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example, if his speaking voice be too harsh, let him be continually aiming to make it sound less harshly when he reads; if it be too husky, let him try to make it clear and distinct; if he have fallen into a habit of speaking too much through the nose, or through the teeth, let it be his endeavor to avoid the peculiar effect of this way of talking, by trying to speak as other people do, through the throat. It will be the office of the instructer to point out such defects, whenever he finds them to exist. They are not of very common occurrence, and do not therefore require any very detailed explanation.

We are not, however, to be always using this natural quality of voice of which we have been speaking. Almost every emotion of the mind has its peculiar quality of voice, which is employed to express it, and no other. It will not, however, be necessary to describe them all, as it is not very often that we find them used improperly. A few may be noticed with advantage, as they will serve to explain more thoroughly what we mean by quality of voice.

When a person speaks with great authority, or in a very angry manner, his voice is commonly harsher than usual. The 'come here, sir," which we should address to a dog who did not mind the whistle, may serve as an example.

Grief or pity, on the other hand, require a milder quality of voice. 'Poor fellow,' even to a dog, would never be spoken harshly.

Secrecy will employ a whisper! This needs no example.

Fear is expressed by a quality of voice, a good deal

like the whisper. We call it aspiration. matter?' 'Didn't you see it?'

The same quality of voice in combination with great force is used to express extreme violence, and sometimes contempt. Coward!'

There is a quality of voice much used in acting, and indeed of very great importance in good public speaking. Dr. Rush has given it the name of the 'orotund.' Its uses, and the modes of obtaining a command over it, are explained in the Grammar. As it is not easy of acquisition, it has been thought best not to attempt to give directions for its employment in this book. It will be found of great importance to the more advanced student of Elocution. In an introductory course of instruction, the teacher would hardly ever require to do more, than to correct the faults which may be found in the natural quality of the voice.

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CHAPTER XII.

"What's the

ON ACCENT.

In the eighth chapter (p. 58) an example was given of a sentence in which some of the syllables, though unemphatic, were to be read with a somewhat greater degree of force or loudness than the others. 'And Na'than sa'id unto Da'vid.' It was also shown in what respect the unemphatic increase of force on these syllables differs from the emphatic use of that element which we have called stress, and of which a number of

examples have been given. We have now, under the head of accent, to explain the purposes which it is employed to serve in speech.

The human voice and ear are so formed by nature, as always to require a variety in the force of the successive syllables in a sentence. Take any sentence whatever, and whether there be emphatic words in it or not, this will be seen to be the case.

'Then' they went out of the city, and came' unto him.'

' And when' he had said' this', he fell asleep'.'

A liar has need' of a good' memory.'

In the above examples those syllables which require the heavy sound, and which are called accented syllables, are all marked thus (). The other syllables, which are comparatively slurred over, are said to be unaccented. It should be particularly remembered that a monosyllable may receive accent, just as well as any one of the syllables in a long word.

'He' had a fever when' he was in Spain'.'

In grammars and spelling books the accent is only marked in words of two or more syllables: Fe'ver,' 'Almight'y,' ' Ir'ritable.'

A glance at the five examples already given will suffice to demonstrate an important point in reference to accent. No syllable can have emphasis of any kind given it, without becoming accented. Let the pupil try to repeat either of the two last examples, giving to

the accented syllables in any of the emphatic words, the low sound of unaccented syllables, and he will directly find that the words are made unemphatic. It has been already more than once observed that accented syllables are not all emphatic. The two examples first given do not require any emphasis. They must, however, receive accent.

It remains only to inquire how the accented and unaccented syllables are to follow one another in speech. Two very simple rules will explain the whole system.

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I. An unaccented syllable may follow an accented one, without any pause or break between them; an accented one cannot. Let the word there'fore' be taken as an example. The first syllable in it is always accented, the second, never. In repeating the word, we see that the unaccented syllable can be uttered, easily, without any pause between it and the accented one before it. But now, repeat the first syllable twice, there'-there',' taking care to make it accented both times. There will be a very perceptible break between them, a break long enough for us to have got in, if we had tried, an unaccented syllable, in the time it took up. We might say, there' and there',' in as little time as we can there'-there'.' So much for the first rule.

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II. The second principle is, that two, or even more, unaccented syllables may follow one another without requiring any pause between them. There'fore there

went'.' There'fore there went out'.' king. The above examples show us

History of the two, three, and

close union.

even four unaccented syllables in this More than four, we shall find too many. We shall be obliged to pause between them, in order to take breath. In each of these examples we find that the accented syllable, and the unaccented sound or sounds which follow it, are uttered by one effort of the voice. As soon as we come to another accented syllable, we must make another effort. There'fore there went' out'-.' We give the name of a measure to the syllables which are thus sounded by one impulse. In order to make out the measures for reading, we divide them from each other by bars, (thus, ||)

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'There'fore there | went' to him | all' Jer | u'salem And' they shall | burn' to | geth'er. |'

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If these sentences be read with their accents, as they are here marked out, they will have no pause whatever of the voice, from the beginning to the end. It is not possible, however, to read long sentences, without making pauses in them. Four or five measures are the most that can be sounded together, without stopping. If we try to utter more, we shall lose our breath. The following sentence will serve as an example.

I can'not my | Lords' I | will' not | join' in con | grat'u la'tion on' mis | for'tune and disgrace'.'

Hardly any one will be able to read this sentence, as it is here marked out, without stops of any kind. They will be obliged to pause for breath before they reach the end. Yet the accented syllables are all marked rightly. Let us see whether there is not some means by which we can mark out the places where,

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