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he hath been taught, that he 4 that they may instruct the may be able both to exhort by young women to love their huswholesome teaching, and to con- bands, to love their children, 5 fute the gainsayers.

to be discreet, chaste, keepers at 10 For many are [both] dis- | home, good, submissive to their obedient, vain-talkers, and de- own husbands, that the word ceivers, especially those of the of God be not evil spoken of. circumcision, 11 whose mouths 6 In like manner, exhort the must be stopped : who subvert young men to be discreet : 7 in whole families, teaching things all things showing thyself a which they ought not, for the pattern of good works; in docsake of sordid gain. 12 One of trine exhibiting uncorruptness, themselves, a prophet* of their gravity, 8 sound speech which own, hath said, “The Cretans cannot be condemned; that he are always liars, evil beasts, who is of the opposite side may idle gluttons.”

be ashamed, having nothing 13 This witness is true : evil to say of us. 9 Exhort wherefore reprove them sharp- servants to submit themselves ly, that they may be sound in to their own masters, and to the faith; 14 not giving heed please them well in all things, to Jewish fables, and command not contradicting, 10 not emments of men who turn away bezzling, but showing all good from the truth.

fidelity ; that they may adorn 15 To the pure all things [in the doctrine of God our Saviour deed] are pure : but to those in all things. who are polluted, and unbeliev 11 For the favour of God ing, nothing is pure; for both which bringeth salvation to all their mind and conscience are men, hath appeared, 12 teachpolluted. 16 They profess to ing us, that, denying ungodliness know God: but in their works and wordly desires, we should they deny him, being abomin- live soberly, and righteously, able, and disobedient, and as to and religiously, in the present every good work found want-age; 13 looking for the happy ing

end of our hope, and the gloriCh. II. 1 But speak thou ous appearance of the great the things which become sound God, and of our Saviour Jesus doctrine; 2 that the aged men Christ, 14 who gave

himself for be sober, grave, discreet; sound us, that he might redeem us in faith, in love, in patience: 3 from all iniquity, and purify to that the aged women, in like himself a peculiar people, zealmanner, be in behaviour as be- ous of good works. 15 These cometh holy persons, not im- things speak, and exhort, and postors, not addicted to much reprove with all authority. Let wine, teachers of good things ; ( no man despise thee.

“The poet Epimenides, who among the Romans was reputed to have foretold future events." Macknight.

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Ch. III. 1 Put them in mind thou strongly affirm ; 80 that to be subject to [both] princi- those who have believed in God palities and powers, to obey may be careful to maintain good magistrates, to be ready for works. These things) are good every good work, 2 to speak and profitable to men. evil of no one, not to be con 9 But avoid foolish questions, tentious, but gentle, showing all and genealogies, and contenmeekness to all men. 3 For we tions, and strifes concerning the also ourselves were formerly law; for they are unprofitable unwise, disobedient, deceived, and vain. 10 Reject a fomenter slaves to various desires and of divisions, after the first and pleasures, living in malicious second admonition ; 11 knowing ness and envy, odious, and hat- that such an one is perverting one another.

ed, and sinneth, being self-con4 But when the kindness of demned. God our Saviour and his love 12 WHEN I shall send to thee towards man appeared; 5 not Artemas, or Tychicus, endeaon account of any works which vour to come to me to Nicopowe have performed, in our own lis : for I have determined to justification,* hath he saved us,t winter there. 13 Diligently conbut according to his own mercy, duct on their way Zenas the through the washing of regene- former teacher of the law, and ration, and the renovation of the Apollos ; that nothing may be holy spirit ; 6 which he shed on wanting to them. 14 And let us richly, through Jesus Christ our disciples learn also to mainour Saviour; 7 that, having been tain good works for necessary justified through his favour, we uses; that they be not unfruit. might become heirs as to the ful. 15 All that are with me hope of aionian life.

salute thee. Salute those who 8 This is a true saying, and con- love us in faith. The favour of cerning these things I will that I God be with you all.


