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14 For we stretch not our-though rude in speech, yet I am not so in knowledge; but on every occasion we have been made manifest to you in all things.

selves too far, as though we reached not to you: (for we came even as far as to you in preaching the gospel of Christ ;) 15 not boasting of things without measure, that is, in the labours of other men; but having hope, when your faith is increased, that we shall be abundantly enlarged among you, as concerning our line; 16 so as to preach the gospel in the parts beyond you, and not to boast in another's line of things made ready for us. 17 But he who boasteth, let him boast in the Lord. 18 For not he who commendeth himself is approved, but he whom the Lord commendeth.

7 Have I committed an offence in humbling myself, that ye might be exalted; inasmuch as I have preached to you the gospel of God without cost? 8 I robbed other churches, taking wages from them, that I might minister to you: 9 and when I was present with you, and wanted, I was chargeable to no one: for that which was wanted by me, the brethren who came from Macedonia supplied; and in every thing, I have kept myself from being burdensome to you, and will still keep myself.

CH. XI. 1 I WISH that ye would bear with me a little in 10 As the truth of Christ is this foolishness and indeed in me, this boasting of mine bear with me. 2 For I am jea- cannot be stopped in the relous of you, with a godly jea-gions of Achaia. 11 Why? belousy for I have espoused you cause I love you not? God to one husband, that I may pre-knoweth otherwise. 12 But what sent you, as a chaste virgin, I do, that will I still do; so as to Christ. 3 But I fear lest, to cut off occasion from those that as the serpent_deceived who desire occasion; that, Eve by his subtilty, [so] your wherein they boast, they may minds should be corrupted be found even as we. from the simplicity which is in 13 For such are false aposChrist. 4 For if he who comethtles, deceitful workmen, transamong you, preach another Je-forming themselves into apossus, whom we have not preach-tles of Christ. 14 And no woned, or if ye receive another der for the adversary also, spirit, which ye have not re- transformeth himself into a ceived, or another gospel, messenger of ight. 15 It is which ye have not accepted, therefore no great thing, if his nevertheless ye might well bear ministers, also, transform themwith me. selves as ministers of righteousness: whose end will be according to their works. 16 I say again; Let no one think

5 For I suppose that I am in nothing inferior to the very greatest of the apostles. 6 For

me foolish but if otherwise, at least as a fool, bear with me, that I also may boast a little. 17 What I speak, in this confident boasting, I do not speak according to the Lord, but as in foolishness.

18 Since many boast according to the flesh, I also will boast. 19 For ye gladly bear with the foolish, since ye yourselves are wise. 20 For ye bear with it, if any one bring you into slavery, if any one devour you, if any one take of you, if any one exalt himself, if any one smite you on the face. 21 As concerning dishonour, I say that we have been weak. Yet whereinsoever any is bold, (I speak foolishly,) I also am bold.

in dangers among false brethren; 27 [in] labour and toil, in watchings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings often, in cold and nakedness. 28 Besides the things which are without, the troubles which assail me daily, in the care of all the churches.

29 Who is weak, and I am not weak? who falleth away, and I burn not? 30 If I must needs boast, I will boast of the things which concern my weakness. 31 The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who is blessed to the ages, knoweth that I speak not falsely.

32 In Damascus, the governor under king Aretas guarded the city of the Damascenes, 22 Are they Hebrews? so [desiring] to apprehend me: am I. Are they Israelites? so 33 and I was let down, in am I. Are they Abraham's off- a basket, through a window spring? so am I. 23 Are they in the wall; and escaped his ministers of Christ? (I speak hands. as one void of reason,) I am CH. XII. 1 Doubtless it is more; in labours, more abun-not expedient for me to boast. dant; in stripes, far exceeding; Yet I will come to visions and in prisons, more frequent; in revelations of the Lord. 2 I deaths, often. 24 (Five times I know a man in Christ,* who, received from the Jews forty fourteen years ago, was caught stripes except one. 25 Thrice I up to the third heaven: (whewas beaten with rods, once I ther in the body, I know was stoned, thrice I suffered not; or whether out of the shipwreck, a night and a day body, I know not; God knowI floated in the deep.) I have eth.) 3 And I know respectbeen in journeys often, 26 in dan- ing this man, (whether in the gers from floods, in dangers body, or out of the body, I from robbers, in dangers from know not, God knoweth,) 4 my own countrymen, in dangers that he was caught up to from the gentiles, in dangers paradise, and heard unspeakin the city, in dangers in the able words which it is not posdesert, in dangers on the sea, sible for man to utter. 5 Of * i. e. a disciple of Christ.

such an one I will boast: but of myself I will not boast, except in my weaknesses.

