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exceptions. Where the burden is born in common, and the aid required to be given to the Prince by his subjects that are of different judgments in religion; it stands not with the ground of common reason, that such a condition should be annexed unto the gift, as must of necessity deter the one party from giving at all, upon such terms as are repugnant to their consciences. As therefore on the one side, if we desire that the Recusants should joyn with us in granting a common aid; we should not put in the condition of executing the Statute, which we are sure they would not yield unto; so on the other side, if they will have us to joyn with them in the like contribution, they should not require the condition of suspending the Statute to be added, which we in conscience cannot yield unto. The way will be then freely to grant unto his Majesty, what we give, without all manner of condition that may seem unequal unto any side, and to refer unto his own Sacred Breast, how far he will be pleased to extend or abridge his favours: of whose lenity, in forbearing the executing of the Statute, our Recusants have found such experience, that they cannot expect a greater liberty, by giving any thing that is demanded, than now already they do freely enjoy.

"As for the fear, that this voluntary contribution may in time be made a matter of necessity, and imposed as a perpetual charge upon posterity, it may easily be holpen with such a clause as we find added in the grant of an aid made by the Pope's Council, Anno 11 Hen. 3, out of the Ecclesiastical profits of this Land, Quod non debet trahi in consuetudinem, of which kinds of grants, many other examples of later memory might be produced: And as for the proportion of the sum, which you thought to be so great in the former proposition, it is my Lord's desire, that you should signifie unto him, what you think you are well able to bear, and what your selves will be content voluntarily to proffer. To alledge, as you have done, that you are not able to bear so great a charge as was demanded, may stand with some reason; but to plead an unability to give any thing at all, is neither agreeable to reason or duty.

"You say, you are ready to serve the King, as your

ancestors did heretofore, with your bodies, and lives, as if the supply of the King's wants with monies, were a thing unknown to our Fore-fathers. But if you will search the Pipe-Rolls, you shall find the names of those who contributed to King Henry the Third, for a matter that did less concern the subjects of this Kingdom, than the help that is now demanded, namely, for the marrying of his Sister to the Emperour. In the Records of the same King, kept in England, we find his Letters Patents directed hither into Ireland, for levying of money to help to pay his debts, unto Lewis the Son of the King of France. In the Rolls of Gascony, we find the like letter directed by King Edward the Second, unto the gentlemen, and merchants of Ireland, of whose names there is a list there set down, to give him aid in his expedition into Aquitaine, and for defence of his Land (which is now the thing in question.) We find an ordinance likewise made in the time of Edward the Third, for the personal taxing of them that lived in England, and held lands and tenements in Ireland.

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Nay, in this case you must give me leave, as a Divine, to tell you plainly, that to supply the King means, for the necessary defence of your Country, is not a thing left to your own discretion, either to do, or not to do, but a matter of duty, which in conscience you stand bound to perform. The Apostle, Rom. 13. having affirmed, That we must be subject to the higher powers, not only for wrath, but for conscience sake, adds this as a reason to confirm it; For for this cause you pay tribute also, as if the denying such payment, could not stand with a conscionable subjection: thereupon he infers this conclusion, Render therefore to all their due, tribute to whom tribute, custom to whom custom is due; agreeable to that known lesson which he had learned of our Saviour, Render unto Cæsar the things which are Cæsar's, and unto God the things which are God's where you may observe, as to with-hold from God the things which are God's, man is said to be a robber¶ of God; whereof he himself thus complaineth in the case of

P Matth. chap. xxii. ver. 21.

4 Mal. chap. iii. ver. 8.

substracting of tythes and oblations: So to deny a supply to Cæsar of such means as are necessary for the support of his Kingdom, can be accounted no less than a robbing of him of that which is his due; which I wish you seriously to ponder, and to think better of yielding something to this present necessity, that we may not return from you an undutiful answer, which may be justly displeasing to his Majesty."

A copy of this speech was sent over by the Lord Deputy to the King, who expressed in strong terms his approbation of the zeal and fidelity which it displayed. The speech, though no unfavourable specimen of political talents, failed in the accomplishment of the end proposed, a failure which, as Dr. Parr remarks, was attended with the most important consequences to the country, for had the army been increased to the full establishment, it is most probable the disastrous rebellion of 1641 would never have taken place.

