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to offer up sacrifice, first for his | tabernacle: for, "See," said own sins, and then for those of God, "that thou make all the people for this he did things according to the pattern once for all, when he offered up which was shown thee on the himself.* 28 For the law ap-mount.") 6 But now, our Highpointeth men high-priests who priest obtained a more excelhave infirmity; but the word of lent ministry, in as much as he the oath, which was after the is the mediator of a better covelaw, appointeth the Son, who is nant, which is established on made perfect to the age. better promises.
CH. VIII. 1 NOW the sum of what has been said is this: We have such a high-priest, as sitteth on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens; 2 a minister of the most Holy Place, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, [and] not man. 3 For every high-priest is appointed to offer gifts and sacrifices: wherefore it is necessary that this High-priest have also something to offer.
7 For if that first covenant had been faultless, then no place would have been sought for the second. 8 For, finding fault with them,† It is said, "Behold, the days are coming, saith the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: 9 not according to the covenant which I made with their fathers, in the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out from the land of Egypt: when they continued not in my covenant, and I regarded them not, saith the Lord: 10 for this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord: I will put my laws into their mind, and will write them on
4 For if he were on earth he would not be a priest; since there are [priests] who offer gifts according to the law: 5 (who serve as to the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was instructed of God, when he was about to make the
* This he did, i. e. offered up sacrifice, first, for his own sins. "But Christ in a moral sense was sinless. See ver. 26, and eh. iv. 15. His sins therefore were merely ceremonial, that is, being a descendant of the house of Judah, ver. 14, he was, as to the priesthood, in an unconsecrated state. And as Aaron was consecrated to his priestly office by the blood of animal sacrifices, so Christ was consecrated to his nobler office by the sacrifice of himself. This way of representing the death of Christ was adapted to conciliate the prejudices of the Hebrew Christians. Moreover, as the posterity of Aaron were successively removed by death, ver. 23, successive priests were consecrated by successive sacrifices; but Christ lives continually, and has no successor. Also, priests under the law were subject to infirmity, and might desecrate themselves by ceremonial pollution, ver. 28; it was necessary, therefore, that they should be re-consecrated by the daily sacrifice. But Christ being incapable of ceremonial pollution, his one sacrifice was sufficient. He now is perfect for ever. But in the same sense in which Christ offered up a sacrifice for his own sins, in that very sense did he offer himself a sacrifice for the sins of the people. That is, not to appease the wrath of God for moral offences, which is an idea quite remote from the author's mind, and foreign to his argument; but to consecrate believers, and to bring them out of an unholy into a holy state, by a figurative application of the blood of Christ, as the Israelites were formerly purified and made ceremonially holy by the real sprinkling of the blood of animal victims. See ch. ix. 11-28. These observations must be car ried in mind by the reader of this epistle, in order to understand the writer's language and doctrine in the ninth and tenth chapters concerning the priesthood of Christ. See Grotíus and Crellius in loco, and in chap. v. ver. 3." Im. Ver. note.
ti. e. the Jews.
their hearts; and I will be to them a God, and they shall be to me a people. 11 And they shall not teach every one his fellow-citizen, and every one his brother, saying, Know the Lord' for all shall know me, from the least [of them] to the greatest of them. 12 For I will be merciful to their unrighteousness; and their sins, and their iniquities I will remember no more." 13 In that God said, "A new covenant," he hath declared the former void. Now that which is declared void and groweth old, is about to disappear.
CH. IX. NOW the first covenant had also ordinances of worship, and a worldly sanctuary. 2 For the first tabernacle was prepared, which is called Holy; in which was the candlestick, and the table, and the shewbread. 3 And, behind the second veil, the tabernacle which is called the Holy of Holies: 4 having the golden censer, and the ark of the covenant covered all over with gold, in which was the golden pot that had the manna, and Aaron's rod, that budded, and the tables of the covenant: 5 and above which were the cherubim of glory, shadowing the mercy-seat: of which things we cannot at present speak particularly.
