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tion, and referred it to the Primate and the other Commissioners, adding also an earnest request, that they would take measures to enforce the residence of the clergy. Another reformation, with regard to the Church service, which the Lord Deputy effected, with the assistance of the Lord Primate, was the observance of holydays. Lord Strafford, in a letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury, says: "Aftert speech with my Lord Primate concerning the due keeping of the Holydays according to the rules ecclesiastical, we resolved to recommend it to the four Archbishops, and they to their suffragans, which I have done very effectually, so as I am confident the former omission or neglect thereof will be recompensed by a heedful observance of them for the future." It appears then most clearly, that Archbishop require and authorize you to advise of some good means whereby the said abuses be prevented for the future; especially to see that publick schools, whether they be founded by statute, or by his Majesty's princely endowment, be not so extremely neglected as they are, or served by popish or other stipendiaries; and to proceed to the deprivation of such persons as you shall find to have been grossly culpable in this kind.

"And further, whereas we cannot but take notice of the general nonresidence of clergymen to the dishonour of God, the disservice of their cures, the vain expense of their means in cities and corporate towns, and the great scandal of the Church; we do hereby require and authorize you to proceed instantly with all severity to the reformation of this great abuse, and to cause all those whom you shall find to live idly about this city of Dublin or other cities or corporate towns, or upon their farms, to repair instantly to their parish churches to attend that charge, whereof they owe an account both to God and man; and if they shall disobey your commands in this respect, to sequester their livings for a year; and if they be still negligent, to deprive them: purposing upon our return into this kingdom (if it shall so please God and his Majesty) to take a strict account of your proceedings and good endeavours in each of these particulars.

"Yet it is not our meaning thereby to restrain any from following their lawful suits or occasions in this city or elsewhere, so long as shall be necessary for the dispatch of such their affairs; but withal we would not have pretences admitted for just reasons of their absence. In the due and circumspect performance of which, you shall effect a great reformation, highly acceptable to Almighty God, most pleasing to his most excellent Majesty, becoming yourself and those charges you exercise in this Church, and contenting all good men. So I rest

"Dublin Castle this 2nd of June 1636."

"Your affectionate friend

Strafford's Letters, vol. ii. pag. 42.

Ussher did not consider the service of the Church holydays as Popish, but insisted upon their observance in the midst of Dissenters. Dr. Bernard acknowledges the fact, and relates, that "the" annual Festivals of the Church he (the Primate) duly observed, preaching upon their several commemorations: On Christmas day, Easter, Whitsunday he never failed of Communions; that excellent treatise of his entitled, The incarnation of the Son of God,' was the substance of two or three sermons, which I heard him preach in a Christmas time; Good Fryday he constantly kept very strictly, preaching himself then upon the Passion beyond his ordinary time, when we had the publick prayers in their utmost extent also, and without any thought of a superstition he kept himself fasting till evening."

At the close of this year, or, according to our reckoning, at the commencement of the next, the Primate addressed the following circular letter to the Archbishops and Bishops: "MY VERY GOOD LORD

"I am commanded to declare unto you that it is the pleasure of the State, that the suspending of the proceedings against recusants for their clandestines, for which you received directions before the beginning of the Parliament, shall be still continued, until you do receive more special instructions to the contrary. And that in the mean time, in a quiet and silent manner, you withdraw all such proceedings, and be careful to place able and worthy ministers in all parishes, who may endeavour to win and reduce the adverse party by instruction and good example.

"I am further also required by letters directed unto me from his Majesty, dated at Hampton Court the 24th of December last, to admonish all my brethren, the lords Bishops, that they concur in the great work of plantation now in hand, by planting Protestants upon their lands. "So I commit you to God's blessed protection and rest "Your Lordships most assured loving brother "JA. ARMACHANUS.

"Dublin March 17 1636,

Clavi Trabales, pag. 63.

"But for the particular of marriages you are to take order that the banns also be thrice denounced in our parish churches, and a note preserved of their names who are to be married; or that otherwise they take out their license for marriage, paying those accustomed fees, that they of our own profession used to do upon the like occasions. These things I thought good to acquaint your Lordship as so I rest."