In addition to these political anxieties, the Primate was greatly occupied by the affairs of Trinity College. The disputes between the Provost and Fellows, to which allusion has already been made', still continued, and it appeared that the removal of the Provost in some quiet manner, was evidently the only method of preserving the discipline and good order of the College. Archbishop Ussher seems to have persuaded the Provost to resign, for he states, in a letter to Archbishop Abbot: "The time is now come, wherein we have at last wrought upon Sir William Temple to give up his place, if the other may be drawn over." That other was Mr. Sibbes, the preacher of Gray's Inn. However, all difficulty about the resignation was unexpectedly removed by the death of Sir William Temple, who expired on the 15th of January, 162, five days after the date of the Primate's letter. When the vacancy occurred, he wrote a second time to Archbishop Abbot, renewing his recommendation of Mr. Sibbes, but, in case of his refusal to accept the office, suggesting Mr. Bedell or Dr. Featley. The Archbishop of Canterbury sent over Mr. Sibbes, with a letter not very

See pag. 33.

Sec vol. xv. pag. 361.

complimentary to the preceding Provosts: "I send unto you Mr. Sibbes, who can best report what I have said unto him. I hope that Colledge shall in him have a very good master, which hitherto it hath not had." The Fellows, however, on this occasion, did not shew any wish to oblige either their Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor. They divided, indeed, into two parties', but neither chose Mr. Sibbes. It does not appear what could have been the cause of such a disappointment, when Mr. Sibbes had actually come over to Dublin. It is, however, most probable that he declined being a candidate when he saw the unpromising aspect of

The following letter, written at the close of this dispute, by the Chancellor of the University, Archbishop Abbot, and preserved among the papers of Trinity College, may perhaps be interesting:

"To my verie loving Friends the Seniors and other fellows of T. C. near Dublin give these.

"Salutem in Christo. I am sorry that upon the death of your late Provost there was such distraction in your election, that for all the time since your College hath been forced to be without the principall governor thereof. But it hath at length pleased his Majesty to give a remedy thereunto by appointing unto you for that place Mr. Beedle, a man of great worthe, and one who hath spent some time in the parts beyond the seas, and so cometh unto you better experienced than an ordinary person. You shall do well to yield unto him all reverence and respect, which will not only be a good contentation to his Majesty, but a comfort unto him, that having left his country and friends here he may find a quiet harbour to rest there with the good affection and lyking of those with whom hee is to converse.

"I have looked into the question; whether the Seniors or the whole Society be to make election of such places as are voyd within your house; but do evidently find that in the constitution of your College (as things stand now) it doth appertayn to the sett number of your auncients, and not to the generality; which should be no discontentment to the juniors, because in progress of time themselves may ascend unto that which the others enjoy. I have no more to recommend unto you, but that in the elections of your fellows and scholars you should ever have a principall care to the bringing in of the natives of that country, for to that end your College was principally founded, and both God and the King, together with all good men, may and do expect so much at your hands. And so praying the God of peace to direct all your ways in peace and love one to another, and to blesse all your studies to the honour of his name, and to the good of his Church, I forbear to be further troublesome unto you, but rest

"Lambeth, June 2, 1627.”

"Your very loving friend and Chancellor,
"G. CANT.

affairs in the College, and this explanation is confirmed. by the fact, that Archbishop Ussher recommended others. When the Senior Fellows elected the learned Joseph Mede, they stated that he was one of the persons named by Archbishop Ussher. The Junior Fellows elected Dr. Robert Ussher, son to Primate Henry Ussher, and formerly a Fellow, and he was actually sworn in Provost. However, the Senior Fellows persevered in their election, and sent over a deputation to Cambridge, requesting Mede to accept the office; but this he declined, assigning as his reasons "the great difference accompanying their election and the inconveniences that he saw must follow thereupon."

Upon the refusal of Mr. Mede, the Senior Fellows elected Mr. Bedell. Although the right of election was at that time vested in the Fellows, yet it appears that the King, the Chancellor, and Vice-Chancellor, had but little regard to the chartered rights of the Fellows", or considered that they had only a right of election after a nomination, which is a mere nullity. The entry in the College Registry is as follows: "May 30. Mr. William Bedell a batchelor of Theology of Emanuel College in Cambridge was promoted to the place by the King's Majesty's mandat: our most Reverend Chancellors letters of recommendation, our Vice-Chancellor the Lord Primate of Ireland, Dr. James Ussher, approving of him; was admitted and chosen by the unanimous consent of the Fellowes the xvith of August." Bedell's reluctance to accept the Provostship was overcome by the advice of the Primate, and he set out for Dublin. His diary is still preserved in the first Registry book of Trinity College, and in it is described his arrival in Dublin, and his setting out the next day on horseback to visit the Primate at Termonfechen, near Drogheda, where most of the Fellows were assembled to meet him. The first act of the Primate to the

"This practice of interference continued also in the election of Bedell's successor. Nor was the interference confined to the Provostship. There is an official letter, in 1634, recommending, or commanding, the College to return Sir James Ware and James Donnellan as burgesses; and the mandates to appoint Fellows, contrary to the provisions of the Statutes,

are numerous.

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