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ing in a school, either public or private, or from exercising any part of their ministerial functions. Many of the clergy in London and its neighbourhood, hearing that Cromwell professed great respect for Archbishop Ussher, entreated him to wait upon the Protector and endeavour to procure for them the same liberty of conscience which he granted to all classes of Dissenters; to solicit permission, as they were excluded from the public churches, to officiate in their own private congregations; and to be secured from the disturbance of the soldiers, who interrupted their service and insulted their persons. The Archbishop complied, and prevailed so far as to obtain a promise that the episcopal clergy should not be molested, provided they did not interfere with subjects relating to the Government. The Primate went a second time to get the promise confirmed and put in writing. He found the Protector under the hands of his surgeon, who was dressing a boil on his breast. The Protector requested the Primate to sit down, and that he would speak with him as soon as the dressing was completed. Upon this a very remarkable conversation ensued. Cromwell addressed the Primate, and said, pointing to the boil, "if this core were once out, I should be soon well." The Archbishop replied: "I doubt the core lies deeper; there is a core in the heart, which must be taken out or else it will not be well." "Ah!" replied the Protector, "so there is indeed." And, though he affected to be unconcerned, a sigh followed his words. When the Primate introduced the subject of his visit, Cromwell told him, that having more maturely considered the subject, he had been advised by his council not to grant any indulgence to men who were restless and implacable enemies to his person and government; and then dismissed him with professions of civility and kindness. The aged Archbishop returned to his lodgings in great agitation, and deeply lamented the ill success of his interference. Dr. Parr relates, that he visited the Primate soon after in his chamber, and heard from him words to the following effect: "This false man hath broken his word with me, and refuses to perform what he promised; well, he will have little cause to glory in his wick

edness, for he will not continue long; the King will return; though I shall not live to see it, you may. The Government, both in Church and State, is in confusion, the Papists are advancing their projects, and making such advantages as will hardly be prevented"."

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"The Primate of Ireland, after interceding with Cromwell for ejected ministers without success, retired to the country, using this expression to Dr. Gauden, that he saw some men had only guts and no bowels,' intestina non viscera.". - Further Continuation of Friendly Debates. London, 1670, p. 148.

Another writer states that the Archbishop succeeded: "Tis true Oliver Cromwell and his officers did once, upon some provocation of a pretended plot against him, by a proclamation prohibit their preaching, keeping schools, &c. But by the intercession of that excellent man, Archbishop Usher, they had their liberty again, and preached and enjoyed their places all the time of the usurpation, and those that were kept out of their livings had their fifths allowed them."-Fourth Plea of the Conformists for the Non-Conformists, p. 110. This statement is quite erroneous, as the following extracts from Evelyn's Memoirs will abundantly prove:

"Nov. 27. This day came forth the Protector's edict or proclamation, prohibiting all ministers of the Church of England from preaching or teaching any scholes, in which he imitated the Apostate Julian; with ye decimation of all ye royal parties revenues throughout England.

"Dec. 25. There was no more notice taken of Christmas day in churches. I went to London, where Dr. Wild preached the funeral sermon of preaching, this being the last day, after which Cromwell's proclamation was to take place, that none of the Church of England should dare either to preach or administer sacraments, teach schoole, &c., on pain of imprisonment or exile. So this was ye mournfullest day that in my life I had seen, or ye Church of England herself since ye Reformation; to the great rejoicing of both Papist and Presbyter. So pathetic was his discourse that it drew many teares from the auditory. Myself, wife, and some of our family receiv'd ye communion; God make me thankfull who hath hitherto provided for us the food of our soules as well as bodies. Lord Jesus pity our distress'd Church, and bring back the captivity of Sion.

"1656, Aug 3. I went to London to receive the B. Sacrament, the first time the Church of England was reduced to a chamber and conventicle, so sharp was the persecution. The parish churches were filled with sectaries of all sorts, blasphemous and ignorant mechanics usurping the pulpits every where. Dr. Wild preach'd in a private house in Fleet-streete, where we had a greate meeting of zealous Christians, who were generally much more devout and religious than in our greatest prosperity.

"Dec. 25. I went to London to receive the B. Communion this holy festival, at Dr. Wild's lodgings, where I rejoiced to find so full an assem

The Primate appears at this time to have been impressed with the idea of his approaching dissolution; in his almanac he noted every year, opposite his birth-day, his age, and in January, 1655-6, he wrote, "Now aged 75 years, my years are full;" and a little below he wrote, in large letters, "Resignation." About the middle of February he left London for Ryegate, taking his last leave of his friends and relatives. On his arrival there he resumed the task of finishing his Chronologia Sacra with as much diligence as the weakness of his eyes permitted; but their failure impeded his progress so much, that he determined, if he lived, to employ an amanuensis. Dr. Parr went down to visit. him in the following March, and preached before him. After the sermon the Archbishop, as was his usual practice, conferred with him in private, and said: "I thank you for your sermon, I am going out of the world, and I now desire, according to your text, To seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth at the right hand of God,' and to be with him in Heaven; of which we ought not to doubt, if we can evidence to ourselves our conversion, true faith and charity, and live in the exercise of those Christian graces and virtues with perseverance; mortifying daily our inbred corruptions, renouncing all ungodliness and worldly lusts; and he that is arrived at this habitual frame and holy course of life is the blessed and happy man, and may rejoice in hope of a glorious eternity in the kingdom of Heaven, to receive that inheritance given by God to those that are sanctified." Dr. Parr left him without any apprehension that his life was so soon to terminate. On the 20th of March the Archbishop had spent all the earlier part of the day in his study, and when the light failed him, he visited a lady who was dying in the house, and occupied the time till supper in giving her advice, and preparing her for that journey which he himself was the first to take. At supper

bly of devout and sober Christians.”—Evelyn's Memoirs, vol. i. p. 303.


