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particularly of Barbados. The following example of his works not only gives us an early treatise on the manufacture of rum, but also introduces a drink which, I venture to remark, has never been thought of by even our most adventurous and inventive "scofflaws", namely, the forgotten brew magnificently called "Coow Woow." But let Mr. Tenison speak for himself:

"Now the Scums, Dregs and excrementitious Parts [of the sugar-cane juice] which are separated from the finer and more essential parts, in making of Sugar are of some value, for from the same being fermented and distilled, is extracted a strong Spirit which they call Rumm; so that you see Sir that the Juice of the Cane, by Art and extream Labour is made into three considerable Commodities, viz, Sugar, Treacle and Rumm, beside which the Servants and Negroes, make a very good Drink with Molosses, Water and some Ginger worked up altogether, the Strength being in proportion to the Quantity of Molosses put in, (as our Beer or Ale is stronger or smaller, according to the Quantity of Malt) and this drink is called by the Indian name of Coow Woow, the same being altogether as wholsom as our Ale and rather stronger than the common sorts of Drinks made of Molosses, Sugar and the Juices of Fruits, yet this is one of the best and wholsomest, if it be not kept till it be too stale; but it being the cheapest and most common, is sufficient reason with most

that have the wherewithal to make more chargeable Liquors, to reject it."

Mr. Tenison has more to say about rum, to which strangely enough he now only allots one "m", and, in the same paragraph, expresses his views upon another vice of the time. He is writing about the treatment of the slaves in the West Indies:

"And give me leave to tell you Sir, nothing has been more hurtful and injurious to your Plantations, than the unkind Usage and hard Labour you put your Black Women to, whose preservation, health and strength, you ought to have made your main Study: But you on the contrary, have doubled their Burdens and what you unwarily design for their preservation, manifestly leads to their Distruction; for tho' after those intollerable Works and Fatigues you give them Rum, which at present is a little refreshing, yet you cannot but know it is distructive to Nature, wasting the Vitals, and an Enemy of Propagation; So much of it in respect to Women Kind. I am loath to be particular with you Sir, in respect to Negro Men, and your plying of them with this destructive Liquor; and that upon Sundays too, to very bad purpose: And tho' your Intention herein be to perpetuate their Servetude, etc. the very Methods you take to do it, by such indulging of them in this excess of Drinking, at the same time proves very frequently your Disappointment, and their Death:

And as you cannot but be convinced of the truth hereof, so I appeal to your own experience, whether your allowing of Polygamy, or plurality of Wives to your Black Slaves, doth any ways answer your end in the multiplication of Servants thereby, I very much doubt the contrary, and that 'tis the ready way to lose both the Root and Branch, nothing being more destructive to Humane Nature, than the immoderate use of Venery, which upon the persecuting of a fresh Object, etc. is usually provoked beyond all due bounds, to the manifest enervation and decay of the Man, from whom no vigorous Issue can be expected; and if any at all, seldom or never comes to Maturity."

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Whatever may have been the reason for the original migration of the Puritans to New England, by the latter part of the seventeenth century religious freedom had become but a lofty abstraction and freedom of trade and the safeguarding of what might then have been called "big business" had become the motivating force of the colonies.

Charles Francis Adams supports this point of view by emphasizing that the organization of the Massachusetts colony was distinctly and indisputably legal, commercial and corporate; and not religious, ecclesiastical or feudal.

The very sources which prove the materialistic

origin of our country made not the slightest attempt to conceal the facts but eloquently set forth the courage, stamina and loyalty with which our forefathers created their ideal, albeit materialistic, state. The northern colonists lived a hard and solemn life; their religion was stern and honest, rich in dogma, but poor in spirit. It was well suited to a young country bent on building up a lucrative and self-sufficing trade. It provided definite rules of conduct; regulated all mundane endeavour; definitely and unerringly took complete charge of the soul, leaving the brain free to create and develop commerce. The solace and comfort that more humane religion affords was found in the grosser amenities of life, libidinous divertissements, and heavy drinking in particular. John Adams, who can be relied upon as a fair and impartial observer of those times, wrote shortly after the Revolution:

"Fifty-three years ago I was fired with a zeal, amounting to enthusiasm, against ardent spirits, the multiplication of taverns, retailers and dramshops and tippling-houses. Grieved to the heart to see the number of idlers, thieves, sots and consumptive patients made for the use of physicians, in these infamous seminaries, I applied to the Court of Sessions, procured a committee of inspection and inquiry, reduced the number of licensed houses, etc. But I only acquired the reputation of a hypocrite and an ambitious dema

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"You may as well preach to the Indians against rum as to our people."

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