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The dispute thus settled in the Church of Ireland, was renewed by the titular bishops of the Roman Catholic Schism. Bishop Plunket published in 1672 a treatise with the title, "Jus Primatiale," which was answered by Bishop Talbot in a tract entitled, "Primatus Dubliniensis, vel summa Rationum, quibus innititur Ecclesia Dubliniensis in possessione, et prosecutione sui Juris ad Primatum Hiberniæ." The best treatise upon the subject was published in 1728 by Hugh Mac Mahon, Roman Catholic Archbishop in Armagh. He has exhausted the subject, and given a much more complete defence of the rights of the see than Archbishop Ussher.

A short time before this judgment was passed, Archbishop Ussher had consecrated Dr. John Bramhall Bishop of Derry. This distinguished ecclesiastic had been brought over to Ireland by Lord Strafford, and had been employed by him in the royal visitation of Ireland: but it does not appear whether he was one of the commissioners, that he was the chief director of the visitation is certain. His biographer, Bishop Vesey, says: "He was either one of his Majesties commissioners with Baron Hilton, Judge of the Prerogative, or such a Coadjutor that all was governed by his direction." The lamentable description he gave of the state of the Church, both as to spirituals and to temporals, belongs more to the general history of Ireland than to the Life of Archbishop Ussher, and I must proceed to give an account of the meeting of the Convocation in 1634.

The title of the work is "Jus Primatiale Armacanum in omnes Archiepiscopos, Episcopos, et universum Clerum totius Regni Hiberniæ, assertum per H. A. M. T. H. P." that is, Hugonem Armacanum Metropolitanum Totius Hiberniæ Primatem.


Mac Mahon states that the question had been finally settled at Rome : Quibus utrinque æqua lance perpensis in sacro cœtu Cardinalium SS. Congregationis de propaganda fide, Secretarius Baldescus Archiepiscopus Cæsareæ, postea Cardinalis Colonna pronunciavit, L'Armacano sta a cavallo, id est, Armacani rationes prævalere. Aliquanto post utriusque partis iterum ventilatis accurate monumentis, et præmissa (ut consuevit) matura deliberatione SS. Congregatio, approbante Summo Pontifice, inseri mandavit officio S. Patricii ad 17. diem Martii hæc verba, Armacanam sedem Romani Pontificis authoritate totius insulæ principem Metropolitanum constituit."-Jus Primat. pag. 21.

At the commencement of the year 1634 the Lord Deputy addressed two letters, one to the King, detailing his reasons for wishing to call a Parliament, the other to the Archbishop of Canterbury, putting forward the lamentable state of the Church, and the necessity of establishing its agreement in doctrine and discipline with the Church of England. His Majesty consented, writing to Lord Strafford: "Upon these reasons alledged by you, and the confidence which we have, that you have well weighed all the circumstances. mentioned by you, or otherwise necessary to the calling of a Parliament; and especially relying upon your faith and dexterity in managing so great a work for the good of our service; we are fully persuaded to condescend to the present calling of a Parliament, which accordingly we authorize and require you to do, and therein to make use of all the motives you here propound." The Lord Deputy considered the state of the Church so deplorable, that it was useless to attempt introducing a conformity in religion. with England, until "the decays of the material churches be repaired and an able clergy be provided." The Archbishop of Canterbury in reply most wisely recommends. that he should set about "the repair of the material and spiritual church together." The Lord Deputy took the advice, and set about the two important amendments vigorously. He complains that he "finds all men utterly ignorant in the orders and forms to be observed in the meetings and sittings of Parliaments," and he requests that the Secretary will send him over all the necessary forms. The arrangements were made according to these forms, and writs issued for summoning a Convocation similar to those

iStrafford's Letters, vol. i. pag. 187.

k Nothing can be more melancholy than his statement: "An unlearned clergy, which have not so much as the outward form of churchmen to cover themselves with, nor their persons any way reverenced or protected; the churches unbuilt; the parsonage and vicarage houses utterly ruined; the people untaught thorough the non-residency of the clergy, occasioned by the unlimited shameful numbers of spiritual promotions with cure of souls, which they hold by commendams; the rites and ceremonies of the church run over without all decency of habit, order or gravity, in the course of their service; the possessions of the church to a

made use of in England. On the 14th of July the Parliament assembled, and in great state proceeded with the Lord Deputy to St. Patrick's Cathedral, where the Archbishop of Armagh preached before them on the text, "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come, and to him shall the gathering of the people be." On the meeting of the Convocation Dean Lesley was chosen Prolocutor of the Lower House. The great difficulty which presented itself was the supposed attachment of the Primate to the Articles of 1615, which were principally, if not entirely drawn up by him. Lord Strafford says, in a letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury: "It is true my Lord Primate seemed to disallow these articles of Ireland but when it comes to the upshot, I cannot find he doth it so absolutely as I expected. Some little trouble there hath been in it, and we are all bound not to advertise it over, hoping among ourselves to reconcile it." The Archbishop in answer says: "Im knew how you would find my Lord Primate affected to the articles of Ireland, but I am glad the trouble that hath been in it will end there without advertising it over to us." Lord Strafford's determination, which received the approbation of the King and the Archbishop of Canterbury, was "ton have the articles of England received in ipsissimis verbis, leaving the other as no ways concerned in the state they now are, either affirmed or disaffirmed." Some letters of the Lord Deputy have been lost, which would throw considerable light upon the proceedings, that took place before the open

great proportion in lay hands; the Bishops aliening their very principal houses and demesnes to their children, to strangers; farming out the jurisdictions to mean and unworthy persons; the Popish titulars exercising the whilst a foreign jurisdiction much greater than theirs. The schools which might be a means to season the youth in virtue and religion, either ill provided, ill governed in the most part, or which is worse applied sometimes underhand to the maintenance of Popish schoolmasters. Lands given to these charitable uses, and that in bountiful proportion, especially by King James of ever blessed memory, dissipated, leased forth for little or nothing, concealed contrary to all conscience and the excellent purpose of the founders."-Strafford's Letters, vol. i. pag. 187, 188. 'Strafford's Letters, vol. i. pag. 298. m Ibid. pag. 329. "Ibid. pag. 298.