At this period the Primate was engaged in a contest with Chappell, Provost of Trinity College, Dublin, which excited very great attention, was the subject of lengthened correspondence between the Lord Deputy and the Archbishop of Canterbury, and was the immediate cause of procuring the new Charter and Statutes for Trinity College, that measure which had been recommended so many years before by Archbishop Abbot. The history of this transaction is involved in very great obscurity, as the Registry of Trinity College furnishes very imperfect information, and, while there are many gaps in the letters which passed between Archbishop Laud and Lord Strafford, there is only one letter on the subject preserved from the Archbishop to the Primate, and not one of the Primate's. It should be recollected that, according to the ancient charter, the duration of a Fellowship was limited to seven years, and that the Visitors of the College were the Chancellor or his Vice-Chancellor, the Archbishop of Dublin, the Bishop of Meath, the Vice-Treasurer, the Treasurer-at- War, the Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and the Mayor of the City of Dublin. A Senior Fellowship became vacant at the end of December, 1635, and doubts arose as to the eligibility of the first three Junior Fellows, Hoyle, Feasant, and Cullen, Hoyle having refused to wear a surplice till the Sunday before the election, and all three being notoriously negli

▾ Provost Chappell expresses strongly the misery of the situation in which he was placed by his appointment to the Provostship:


'Exinde me Collegio totus dico

In ordinem ut redigam. Redigo per gratiam

Dei mei, cui laus et honor in seculum.

Quid non patior, hoc dum ago. Ruunt facto agmine

In me profana turba Romæ Genevæque."

gent in attendance upon chapel. After much discussion, the three having been passed over, the Provost proposed Mr. Ware, who, though more attentive than the others, was not free from blame. While the Board were discussing his election, a mandate was delivered from the Visitors, inhibiting them from proceeding. The inhibition was signed by the Archbishops of Armagh and Dublin, the Bishop of Meath, the Mayor of Dublin, and Adam Loftus, the Vice-Treasurer. The Provost, though justly indignant at such a proceeding having been taken on the petition of three Junior Fellows, without hearing the other party, submitted.

The power of election was vested by the Statutes in the Provost and four Senior Fellows. The number was rapidly diminishing, and the Provost, afraid that the power of electing would cease, had recourse to a singular expedient. He and two Senior Fellows, being the major part, repealed the Statute which limited the power of election to four Senior Fellows. This repealing power Archbishop Abbot had decided did not belong to the Provost and Fellows by the Charter. Upon this a Visitation was held, as is collected from circumstantial evidence, but no record of it exists, and Newman and Conway, the two Senior Fellows who voted with the Provost, were expelled. It seems strange, when the Visitors proceeded so far, they did not expel the Provost also; yet some punishment must have been inflicted upon the Provost, for Archbishop Laud writes to Lord Strafford : "I send you a copy of the Visitors' last act against the two Senior Fellows that joined with the Provost in this business, and himself." It is most probable that only a censure was passed upon the Provost, for, in his letter to the Primate, Archbishop Laud says: "His Majesty was of necessity to be made acquainted with the business because the censure of the Provost, if he deserves it, is referred to himself." The Archbishop further says, in a letter to the Lord Deputy: "I have within these two days received letters out of Ireland from my Lord Primate. All is naught there. His letters are three sides of a paper in

w Ussher's Works, vol. xvi. pag. 23.
* Strafford's Letters, voi. ii. pag. 24.

his small close hand. All the proceedings set down at large. If the relation be true, the Provost is much to blame. The business is now brought to me, which I am most sorry for, in regard I know how things are between them two." Lord Strafford replies: "As concerning the difference betwixt the Provost and Fellows of the College at Dublin, it seems they are grown very high. For which I am sorry but how to help it I know not, being in this only able to follow such directions as I shall receive from his Majesty and your GraceMethinks the act of the Visitors was very precipitate and violent, so sharply to expel the two senior Fellows and all this for a Fellows sake that never wore a surplice, but now being in danger otherwise to lose his preferment. Indeed I judge this hot proceeding rather to come from the vehemence of Dr. Martin Bishop of Meath, than from the mild and gentle disposition of the Primate. But however it be, considering that my Lord Justice Wandesford hath laid open the root whence all these disagreements arise, and certainly most truly, it will be a business fit for your Grace to apply an expedient unto, and for us to attend your order and pursue it at after with all the care possible, which your Grace may be assured of from me, and that I will never give it over (discontent it as much as it will) till I see all settled and executed, as you shall please to prescribe therein."

Archbishop Laud in answer says: "I am heartily sorry for the difference that is fallen out between my Lord Primate and the Visitors of the College near Dublin, and the Provost and some Senior Fellows there. This unhappy difference began as I take it while your Lordship was there, but I am confident it had never grown to this height had not your Lordship come thence. It is in my judgment a great business in itself that the prime Prelates in the kingdom and the Provost of the College should be at such eager difference in the open face of that state and in view of so many Romanists as swarm there, and cannot but look upon it with joy. But it is far more dangerous in the consequence if I much mistake not. For that College, as your Lordship


Strafford's Letters, vol. ii. pag. 36.

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