6 Now these things having been thus prepared, the priests
always enter into the first tabernacle, performing the services of God: 7 but into the second the high-priest alone entereth once every year, not without blood, which he offereth for himself, and for the sins of ignorance of the people : 8 the holy spirit signifying by this, that the way into the most Holy Place is not yet laid open, while the first tabernacle yet standeth: 9 which tabernacle is a figure for the present time, in which gifts and sacrifices are offered, which cannot make him who worshippeth perfect, as concerning his conscience; 10 consisting only in meats and drinks, and different washings, and carnal ordinances, imposed till the time of reformation.
11 But Christ, a high-priest of the future good things, being come, entered once for all into the most Holy Place, through the greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made by hands; (that is, not of this present building;) 12 nor by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood; having obtained an aionian redemption.
13 For if the blood of bulls and of goats, and the ashes of a heifer, sprinkling the unclean, sanctify to the cleansing of the flesh; 14 how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the aionian spirit offered himself spotless to God, cleanse
✦ who offered himself with a spotless mind unto God, Wakefield, who, with the Ethiopic, leaves out diviou, “aionian." The Clermont and some other copies read you," the holy spirit;" which is supported by the Coptic and the Vulgate versions. The phrase "aionian spirit,” is very unusual: but if admitted as genuine, it must signify that Christ offered himself by divine appointment. See Im. Ver. note.
your conscience from dead works, that ye may serve the living God? 15 And for this cause Christ is the mediator of the new covenant; that, death having taken place for the redemption of the transgressions under the first covenant, those who are called might receive the promise of the aionian inheritance.
by these things; but the heavenly things themselves, with better sacrifices than these.
24 For Christ hath not entered into the Holy Place made with hands, which answereth to the true one; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us: 25 nor was it necessary that he should offer himself often, as the high16 For where a covenant is, priest entereth into the most there is a necessity for the death Holy Place every year with the of that which establisheth the blood of others; 26 (for then covenant.* 17 For a covenant he must have suffered often is firm over the dead: whereas since the foundation of the it is of no force while that world;) but now he hath been which establishes the covenant manifested once, at the end of liveth. 18 Wherefore neither the ages, to put away sin was the first covenant confirmed through the sacrifice of himself. without blood. 19 For when 27 And as it is appointed to Moses had spoken to all the men once to die, and after this people every commandment ac- a judgment; 28 so Christ also cording to the law, he took the was once offered to bear away blood of calves and of goats, the sins of the many; and to with water, and scarlet wool, those who wait for him, he will and hyssop, and sprinkled both appear a second time, without the book and the people, 20 a sin-offering to salvation.‡ saying, "This is the blood of the covenant which God hath enjoined upon you." 21 Moreover, in like manner he sprinkled with blood the tabernacle also, and all the vessels of the ministry. 22 And, according to the law, almost all things are cleansed with blood; and without the shedding of blood there is no remission.t 23 It was therefore necessary that the patterns of things which are in the heavens should be cleansed
CH. X. 1 For the law having a shadow of future good things, and not the very image of the things, can never make those who come to the altar perfect by the same sacrifices which are offered year by year continually. 2 For then would they not have ceased to be offered? because the worshippers once cleansed would have had no more consciousness of sins. 3 But in those sacrifices there is a remembrance made of sins every
That is, of the victim by which the covenant is ratified. See Wakefield and Doddridge. + Observe here, that even inanimate things, the books, the tabernacle, the vessels, etc. are, represented as in a sinful state till they obtain remission by the shedding of blood: i. e. they are ceremonially impure and unholy till they are ceremonially consecrated. See ch. vii. 27, note.
Gr. without sin. See ch. vii, 27, note.
