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read every day, and that the Archbishop never failed to attend except prevented by illness: and he also adds, that there were no Protestants in Drogheda who scrupled at the use of the cross in baptism, or kneeling at the communion table, or the like, but "inf all things conformed to what they saw was approved by him." Now these were points upon which Blair held the very opposite opinions, and boasted of having convinced Lord Claneboy and others that sitting was the proper posture for receiving the communion. The first censure is said to have been inflicted in September, 1631, and in May, 1632, they were summoned before the Bishop and silenced, with two others. On this occasion it is reported that they again applied to the Primate, and that he declined interfering, because the Lords Justices had received orders from the King concerning them. Now, it is most probable, from a letter of Bishop Laud to Lord Strafford, that this interference of the Lords Justices was at the suggestion of the Primate, for Bishop Laud says: "I am commanded by his Majesty to send your Lordship a clause of a letter sent to me by the Lord Primate of Armagh, Mar. 1, 1632, at which time his princely pleasure was that your Lordship should assure the Lord Primate, that he would see the jurisdiction of the Church established there to be maintained against both recusants and other factionists whatsoever; and that you should do your best endeavour to stop all such rumours, as may dishearten the Bishops in God's service and his." This passage proves decisively that the Archbishop, so far from supporting, had applied for further powers to put down the Dissenters of the North. The whole narrative of Blair is remarkable for its self-sufficiency and arrogance. "It is not a little remarkable," observes Bishop Mants, "with what arrogant self-sufficiency these irregular ministers habitually speak of their own proceedings, frequently attributing their irregularities and lawlessness to a special divine interposition; and how continually they ascribe to the worst motives the

Clavi Trabales, pag. 58.

Hist. of Church of Ireland, vol. i. pag. 463.

conduct of the Bishops and other friends of the Church, who acted agreeably to their principles and engagements as episcopalians. Episcopacy and every thing connected with it appeared in their eyes and is represented in their writings. as a sort of spiritual leprosy ; and even their most favored Ussher could obtain from Mr. Livingston no better character than that of being a godly man though a bishop.''

It is with great regret I am obliged to record the assistance, which the Primate gave to an arbitrary act violating the privileges of Trinity College, Dublin. On the 10th of July, 1632, a letter was delivered to the Provost from the Lords Justices and the Primate, desiring him to admit William Newman to a fellowship. Newman was under the protection of Lord Chancellor Loftus, and was afterwards his domestic chaplain'. The Provost called upon the Fellows to advise what answer should be returned. "The opinion of the major part was, that in regard yielding of this desire were the breach of our statute form for election, and by reason of the statute which maketh him incapable who procureth letters in his behalf, satisfaction to their Lordships

The letter was as follows: "After our hearty commendations, The testimonies which Mr. Newman Master in the Arts hath given of his abilities in learning hath prevailed with us to join in these our letters to you in his behalf. That by our mediation your favours may be so far extended to him, as to admit him a fellow of that house where he first became a scholar and continued so long as to have received his degree of Master: and because he did formerly sit for a fellowship there, and performed what in such cases are required with good satisfaction to that House as we are informed. And in regard if he should be put to sit for it a second time, it might in common construction be interpreted so as it might reflect upon him in his reputation beyond your intendment. And for that he hath already given good proof of his abilities, we therefore pray you that you will forthwith admit him into his Fellows place, according to his seniority, without putting him to any such second sitting for it, which we conceive will be a favour well placed, and such as we will accept in very. good part at your hands, and will acknowledge with special thanks. And so we bid you heartily farewell: from his Maj. castle of Dublin

"23 June 1632."

"Your very loving friends

See Commons' Journal, vol. i. pag. 232, June 11, 1641.


request could not be given without breach of our oath taken to have the statutes observed."

Newman, relying upon the interest which he possessed, proceeded immediately to London with the letter recommending him to the College, and an additional one from the Chancellor. He was not disappointed, but returned to Ireland, bringing with him the following mandamus from the King:


“Charles R.

We are

Trusty and well beloved, we greet you well. given to understand that William Newman a native of that country and Master of Arts, being qualified every way for his sufficiency and recommended both by our Lords Justices and the Primate of Armagh to a fellowship in your House and for whose election both you the Provost and some others consented: only some that combined themselves to oppose Government opposed. We therefore resolving hereafter to have the proceedings of such opposers examined and censured as it shall deserve, do now require and command you according to the recommendation of our Justices and Primate, that you forthwith elect and admit the said William Newman to be a fellow of your House, wherein we expect your ready obedience. Given under our signet at our Court at Whitehall the 16 day of September in the 8th year of our reign.


