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he hath been taught, that he may be able both to exhort by wholesome teaching, and to confute the gainsayers.

4 that they may instruct the young women to love their husbands, to love their children, 5 to be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, submissive to their own husbands, that the word of God be not evil spoken of.

10 For many are [both] disobedient, vain-talkers, and deceivers, especially those of the circumcision, 11 whose mouths must be stopped: who subvert whole families, teaching things which they ought not, for the sake of sordid gain. 12 One of themselves, a prophet* of their own, hath said, "The Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, idle gluttons."

6 In like manner, exhort the young men to be discreet : 7 in all things showing thyself a pattern of good works; in doctrine exhibiting uncorruptness, gravity, 8 sound speech which cannot be condemned; that he who is of the opposite side may be ashamed, having nothing 13 This witness is true: evil to say of us. 9 Exhort wherefore reprove them sharp- servants to submit themselves ly, that they may be sound in to their own masters, and to the faith; 14 not giving heed please them well in all things, to Jewish fables, and command-not contradicting, 10 not emments of men who turn away bezzling, but showing all good from the truth. fidelity; that they may adorn 15 To the pure all things [in-the doctrine of God our Saviour deed] are pure: but to those in all things. who are polluted, and unbelieving, nothing is pure; for both their mind and conscience are polluted. 16 They profess to know God but in their works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and as to every good work found wanting.

CH. II. 1 BUT speak thou the things which become sound doctrine; 2 that the aged men be sober, grave, discreet; sound in faith, in love, in patience: 3 that the aged women, in like manner, be in behaviour as becometh holy persons, not impostors, not addicted to much wine, teachers of good things;


11 For the favour of God which bringeth salvation to all men, hath appeared, 12 teaching us, that, denying ungodliness and wordly desires, we should live soberly, and righteously, and religiously, in the present age; 13 looking for the happy end of our hope, and the glorious appearance of the great God, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, 14 who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify to himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works. 15 These things speak, and exhort, and reprove with all authority. Let no man despise thee.

"The poet Epimenides, who among the Romans was reputed to have foretold future events." Macknight.

CH. III. 1 PUT them in mind to be subject to [both] principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready for every good work, 2 to speak evil of no one, not to be con- 9 But avoid foolish questions, tentious, but gentle, showing all and genealogies, and contenmeekness to all men. 3 For we tions, and strifes concerning the also ourselves were formerly law; for they are unprofitable unwise, disobedient, deceived, and vain. 10 Reject a fomenter slaves to various desires and of divisions, after the first and pleasures, living in malicious-second admonition; 11 knowing ness and envy, odious, and hat-that such an one is perverting one another. ed, and sinneth, being self-condemned.

thou strongly affirm; so that those who have believed in God may be careful to maintain good works. These [things] are good and profitable to men.

4 But when the kindness of God our Saviour and his love towards man appeared; 5 not on account of any works which we have performed, in our own justification,* hath he saved us,† but according to his own mercy, through the washing of regene-former ration, and the renovation of the holy spirit; 6 which he shed on us richly, through Jesus Christ our Saviour; 7 that, having been justified through his favour, we might become heirs as to the hope of aionian life.

8 This is a true saying, and concerning these things I will that

1 PAUL, a prisoner on account of Christ Jesus, and Timothy our brother, to Philemon the beloved, our fellow-la

12 WHEN I shall send to thee Artemas, or Tychicus, endeavour to come to me to Nicopolis: for I have determined to winter there. 13 Diligently conduct on their way Zenas the teacher of the law, and Apollos; that nothing may be wanting to them. 14 And let our disciples learn also to maintain good works for necessary uses; that they be not unfruitful. 15 All that are with me salute thee. Salute those who love us in faith. The favour of God be with you all.


bourer, 2 and to the beloved Apphia, and to Archippus our fellow-soldier, and to the church at thy house: 3 favour be to

not by submission to the Mosaic ritual. The apostle treats this subject at large in the Epis tles to the Romans and the Galatians. See Rom. iii. 28; v. J.

ti. e. delivered us from our heathen state, and introduced us to the privileges of the gospel.

you, and peace, from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ.

4 I THANK my God, making mention of thee always in my prayers, 5 (hearing of thy faith and love, which thou hast towards the Lord Jesus, and to all

thing: that thy benefit might not be as it were by restraint, but voluntary.

15 Perhaps also for this reason he was separated for a little while that thou mightest have him, for life;* 16 no longer as a servant, but superior to a serthe saints,) 6 that thy partak-vant, as a beloved brother: especially to me; but how much more to thee, both in the flesh and in the Lord?

ing of the faith may become effectual, in the knowledge of every good thing which is among us concerning Christ Jesus. 7 For we have great joy and comfort on account of thy love, because, my brother, the hearts of the saints are refreshed through thee.

8 WHEREFORE, though I have much freedom of speech in Christ to enjoin thee what is fit; 9 yet because of my love, I rather beseech thee, as Paul the aged, and now a prisoner also on account of Jesus Christ, 10 I beseech thee, I say, for my son whom I have begotten in [my] bonds, even Onesimus: 11 who formerly was unprofitable to thee, but is now profitable to thee and to me: whom I have sent again: 12 do thou therefore receive him, that is, myself: 13 whom I was willing to retain with me, that, in thy stead, he might have ministered to me in my bonds on account of the gospel: 14 but without thy consent I would do no- |

17 If therefore thou consider me as thy companion, receive him as myself. 18 But if he hath wronged thee in any thing, or is in debt to thee, place that to my account: 19 I Paul have written it with my own hand, I will repay it however, I do not say to thee that thou owest to me even thy own self.

20 Yes, brother, let me have joy of thee in the Lord: refresh my heart in Christ. 21 Having confidence in thy compliance, I have thus written to thee, knowing that thou wilt do even more than I ask.