PAUL, a prisoner on ac- | bourer, 2 and to the beloved count of Christ Jesus, and Ti- Apphia, and to Archippus our mothy our brother, to Phile- fellow-soldier, and to the church mon the beloved, our fellow-la- at thy house : 3 favour be to

* not by submission to the Mosaic ritual. The apostle treats this subject at large in the Epistles to the Romans and the Galatians. See Rom. iii. 28 ; v.).

ti.e. delivered us from our heathen state, and introduced us to the privileges of the gospel.

you, and peace, from God our thing: that thy benefit might Father, and from the Lord Je- not be as it were by restraint, sus Christ.

but voluntary 4 I THANK my God,' making 15 Perhaps also for this reamention of thee always in my son he was separated for a little prayers, 5 (hearing of thy faith while that thou mightest have and love, which thou hast to him, for life ;* 16 no longer as a wards the Lord Jesus, and to all servant, but superior to a serthe saints,) 6 that thy partak- vant, as a beloved brother: esing of the faith may become pecially to me ; but how much effectual, in the knowledge of more to thee, both in the flesh every good thing which is and in the Lord ? among us concerning Christ 17. If therefore thou consider Jesus. 7 For we have great joy me as thy companion, receive and comfort on account of thy him as myself. 18 But if he love, because, my brother, the hath wronged thee in any thing, hearts of the saints are refresh or is in debt to thee, place that ed through thee.

to my account : 19 I Paul have 8 WHEREFORE, though I have written it with my own hand, I much freedom of speech in will repay it: however, I do Christ to enjoin thee what is not say to thee that thou owest fit; 9 yet because of my love, to me even thy own self. I rather beseech thee, as Paul 20 Yes, brother, let me have the aged, and now a prisoner joy of thee in the Lord: refresh also on account of Jesus Christ, my heart in Christ. 21 Having 10 I beseech thee, I say, for my confidence in thy compliance, I son whom I have begotten in have thus written to thee, know[my] bonds, even Onesimus: ing that thou wilt do even more 11 who formerly was unprofit- than I ask. able to thee, but is now profit 22 At the same time also able to thee and to me: whom prepare me a lodging; for I trust I have sent again : 12 do that through your prayers I 'thou therefore receive him, that shall be graciously given to you. is, myself: 13 whom I was wil 23 Epaphras, my fellow-priling to retain with me, that, in soner in Christ Jesus, 24 Mark, thy stead, he might have minis- Aristarchus, Demas, Luke, my tered to me in my bonds on ac- fellow-labourer, salute thee. 25 count of the gospel: 14 but with. The favour of our Lord Jesus out thy consent I would do no- Christ be with your spirit.

* Gr. alwviov, aionian. “ The word alwrios may be translated for life; which I take to be the apostle's meaning." Macknight.




he saith, “ And let all the mes1 GOD, who, at sundry times sengers of God pay homage to and in divers manners spake, in him."17 And concerning these time past, to our fathers by the messengers the scripture saith, prophets, hath in these latter " Who maketh his messengers days spoken to us by his Son, spirits; and his ministers flames 2 whom he hath appointed heir of fire." 8 But to the Son he saith, of all things, (for whom also he “God is thy thrones to the age constituted the ages) :* 3 who, of the age; a sceptre of rectitude (being a ray of his brightness, is the sceptre of thy kingdom: and an image of his perfections, 9 thou hast loved righteousness, and ruling all things by the and hated iniquity: therefore word of his power,) when he God, even thy God, hath anointhad by himself made a cleans. ed thee with the oil of gladness ing of (our) sins, sat down on above thy companions. the right hand of the Majesty 10 Again, “Thou, Lord, in on high ; 4 having been made the beginning, didst lay the founas much superior to those mes-dation of the earth : and the sengers, as the name he hath heavens are the works of thy inherited is more excellent than hands : 11 they will perish; but theirs.