ing of the Convocation. In a letter dated December 16, the Lord Deputy says: "In° a former letter of mine I mentioned a way propounded by my Lord Primate how to bring upon this clergy the articles of England and silence. those of Ireland without noise, as it were aliud agens, which he was confident would pass amongst them. In my last I related to you, how his Grace grew fearful he should not be able to effect it, which awakened me, that had rested secure upon that judgment of his, and had indeed leaned upon that belief so long, as I had not bestirred myself, though I say it, like a man, I had been fatally surprized to my extream grief for as many days as I have to live." This is the whole account which has been preserved, and we are at a loss to ascertain what was the Primate's plan, or to discover the reasons which influenced him to despair of carrying it; we have fortunately a full detail of the measures which were adopted, and of the mode in which the Lord Deputy secured his success.

During the first short session of the Parliament the Convocation does not appear to have done any thing except making a liberal grant to the King of eight subsidies? :

• Strafford's Letters, voi. i. pag. 342.

The form was as follows: "Illustrissimo ac potentissimo Principi, ac Domino nostro clementissimo Carolo; Dei gratia Angliæ Scotia et Hiberniæ, fidei defensori &c. Jacobus Providentia divina Armachanus Archiepiscopus, totius Hiberniæ Primas et Metropolitanus, cum omni observantia tanto Principi debita, prosperum in hac vita successum et in futura æternam felicitatem. Serenissimæ vestræ Majestati, per publicum hoc instrumentum notum facimus, quod Prælati et clerus totius Hiberniæ, in sacra synodo nationali, jussu serenissimæ Majestatis vestræ, in ecclesia Cathedrali Sancti Patricii Dublinii legitime congregati, recolentes multa illa et summa beneficia, quæ communiter cum cæteris subditis vestris percipiunt (veluti sunt puræ religionis exercitium, justitiæ administratio, publicaque pax, in qua omnium bonorum affluentia continetur) et multo magis singularem Majestatis vestræ zelum erga decorum domus Dei et hæreditariam illam munificentiam, qua ordinem ecclesiasticum Regia Majestas vestra, paternis insistens vestigiis, prosequitur; non modo Deo optimo maximo humillimas pro vobis gratias agendas, et assiduas preces pro Regni vestri tranquillitate fundendas, sed etiam gratitudinem suam aliquo indicio Regiæ vestræ sublimitati testificandam duxerunt, et octo integra et ultronea subsidia, unanimi consensu, nemine prorsus dissentiente, Regiæ vestræ sublimitati alacriter concesserunt, Majestatem

and it was on its reassembling in November that they commenced to consider the state of the Church, and the necessity of establishing canons. The first step in the Upper House was agreeing upon the following petition to the King in favor of the inferior clergy:

vestram rogantes, ut ex affectus largitate potius quam rei ipsius tenuitate, hoc officium suum metiatur. Tenor vero concessionis prædictæ se habet in hunc qui sequitur modum.

"Most gracious and dread Soveraigne, we your Majesties most loyall subjects, the prelates and clergie of this church and kingdom of Ireland, called together out of the severall provinces of Armagh, Dublin, Cashell and Tuam, by the authoritie of your Highnesse writ, and orderly assembled in a national synode or convocation, being lately dejected and depressed to the lowest degree of misery and contempt, by the warres and confusions of former times, having our churches ruined, our habitations left desolate, our possessions aliened, our persons scorned, our very lives subject to the bloody attempts of rebellious traytors; and now by the pietie and bountie of your blessed Father, and by the gracious influence of your sacred Majestie being new enlived, and beginning to lift up our heads out of darknesse and obscurity, doe freely acknowledge to your immortal glory before God and the whole Christian world, that as no Church under Heaven did ever stand more in need, so none did ever finde more royal and munificent patrons and protectors than the poore Church of Ireland; you have not onely made restitution of that which the iniquitie of former ages had bereft us of, but also, as though you intended to expiate their faults, enriched us with new and princely endowments; all which great favours doe yet become more sweet unto us, whilst we entertain them as pledges of your future unexhausted goodnesse; and if we doe not seriously endeavour, throughout our whole lives, to make unfaigned expressions of true loyaltie and thankfulness to your sacred Majestie, we deserve to be condemned by men and punished by God as monsters of ingratitude; to which infinite obligation and many others, we may adde your Majesties inestimable goodnesse in providing for us your present Deputie Thomas Viscount Wentworth, a governour so just, carefull, provident and propitious to the Church."

Then proceeds the enactment of the different provisions, and it concludes thus ;

"In quorum omnium et singulorum præmissorum fidem et testimonium, nos Jacobus Archiepiscopus Armachanus, totius Hiberniæ Primas antedictus, has præsentes literas nostras testimoniales, sive hoc præsens publicum instrumentum ad humilem rogatum Prælatorum et Cleri prædicti, sigilli nostri appensione ac signo, nomine et subscriptione Johannis Forth Armigeri notarii publici, jussimus et fecimus communiri. Dat' vicesimo sexto die instant' mensis Julii, Anno Domini millesimo sexcentesimo tricesimo quarto, Regnique vestri felicissimi, scilicet Anglia Scotiæ et Hiberniæ, decimo."

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