5 Wherefore, when Christ cometh into the world, he saith, "Sacrifice and offering thou wouldst not; but a body thou hast prepared me. 6 In burntofferings and sacrifices for sin thou hadst no pleasure. 7 Then I said, 'Lo, I come (in the volume of a book it is written of me) to do thy will, O God.' ” 8 Above he saith, sacrifice, and offering, and burnt-offerings, and sacrifices for sin, thou wouldst not, and hadst no pleasure in them; (namely those which are offered according to the law;) then he saith, "Lo, I come to do thy will." 9 He taketh away the first, that he may establish the second. 10 By which will we have been sanctified, through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.
year: 4 for it is impossible* | mies be made his footstool. 14
19 HAVING therefore, brethren,
11 And every priest standeth ministering daily, and offering frequently the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins † 12 but this person, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins, is perpetually seated at the right hand of God; 13 thenceforth waiting till his ene
That is, legally impossible; for the law limited the efficacy of these sacrifices to one year. After which, new sacrifices were to be offered upon the annual day of atonement for sins of ignorance only, which however free from moral turpitude, would exclude from the benefit of the Mosaic covenant, if not cancelled by the appointed sacrifices. See ch. ix. 7.
that is, sins of ignorance, ix. 7. The sacrifices of the law could not take away sin, as their efficacy was limited to a year. See ver. 4.
See ver. 10. Believers are so far consecrated by this great sacrifice, that they can never forfeit their privileges by sins of ignorance. The writer labours to reconcile the Hebrews to a suffering Messiah, by these bold figurative representations of the efficacy of his death." Our Lord," says Mr. Lindsey (Sequel. p. 88), "never called himself a high-priest, nor is he so styled by any of the writers of the New Testament, except the author of this epistle; whence we may conclude, that neither Christ nor the evangelists esteemed this to be any real part of his character, or needful to be attended to by his followers." Im. Ver. note.
"The author here finishes the argumentative part of his epistle, in which he illustrates and proves the excellence of the New Covenant when compared with the Old. The practical part fol Tows." Newcome.
that we may provoke each other | 33 partly, while ye were made
26 For if we sin wilfully,
34 For ye had compassion for those who were in bonds, and bore joyfully the spoiling of your goods; knowing that ye have for yourselves a better and an enduring substance [in heaven.]* 35 Cast not away therefore your confidence, which will have great recompense of reward. 36 For ye have need of patience; that, after ye have done the will of God, ye may receive his promise. 37 For yet a very little while, and "he who is to come will come, and will not delay.".
28 He who despised the law of Moses, died without mercy, under two or three witnesses: 29 of how much greater punishment, think ye, will he be deemed worthy, who hath trodden under foot the son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, through which he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath injuriously treated the spirit of favour?
30 For we know him who hath said, "Vengeance belongeth to me: I will recompense;" [saith the Lord.] And again, "The Lord will avenge his people." 31 It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.
32 But call to remembrance the former days, in which, after ye were enlightened, ye endured a great contest of sufferings;
38 Now, "the just by faith shall live: but if he draw back, my soul will have no pleasure in him." 39 But we are not of those who draw back to destruction; but of those who have faith to the preservation of life.
CH XI. 1 NOW faith is a confidence in things hoped for, a conviction of things not seen. 2 For through it, those of old time obtained a good witness.
3 Through faith, we understand that the ages were so ordered by the word of God, that the present state of things arose not from what then appeared.†
4 Through faith, Abel offered to God a more excellent sa
These words, Ev ovgavois, in the heavens, are wanting in the Alexandrian and Clermont MSS. and in the Coptic, Ethiopie, and Vulgate versions: and are omitted by Mr. Wakefield. See Im. Ver. note.
+ See Wakefield and Sykes, who oberves that aves properly signifies ages, or periods of time, and that there is no instance in the New Testament where more than this seems to be meant by the word. Sykes' note on Heb. i. 3. In the present instance the author's meaning is, that "it was so contrived that Christ's coming into the world, which we see, was brought about by means which could not be seen." Syke's note in loco and Rosenmuller.