"Provost & Fellows of

Trinity College."

By his Majestys commandment "J. COKE.

Mr. Newman was admitted by the Provost in compliance with this mandate. The interference of the Primate in this business seems very extraordinary. His signature was not necessary to give effect to the mandate of the Lords Justices, and as Vice-Chancellor of the University he ought to have resisted any encroachment upon its privileges. The resistance of the Fellows seems to have made a deep impression upon his mind, and in a letter to Archbishop Laud, written a year after, he describes the Fellows "as so fac

tious, that nothing would please them which came from their superiors." If all the acts of their superiors were like the forcing Mr. Newman upon them, their resistance was highly meritorious, and reflects great credit upon their disinterestedness and courage.

The next year was remarkable for two events closely connected with the future life of the Archbishop, the arrival of Lord Strafford in Ireland, and the appointment of Bishop Laud to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. The first request of Bishop Laud to the Lord Deputy respecting the Church, was to assist the Primate in his efforts to recover the impropriations for the Church: "Ik humbly pray your Lordship, that in the great cause of the impropriations which are yet remaining in his Majestys gift and which he is most graciously willing to give back to God and his service, you will do whatsoever may justly be done for the honour and service of our two great masters, God and the King, that you would countenance and assist the Lord Primate of Armagh in all things belonging to this great service: and particularly for the procuring of a true and just valuation of them, that the King may know what he gives the Church. I pray, my Lord, be hearty in this, for I shall think myself very happy, if God be pleased to spare my life to see this business ended."-" I further pray your Lordship to take notice by the Lord Primate of Armagh, of the readiness of the Lord Chief Justice' of Ireland to set forward the maintenance of the ministers in that kingdom, and to encourage him to advance the same. As also to move the Lord Chief Justice for his opinion, what legal course he shall think fittest may be held for the present means of Curates out of the impropriationsm in Ireland; which I am credibly in

* Strafford's Letters, vol. i. pag. 82.

1 Sir George Shurley, Knt.

The first person who appears to have considered the state of the impropriations was Lord Chancellor Weston. He drew out a plan for restoring them to their proper use, which he intended to have presented to Queen Elizabeth, but death prevented him, and the manuscript was lost. In the year 1620 Dr. Ryves dedicated to King James a work called "The poore Vicars Plea," in which he proves clearly, that by the ecclesiastical laws which were in force at the time of the dissolution of abbeys in the reign

formed his Lordship is very able and willing to give." The exertions of the Archbishop in the case of Sir John Bathe have already been mentioned, and he procured "a grant" of a patent from his Majesty to be passed in his own name, although for the use of the Church, of such impropriations belonging to the Crown as were then leased out, as soon as they should fall; which though it did not succeed, being too much neglected by those who were concerned more immediately, yet it sufficiently shews my Lord's pious intentions in this matter." The Presbyterian writers are most anxious to show that the affairs of the Irish Church were carried on by Lord Strafford and Bishop Laud, in direct opposition to the wishes of Archbishop Ussher. It is only necessary, however, to read the letters which passed between these distinguished individuals, in order to ascertain that the utmost cordiality existed between them. Lord Strafford and Bishop Laud certainly expressed their regret that firmness of character was not to be found in Archbishop Ussher, but in one of his earliest letters Lord Strafford says: "To my Lord Primate (as I take it) I have given so good satisfaction, as his Lordship is well informed in his Majesty's purposes and ways concerning matters of religion, and tells me, it is shame for them when Ezekias and Josias call upon them for the performance of these duties." And the Primate, in a letter to Archbishop Laud, says: "Upon the arrival of the Lord Deputy, I found him very honorably affected toward me and very ready to further me, as in other things that concerned the Church, so particularly in that which did concern the settlement of the lands belonging to the archbishoprick of Armagh."

The Primate, taking advantage of the favorable disposi

of Henry VIII., the bishops had full power, within their several dioceses, to allot so much of the tithes as would serve for the maintenance of a minister, and that the same laws stand in full force, uncontrolled by any Statute of either kingdom. However impropriations still remain; in some parishes there is no allowance whatever for the vicar, in many others an allowance of £5.

n Parr's Life, pag. 41.

• Strafford's Letters, vol. i. pag. 173.

› Letter 184, Works, vol. xv. pag. 572.

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