Jacob, restores the Monophysites in vi cent.
i. 154; his dexterity and diligence, ib. is acknowledged
their second founder, and hence they are called Jaco-
bites, ib.

Barbarians, western, persecute the Christians in x cent.
i. 218.

Barcepha, Moses, his great character, i. 198 and n.
Barcochebas, assumes the name of the Messiah, i. 43;
a great enemy to the Christians, 44.

Bardesanes, founder of a sect of heretics in ii cent. i. 61;
the doctrine he taught, ib.

Barlaam, his book of ethics shows the author to be in.
clined to Stoicism, i. 353; a champion for the Greeks
against the Latins, in xiv cent. 368, 370; finds fault with
some Greek monks, 371; the names he gives them, who
are defended by Gregory Palamas, 372; is condemned by
a council at Constantinople, ib.

Barnabas, the epistle attributed to him, supposed to be
spurious, i. 32.

Barnabites (regular clerks of St. Paul), founded in xvi
cent, and by whom, ii. 55; soon deviate from their first
rule, and their office, ib. and n.

Baronius, Cæsar, his annals, an account of, ii. 56 and n.;
confutations of them, ib.

Barre, Nicholas, forms the Pietists into a society in xvii
cent. ii. 190.

Barrow, Isaac, his great zeal for natural knowledge, ii.


Barsumas, of Nisibis, a zealous promoter of Nestorian-

Augustine, bishop of Hippo, his character, i. 97; ad-
mired for his didactic writings, 99; his success against the
Donatists, 109; suppresses Pelagianism, 139; opposes theism, i. 135.
Predestinarians, ib.

Augustine, a Benedictine monk, sent into Britain in vi
cent. i. 141 and n.; converts many Anglo-Saxons to Chris-
tianity, ib.

Augustine, St. monks of, their rise in xiii cent, and
founder, i. 54.

Augustus, base methods used by him to obtain power,
1. 7.

Aurelian, state of the church under him tolerable, i.
69; a dreadful persecution prevented by his death, ib.
Aureolus, Peter, an account of, i. 368.
Ausonius, his character as a poet, i. 92.
Austria, commotions in, against the Protestants, in xvil
cent. ii, 172 and n.

Authbert, the success of his ministry in Jutland and
Cimbria in ix cent. i. 180; converts the Swedes, ib.

Autherius, bishop of Bethlehem, founds the congrega.
tion of the Holy Sacrament in xvii cent, ii. 144.

Authpert, Ambrose, his character, i. 180; his commen-
tary on the Revelations, ib. 181; his lives of the saints,

Autun, Honorius of, his character and works, i. 292; a
polemic writer, 298.

Auxerre, William of, his systematic divinity, an account
of, i. 293.

Ave Maria, added to the prayers in xiv cent. i. 371.
Avignon, Popes remove thither their residence in xiv
cent, i. 356 and n; their power diminished, ib. invent new
schemes to acquire riches, ib.

Barsumas, abbot, brought the Eutychian opinions into
Syria and Armenia, in v. cent. i. 137, but the former re.
jects them, ib. and n.

Bartolus, his character, i. 354

Basil, bishop of Cæsarea, account of him and his works,
i. 96.

Basil, the council held at, in xv cent. i. 384; the designs
of it, and vigorous prosecutions taken at it, alarm the Ro.
man pontiff, ib. and n.; the decrees and acts of it, 385;
the attempts of Eugenius IV. to dissolve it ineffectual, ib.
depose Eugenius, and elect another, named Felix V. ib.
friars at Lausanne ratify Felix's abdication, and confirm
the election of Nicholas, 386.

Basilides, chief of the Egyptian Gnostics, i. 62; genis
supposed to come from him, ib. enormous errors of his
system, ib. falsely charged with denying the reality of
Christ's body, ib. his moral doctrine,, ib. his errors, and
how led into an enormous one, ib.

Basilius, of Seleucia, writes against the Jews in v cent.
i. 127.

Basilius, the Macedonian, under him the Sclavonians
and Russians are converted in ix cent. i. 189; an inaccu.
rate account of the latter by Lequien, ib, n.

Basilius, the founder of an heretical sect in xii cent. i
301; is condemned and burnt at Constantinople, ib. his
tenets resemble the ancient Gnostics and Manichæans, ib.
denies the reality of Christ's body, and a future resur.
rection, ib.

Bassi, Matthew de, zealous in attempting to reform the

Franciscans in xvi cent. il. 54 and n.; founder of the or
der of the Capuchins, ib.