Dr. Wild, who so faithfully kept up the performance of the English Liturgy during the persecution, had been chaplain to Archbishop Laud, and after the Restoration was made Bishop of Derry. He died in 1665.

he complained of violent pain in his hip, which was supposed to be a return of the sciatica with which he had before been afflicted. The next morning the pain affected his side, which it then appeared arose from pleuritic inflammation. Medical aid was ineffectual, and after several hours of acute pain his strength was so much reduced that it was manifest he could not long survive. He prepared for the awful termination like one to whom the thought of death was familiar, and having joined in prayer with the chaplain of the Countess, he addressed those around him, and exhorted them to prepare for death in the hour of their health and strength. He then took leave of the Countess of Peterborough, and, having expressed his grateful thanks to her for her continued acts of kindness to him, he exerted the last remains of his strength in giving her spiritual counsel, as the best return he could make he then requested that he might be left alone to his private devotions. The last words he was heard to utter were: "O Lord, forgive me, especially my sins of omission." Soon after he sunk to rest, about one o'clock in the afternoon of the 21st of March, in the seventy-sixth year of his age and the thirty-fifth of his episcopate, having been four years Bishop of Meath, and thirty-one years Archbishop of Armagh, the hundredth bishop of that see from St. Patrick.

On opening the body a quantity of coagulated blood was found on the left side, and it appeared that the physician had mistaken the complaint, not perhaps expecting a pleurisy in a man so advanced in years. It was resolved by his relatives and friends to bury the Archbishop at Ryegate, and the Countess of Peterborough offered them her family vault. But before the arrangements could be completed an order was sent to Sir Timothy and Lady Tyrrell, by the Protector, forbidding them to bury the Archbishop any where but in Westminster Abbey, and announcing his intention of having a public funeral. His son-in-law and daughter were afraid to refuse, though well aware that the design of Cromwell was, not to honor the Archbishop, but to gain credit for himself with different parties for such a mark of respect to one so generally revered; and that he

never would pay all the expenses of the funeral, but throw the greater part of it upon them, who were very ill able to afford such an expenditure. Their apprehensions were but too well founded; Cromwell gave them only £200 out of the deodands in his almoner's hands, while the family were obliged to contribute three times that amounts.

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By the kindness of Mr. Black, which I have before had occasion to acknowledge, I am able to insert the original order from the Records in the Public Record Office, Rolls House.

"Nicholas Barnard Doctor in Divinity celi to be expended in and about the Funerall of Doct' Usher, late Arch Bishoppe of Armagh and Primate of Ireland.

"Oliver Lord Protector of the Cōmon-wealth of England Scotland and Ireland, and the dominions thereto belonging, To the Com's of and for our Treasury Greeting, our Will and Pleasure is and wee doe hereby require and cōmaund you That out of such Our Treasure as is or shalbee remayning in the Receipt of our Excheq' you forthwith pay or cause to bee paid unto Nicholas Barnard Doctor in Divinity or his Assignes the sume of Two Hundred Pounds of lawful money of England to bee expended in and about the defraying of the charges of the Funeral of James Usher Doctor in Divinity late Arch-Bishopp of Armagh and Primate of Ireland deceased, And for soe doeing theis Our Lres or the Inrollm' thereof shal bee a sufficient Warrant and discharge vnto you the said Com's of our Treasury and to all others the Officers and Ministers of our said Excheq to whom these presents shall appertaine. And Our Further will and pleasure is that the said sūme of Two hundred pounds bee soe paid without any Fees whatsoever for the same. Given vnd Our Privy Seale at Our Pallace of Westminster the second day of Aprill in the yeare of Our Lord One thousand six hundred Fifty six.

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Doctor Nicho- "Order is taken this 10th of Aprill, 1656. By virfor the fune- tue of his highnes lettres of privie seale dated the rall charges of second day of the same that you deliver and pay of the Bishop of Armagh. such of his hignes treare as remaineth in your charge unto Nicholas Barnard doctor in divinitie the sume of 200 to be SCC". expended in and about ye defraying of the charges of the Fune- Brage. rall of James Usher docto' in divinitie late archbishopp of Armagh and primate of Ireland deceased. The said sume to be paid without any Fees for ye same. And theise togeather with his or his assignes acquittance for the same shall be your discharge herein. "T. WIDDRINGTON. "Aprill 11th, 1656." "W. SYDENHAM.



Aprill xjth 1656.

"To Docto" Nicholas Barnard CC for and towards

the funerall charges of James Usher late Archbishop of Armagh. By privie seale dated the second of this instant.



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