Thou wilt remain : and they 5 For to which of those mes- all will grow old as doth a gar. sengers did God at any time say, ment; 12 and like a vesture “ Thou art my Son, I have this thou wilt fold them up, and they day adopted thee?" and again, will be changed; but Thou art " I will be to him a father, and the same, and thy years will he shall be to me a Son ?" 6 not fail.' And when he bringeth again 13 But to which of those the First-born into the world, / messengers did he at any time

Si'ou, for whom. “ For this sense of sod, with a genitive, see Grotius in loco. Schleusner in verb. and Mr. Lindsey's Second Address, p. 297. Alwves, ages, 'This word,' says Dr. Sykes (in loco.) does not signify the heavens and earth, and all things in them, but it means properly ages, or certain periods of time :' the Antediluvian the Patriarchal, the Mosaic ages or dispensations. These were all intended to prepare the way for the age or dispensation of the Messiah." Im. Ver. note.

+ i.e.the prophets, who are mentioned in the first verse. See Wakefield. the angels, Newcome. Ii. e. Let all the prophets and messengers of God acknowledge him as their superior. " Let all the messengers of God worship him." Thomson. This is cited from Deut. xxxii. 43. It is not found however in the Hebrew text, but only in the LXX. where it is spoken of the Hebrew nation, and therefore cannot be understood of religious worship. See Sykes on Heb. i. 6.

So Wakefield, and Lindsey, " Thy throne, O God, is,” etc. Newcome. “ God is the support of thy throne." Sykes.

This is a quotation from Psalm. cii. 25. The immutability of God is here declared as a pledge of the immutability of the kingdom of Christ.


say, Sit thou on my right with glory and honour, 8 thou hand, until I make thine ene- hast subjected all things under mies thy footstool ?" 14 Are his feet.” Now in that he hath they not all servants,* sent forth subjected all things to him, he to serve those who were about hath left nothing that is not subto be heirs of salvation ?

jected to him. But now we do CA. II. 1 For this cause we not see all things subjected to ought to give the more earnest him. 9 But we see him who attention to the things which was a little inferior to angels,t we have heard, lest we, through even Jesus, through the suffernegligence, let them slip. 2 Foring of death, crowned with glory if the words spoken by messen- and honour, that, through the gers were stedfast, and every favour of God, he might taste transgression and disobedience of death for all. I received a just recompence of 10 For it became Him, for punishment ; 3 how shall we es- whom all things, and cape, if we neglect so great through whom are all things, salvation, which began to be in bringing many sons to glory, spoken by the Lord, and was to make the leader of their confirmed to us by those who salvation perfect, through sufheard him ; 4 God also bearing ferings. 11 For both he who joint-witness at the same time, is making holy, and those who by signs and wonders and va are made holy, are all of one: rious mighty works, and distri- for which cause he is not ashambutions of a holy spirit, accord-ed to call them brethren; 12 ing to his own will?

saying, “ I will declare thy name 5 Moreover God hath not to my brethren; in the midst subjected to angels the coming of the congregation I will praise dispensation, of which we speak. thee,” 13 And again, “ I will 6 But David hath somewhere put my trust in him.” And testified, saying, “ What is man, again, “ Behold, I, and the that thou art mindful of him ? children whom God hath given or the son of man, that thou me." 14 Since then the child.. regardest him? 7 Thou madest ren are partakers of flesh and him a little inferior to angels; blood, Christ himself in. like but thou hast crowned him manner partook also of them ;S

* Gr. ministering spirits. “ The word spirit is a Hebraism to express a person's self, v. g. 1 Cor. ii. 11. the spirit of a man is a man, is a man himself: the spirit of God is God himself. 2 Tim. iv. 22. The Lord Jesus Christ be with, thy spirit, i. e. with thee. Here the former prophets are called ministering spirits, i. e. they were ministers or servants, whereas Christ appeared under tbe character of a Son." Im. Ver. note.

t i. e, by nature, like other men, and not by the voluntary assumption of a human form. See ver. 7.

Some copies, instead of zagito Seou by or through the favour of God, have xwges frou ex, cepting God; and in this manner was the passage quoted by Origin and Ambrose in the third century : which is also the reading of the Syriac, according to Tremellius. Origin says, “ This man (meaning Christ) is the great high-priest, not only for men, but for all-whatever is intellec. tual-For he tasted death for all, excepting Gord, or (as some copies have it) by the grace of God.” Origin on St. John's gospel. This leads us to conclude that most copies in his time, and to wbich he gave the preference, read excepting God.

" As the children were human beings, so their deliverer was a being of the same rank, and

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