Bayle, a sceptical philosopher in xvii cent. ii. 169
and n
Beauvoir, account of the letters which passed between
him and Archbishop Wake, relative to their correspon-
dence with the doctors of the Sorbonne, concerning the
union project, il 300; authentic copies of them, 308. See

Becker, Balthazar, account of, ii. 168; and n.; his pecu-
liar sentiments, and contest occasioned by them, 260;
work entitled, the World bewitched, ib. argument against
the being of spirits unsatisfactory, ib. n., is opposed, and
tumults consequent thereupon, ib, is deposed from his
pastoral office, and continues in the same sentiments to
his death, ib. and n.

Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, subscribes, and
afterwards rejects the constitutions of Clarendon, i. 286,
287, and n. retires into France, and returns, ib. is assassi
nated in his own chapel, ib. reasons to clear Henry II. of
England from consenting to his murder, and the punish.
ment inflicted on the assassins, ib. n.; is enrolled amongst
the most eminent saints, 288.

Bede, venerable, his character, i. 180 and n.; exposi
tion of St. Paul's Epistles and Samuel, 181; moral trea-
tises, 183

Beghards (see Beguines) the origin of this denomina-
tion, i. 287 and n.; differed from the Fratricelli in what,
333; considered as seculars and laymen, 334 and n.; the
miseries they suffer under Charles IV. in Germany, 366.
but not extirpated, ib.

Beghards, Belgic and German, their origin, i. 333, 334,
and n.; first society, when and by whom formed, ib, and
n.; corrupted by the brethren of the free spirit in xiv
cent. 373; a division of this sect, ib. n.; the persecution
of them, and tragical conclusion, 374 and n.

Beghards, Schwestriones, in xv cent. i. 395; their lead.
ing principle, ib. the miseries they suffer from the In-
quisition, ib. accounts of them by many writers imperfect,
ib, and n

Beghards, by corruption called Picards, i. 396; their
horrible tenets, ib. severe treatment from Ziska, ib. and
N.; called Adamites, ib. this name afterwards applied to
the Hussites, ib.

Beguins, (see Beghards,) how different from the Bel-
gic and German, i. 334.

Behmen, Jacob, one of the Rosecrucian brethren, ii
165; his chimerical notions and followers, 235; works,
ib. n.

Believers, who obtained this name in the earliest pe-
riod of the Christian church, i. 29; how distinguished
from Catechumens, 33.

Bellarmine, Samuel, an eminent defender of the Ro
mish church in xvi cent. ii. 60; his character, ib. is cen-
sured by the church of Rome, 61 and n.

Bellator, his character as a commentator, i. 149; trans-
ates the works of Origen, 150.

Bello-visu, Armand de, an account of, i. 336.
Bembo, Peter, Cardinal, a supposed infidel writer in
xvi cent. ii. 43.

Benedict, of Nursia, founder of an order of monks in
vi cent. i. 147, his works, 148.

Benedict, Abbot of Aniane, employed by Lewis the
Meek, to reform the practices of the monks in ix cent.
i. 197; restores the monastic discipline, ib. subjects the
various monastic orders to that of Benedict of Mount
Cassin, ib. his discipline at first admired, soon declines, ib.
Benedict VI. Pope, his character and fate, i. 222.
Benedict VII. Pope, account of, i. 222.
Benedict IX. his infamous character, i. 241.
Benedict XII. his good character, i. 358; is censured for
the festival he added to the ritual, 371.

Benedict XIII. Anti-pope, an account of, i. 379, 380.
Benedict XIII. Pope, his character, ii. 285.
Benedict XIV. Pope (Prosper Lambertini), his great
character, ii. 285; attempts to reform the clergy, but in
vain, ib.

Benedictine, order of monks, its rise in vi cent. i. 146;
the founder's views in this institution, 147; degeneracy
among them from his practice, ib. its rapid progress in
the west, ib. their founder's discipline neglected and for-
got by the monks in x cent. 224.

Benefices, the right of nomination to them assumed by
the Romish pontiffs, who are opposed by the civil power
in xiii cent. í. 316.

Bennet, Gervas, gives the denomination of Quakers to
the sect so called, and why, ii. 269.

Berenger, introduces logic into France, 1. 238; his dis-
pute with Lanfranc against the real presence of Christ's
body and blood in the Holy Sacrament, ib. 261 and n.;
commentary on the Revelations, 260; explains the doc
Arines of scripture by logical and metaphysical rules, 261;
maintains his doctrine of the Eucharist against synodical
decrees, and the threats and punishment of the civil

power, 264; abjures his opinions, but teaches them soon
afterwards, ib. his conduct imperfectly represented, in
makes a public recantation with an oath, and yet propa.
gates his real sentiments of the Eucharist, 265; his
second declaration before Gregory VII. ib. subscribes a
third confession with an oath, ib. yet retracts publicly,
and composes a refutation, ib. and .; whence appear
Gregory's sentiments of the Eucharist, ib. and n.; his
fate, and the progress of his doctrine, 266; his real
sentiments, ib. and n.; the weakness of the arguments,
used by the Roman catholic writers against the real senti
ments of this divine, ib. and n.; the nature and manner
of Christ's presence in the Sacrament not fixed by the
church of Rome in xi cent. 267, sub fin, not.