22 AT the same time also prepare me a lodging; for I trust that through your prayers I shall be graciously given to you.

23 Epaphras, my fellow-prisoner in Christ Jesus, 24 Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, Luke, my fellow-labourer, salute thee. 25 The favour of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit.

* Gr. αlwviov, aionian. "The word alwvios may be translated for life; which I take to be the apostle's meaning." Macknight.




1 GOD, who, at sundry times and in divers manners spake, in time past, to our fathers by the prophets, hath in these latter days spoken to us by his Son, 2 whom he hath appointed heir of all things, (for whom also he constituted the ages):* 3 who, (being a ray of his brightness, and an image of his perfections, and ruling all things by the word of his power,) when he

he saith, “And let all the messengers of God pay homage to him."‡ 7 And concerning these messengers the scripture saith, "Who maketh his messengers spirits; and his ministers flames of fire."8 But to the Son he saith, "God is thy thrones to the age of the age; a sceptre of rectitude is the sceptre of thy kingdom: 9 thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity: therefore God, even thy God, hath anoint

had by himself made a cleansed thee with the oil of gladness ing of [our] sins, sat down on above thy companions." the right hand of the Majesty on high; 4 having been made

10 Again, "Thou, Lord, in the beginning, didst lay the founas much superior to those mes-dation of the earth and the sengers,† as the name he hath heavens are the works of thy inherited is more excellent than hands: 11 they will perish; but theirs. Thou wilt remain: and they all will grow old as doth a gar ment; 12 and like a vesture thou wilt fold them up, and they will be changed; but Thou art the same, and thy years will not fail."||

5 FOR to which of those messengers did God at any time say, "Thou art my Son, I have this day adopted thee?" and again, "I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son?" 6 And when he bringeth again 13 But to which of those the First-born into the world, messengers did he at any time


• Si ov, for whom. "For this sense of Six, with a genitive, see Grotius in loco. Schleusner in verb. and Mr. Lindsey's Second Address, p. 297. Alaves, ages, This word,' says Dr. Sykes (in loco.) 'does not signify the heavens and earth, and all things in them, but it means properly ages, or certain periods of time:' the Antediluvian the Patriarchal, the Mosaic ages or dis pensations. These were all intended to prepare the way for the age or dispensation of the Messiah." Im. Ver. note.

ti. e.the prophets, who are mentioned in the first verse. See Wakefield. the angels, Newcome. i. e. Let all the prophets and messengers of God acknowledge him as their superior." Let all the messengers of God worship him." Thomson. This is cited from Deut. xxxii. 43. It is not found however in the Hebrew text, but only in the LXX. where it is spoken of the Hebrew nation, and therefore cannot be understood of religious worship. See Sykes on Heb. i. 6.

So Wakefield, and Lindsey, "Thy throne, O God, is," etc. Newcome. "God is the support of thy throne." Sykes.

This is a quotation from Psalm. cii. 25. The immutability of God is here declared as a pledge of the immutability of the kingdom of Christ.

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say, "Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool?" 14 Are they not all servants, sent forth to serve those who were about to be heirs of salvation?

with glory and honour, 8 thou hast subjected all things under his feet." Now in that he hath subjected all things to him, he hath left nothing that is not subjected to him. But now we do not see all things subjected to him. 9 But we see him who was a little inferior to angels,† even Jesus, through the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour, that, through the favour of God, he might taste of death for all.t

CH. II. 1 FOR this cause we ought to give the more earnest attention to the things which we have heard, lest we, through i negligence, let them slip. 2 For if the words spoken by messengers were stedfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompence of 10 For it became Him, for punishment; 3 how shall we es- whom are all things, and cape, if we neglect so great through whom are all things, salvation, which began to be in bringing many sons to glory, spoken by the Lord, and was to make the leader of their confirmed to us by those who salvation perfect, through sufheard him; 4 God also bearing ferings. 11 For both he who joint-witness at the same time, is making holy, and those who by signs and wonders and vaare made holy, are all of one: rious mighty works, and distri- for which cause he is not ashambutions of a holy spirit, accord-ed to call them brethren; 12 ing to his own will? saying, "I will declare thy name 5 Moreover God hath not to my brethren; in the midst subjected to angels the coming of the congregation I will praise dispensation, of which we speak. thee," 13 And again, "I will 6 But David hath somewhere put my trust in him." And testified, saying, "What is man, again, "Behold, I, and the that thou art mindful of him? children whom God hath given or the son of man, that thou me." 14 Since then the childregardest him? 7 Thou madest ren are partakers of flesh and him a little inferior to angels; blood, Christ himself in like but thou hast crowned him manner partook also of them ;§

* Gr. ministering spirits. "The word spirit is a Hebraism to express a person's self, v. g. 1 Cor. i. 11. the spirit of a man is a man, is a man himself: the spirit of God is God himself. 2 Tim. iv. 22. The Lord Jesus Christ be with, thy spirit, i. e. with thee. Here the former prophets are called ministering spirits, i. e. they were ministers or servants, whereas Christ appeared under the character of a Son." Im. Ver. note.

ti. e. by nature, like other men, and not by the voluntary assumption of a human form. See ver. 7.


Some copies, instead of xagiri Deov by or through the favour of God, have xwgis ou excepting God; and in this manner was the passage quoted by Origin and Ambrose in the third century: which is also the reading of the Syriac, according to Tremellius. Origin says, man (meaning Christ) is the great high-priest, not only for men, but for all-whatever is intellectual-For he tasted death for all, excepting God, or (as some copies have it) by the grace of God." Origin on St. John's gospel. This leads us to conclude that most copies in his time, and to which he gave the preference, read excepting God.

"As the children were human beings, so their deliverer was a being of the same rank, and

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