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without violating the sense, we may be allowed to pause for breath.

Pauses in speech are of various lengths, some taking up a whole measure, or even more; others only taking half a measure. The following are examples of those which are most commonly used.

1. Where two accented syllables come together, the voice is commonly compelled to pause between them, through the unaccented portion of the first measure. This pause was exhibited in the repetition of the accented syllable there'—there'.' It would be thus marked, '| there' 7 | there'.'


| No'ah | went' 7 | in'.'

Then' they went' 7 | in' unto | Noah'. [' 'Then' the Lord' 7 shut' him in'.' | 'And' in the six 7 | hun'dredth | year'.'


If, however, the first accented syllable be indefinite in its quantity, we may make it so long in its sound, as to run it through the time of the whole measure, and so not leave any pause between it and the next. This would be very often done, in solemn reading.

Yet' 10' | Lord' | God' 1 | most' 1 | hoʻly |
O Lord' most' 7 | migh'ty. |


In' the self' 7 same' | day' | en'tered | N'oah.


This pause is so short and unimportant, that it is not worth while to mark it. It has only to be remembered. that where two accented syllables come together, a pause of half a measure may be made between them;

but that if the former be indefinite, it need not be made. In the scored examples, (p. 102 to 116) the rest (7) is not printed, unless where the sense may happen to require a pause.


In' the self same' | day' | en'tered | Noah'. |
Sir 7 I' in the | most' ex | press' | terms' |—'


2. A pause may be made, if the sense requires it, through the accented portion of the measure.

Thus :

When he had end'ed | 7 he turn'ed to the south side' of the scaffold | 7 and | said'. |




Having uttered a short | prayer' | 7 he gave the signal | 7 to the ex'e | cu'tioner. |'

The same rest is inserted, wherever a sentence begins on an unaccented syllable, in order to show to the reader, that it does not come at the beginning of the Thus :



7 ' And the | wa'ters pre | vail'ed upon the [ earth'. || 7 To satisfy him | 7 the door' of the bed'


chamber 7 was | half' | o'pened. | '


7 I know that' my Re | deem'er | liv'eth. ['

3. Pauses may take up the whole time of measure.

Thus :

'I' am a maʼzed | 71 | yes' my | Lords' 7 | I' am amazed at his | Gra'ce's | speech'. |



'One' | dead' u'niform | silence [77 | reign'ed over the whole' | region. |



When a man' hath | once' | forfeited | 7 the | rep'u ta'tion | 7 of his in ❘ teg'rity | 17 | nothing will า

then serve his | turn' | 71 | neither | truth' | nor' [false hood. I'

In the scored exercises, the rests are omitted in the notation used to express this pause. Thus:

If I ascend | up' into heaven || thou art | there'. '


1 To send forth' the | merciless | In'dian || thirsting for blood' ! 1 against whom? || your| pro'testant breth'ren! |


4. Pauses may be made through a measure and a half, or two measures; and sometimes even through



7 I make the assertion 7 de lib'erately || 7 I repeat' it 7 and call' on a'ny man' who hears' I me 7 to take down' my words'. ]'

'Are you competent | 7 to transfer them to the | British | parliament? || 7 Ian'swer | no'. |


Then' shall be brought to pass' | 7 the saying that is writ'ten | Death' | 7 is swallowed up | 7 in victory |||O| Death' | where' is thy sting'?||| O Grave where' is thy | vic'tory? ||| 7 The sting/ of death' 7 is sin' and the strength of sin' | thanks be to God' 1 who victory || through our | Lord | Je



7 is the law. ||1 But
| giveth us the
sus Christ.' ||

These longest pauses, of course, only take place between sentences, i. e. in places where, in common printing, full stops would be made.

Some other pauses may perhaps be seen in the scored exercises. They may, however, be so easily

explained by the teacher, while going through them, that it is not worth while to describe them all bere.

The scored exercises, (p. 102 to 116) which have been so often referred to, must be all read over by the class, with the utmost care, the attention being directed, not only to the emphasis, but also more especially to the accents, and to the marked pauses. The principle on which they are divided into measures, and separated by pauses, must be repeated over and over, while reading them, till it has become perfectly plain and familiar to every one. When the scored pieces have been thus read and studied, the pupils must be required to score out for themselves, the whole or greater part of the two succeeding unscored pieces.*

The mark () over the accented syllables which has been used in all the examples given in this chapter, is omitted in the scored exercises. The pupil will have no difficulty in recollecting that the accented syllable is always the one which comes close after the bar.

'Such were the last | hours | 7 and | such the | final close | 7 of this great | man's | life. |||'

* If this practice be diligently performed, there will be found few pupils, if any, in a class who will not have acquired the power of reading without ever getting out of breath. The longer and more attentively it is persevered in, the more satisfactory will be the result. If it be neglected, or given up before the desired effect is produced, the whole labor of explaining the system of accent will have been lost. The author of this work may testify, from his own experience, to the utility of the course he recommends. Other teachers, who have employed a book of scored exercises which he published some years since, have assured him of their success, in teaching children to read carefully, and mind their stops. The hasty, gabbling, panting way in which most


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THE preceding chapters of this work, have been taken up in giving an account, first, of the vocal elements, by practising on which we may obtain a correct articulation, and then, of the different uses of the elements of expression. It was stated, at the outset, that in order for any one to become a perfect speaker, it is necessary that he should have practised on all these, till he finds no difficulty whatever in performing any exercises on them, however difficult. A series of exercises have been given on each subject, which will probably be found sufficient. It is hoped that all the practice recommended on them, has been performed. If the pupil really wishes to succeed, it must be.


But there is also another thing quite as necessary to make a good speaker. It is the right understanding. of the meaning of what he speaks. Without this, he will be all the while making mistakes, however well he may be able to sound either the vocal elements or the elements of expression. He must know when and where he ought to use each element of expression, and he never can do that, if there be any part of what he has to say, which he does not understand.

This, then, is the second thing to which he must

children read, is enough to prove the necessity of some such plan. The teacher would do well to refer, for his own information on this subject, to the Grammar, where a much fuller explanation of it is given, than was thought necessary in a book for children.

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