Berg, the famous form of concord reviewed there, and
its contents, ii. 94 and n.

Bermudes, John, sent into Abyssinia with the title of
patriarch, in xvi cent. ii. 48; met with little or no success
in his ministry, ib. a mistake about Loyola being sent
into Abyssinia, ib. n.

Bern, an account of the cruel and impious fraud acted
in xvi cent. upon one Jetzer, by the Dominicans, ii. 5, n.
Bern, church of, opposes Calvinism, ii. 103.

Bernard, St. Abbot of Clairval, preaches up the Crusade
in xii cent. i. 275; draws up a rule of discipline for the
Knights Templars, 277; exposes in his writings the views
of the pontiffs, bishops, and monks, 282 and n. ¿ consider.
ed as the second founder of the Cistertian monks, who are
called from him Bernardin monks, 289; his great influence,
ib. apology for his own conduct in the divisions between the
Cistertian monks, and those of Clugni, ib. and n. ; and an
swer to it by Peter of Clugni, 290 and n.; combats the doc-
trine of the schoolmen, 297; his charge against Abelard, ib.
and n; as also against Gilbert de la Porte, ib. opposes the
doctrine of the immaculate conception of the Virgin
Mary, 299; combats the sect of the Apostolics, 306.

Bernard, of Sens, a mystic writer in xv cent. his cha
racter, i. 394,

Bernoulli, two astronomers in Switzerland in xvii cent.
their character, ii. 163.

Bertramn, Ratramn, monk of Corby, eminent for re-
futing Radbert's doctrine of the Eucharist, i. 198 and
n.; prepares to draw up a clear and rational explication
of this important subject, by the order of Charles the
Bald, 205; an account of this explication, ib. defends
Godeschalcus, 206; his dispute with Hincmar, about the
hymn Trina Deltas, 207; maintains the cause of the
Latin church against Photius, 209.

Berulle, Cardinal, institutes the order of Oratorians in
xvii cent, ii, 190.

Beryllus denies the proper subsistence of Christ before
his coming into the world, i. 83; confuted by Origen, he
returns to the church, ib.

Bessarion, how employed by the Greeks in the council
of Florence, i. 385; terms of reconciliation made by him
on their part with the Latins not lasting, ib. created
soon afterwards a cardinal, ib. his character, 389 and n.

Beza, Theodore, teaches the sciences at Geneva with
success, ii. 102; his Latin version of the New Testament,
and notes, 115.

Bibliander, an eminent writer in xvi cent. ii. 119.

Biblical colleges, what so called, and their rise in xvii
cent. ii, 228,

Biblicists, Christian doctors so called, their rise in, xil
cent. i. 296; decline in xiii cent. 249; oppose the scho-
lastic divines, 339.

Biddle, John, a famous writer among the Socinians in
xvii cent. ii, 279 and n.

Biel, a scholastic writer in xv. cent. i. 390.

Bishops, appointed first at Jerusalem, i. 30; the nature
and extent of their dignity at their first institution, ib.
their authority augmented by the councils, 50; acknow
ledge themselves the delegates of their respective churches,
and authoritative rules of faith and manners when claim-
ed by them, ib. their power vehemently asserted by
Cyprian in iii cent. 72; their contentions with each
other about the extent of power, in iv and following
centuries, produced violent commotions in the church,
95; disputes between the bishops of Rome and of Con-
stantinople in v cent. 121; their court, when first esta-
blished, 123; their ambition to extend their jurisdiction
in x cent. 223; aspire after, and obtain, temporal digni-
ties, 224; admit persons to the order of saints, indepen-
dently on the power of the Roman pontiff, 227; oppose
the arrogance of the pontiffs in xiii cent. 316; disputes
between them and the Mendicants, 325; sentiments of
the Puritans concerning them, ii. 107 and n.

Bizochi, a sect. See Tertiaries.

Blanc, Lewis le, his writings to reconcile the Romish
and Reformed churches in xvii. cent. ii. 245; unsuccess
ful, ib.

Blandrata, George, propagates Socinianism in Transyl
vania, and his character, ii. 112.

Blesdyck, Nicholas, charges David George with main.

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