6 For if I were willing to boast, I should not be foolish; for I should speak the truth: but I forbear, lest any one should think concerning me above what he seeth me to be, or what he heareth from me. 7 And lest I should be too much exalted, by the exceeding greatness of God's revelations, there hath been given me a thorn

13 For what is it wherein ye have been inferior to other churches, unless it be that I myself was not burdensome to you? forgive me this wrong. 14 Behold, a third time, I am ready to come to you; and I will not be burdensome to you: for I seek not yours, but you. For the children ought not to lay up for the parents, but the parents for the children. 15 And I will very gladly spend, and be altogether spent for in the flesh, an angel-adver- you though loving you most sary to buffet me, [lest, I say, abundantly, I am less loved I should be too much exalted.] by you. 8 Concerning this, I besought the Lord thrice, that it might depart from me. 9 And he said to me, "My favour is sufficient for thee for [my] power is made perfect in weakness." Most gladly therefore I will rather boast in my weaknesses, that the power of Christ may rest upon me.

10 I take pleasure therefore in weaknesses, in shameful treatment, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for the sake of Christ: for when I am weak, then I am strong. 11 I am become foolish: ye have compelled me: for I ought to have been recommended by you for in nothing am I inferior to the chief of the apostles, though I am nothing. 12 The signs indeed of an apostle have been wrought among you, in all patience, in signs and wonders and mighty works.

16 But be it so: "I did not burden you; nevertheless, being crafty I caught you with guile." 17 Did I overreach you through any of those whom I sent to you? 18 I desired Titus to go; and, with him, I sent a brother. Did Titus in any way overreach you? walked we not in the same spirit? walked we not in the same steps?


19 THINK ye that we again defend ourselves to you? speak before God in Christ: and we do all things, beloved, for your edification.

20 For I fear lest, when I come, I may not find you such as I would, and lest I may be found by you such as ye would not: lest there be contentions, envyings, wrath, strife, evilspeakings, whisperings, swellings, disturbances: 21 and lest, when I come again, my God may humble me among you,

In the original, an angel-satan. "The best commentators," says Mr. Farmer, "suppose that the bodily affliction, or thorn in the flesh, here referred to, was some paralytic symptom," See Gal, iv. 13.

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CH. XIII. 1 This third time, I am coming to you. By the mouth of two or three witnesses, every matter shall be established. 2 I have told beforehand, and I again tell beforehand (as present the second time, though now absent) those who have heretofore sinned, and all others, that, if I come again, I will not spare them: 3 since ye seek a proof that Christ speaketh by me, (who towards you is not weakness, but in you is powerful; 4 for though he was crucified through weakness, yet he lived through the power of God; for we also are weak in him, yet we shall live with him, through the power of God towards you;) 5 try yourselves, whether ye be in the faith; prove yourselves.

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ye will know that we are not without proof.

7 Now I pray to God, that ness, and fornication, and las-ye do no evil; I pray not that civiousness, which they have we may appear approved, but committed. that ye may do what is good, though we should be indeed without proof. 8 For we cannot do any thing against the truth, but for the truth. 9 For we are glad when we are weak, and ye are strong; [and] for this we pray also, even for your perfection. 10 Wherefore I write these things, being absent; lest, being present, I should use sharpness, according to the power which the Lord hath given me, but to edification, and not to destruction.

and I may bewail many who have heretofore sinned, and have not repented of the unclean

11 FINALLY, brethren, farewell. Be perfect, be of good comfort, be of the same mind, live in peace: and the God of love and peace will be with you. 12 Salute one. another with a holy kiss. 13 All the saints salute you. 14 The favour

Know ye not concerning your-of the Lord Jesus Christ, and selves, that Jesus Christ is in the love of God, and the comyou, unless perhaps ye be with- mon fruition of the holy spirit, out proof? 6 But I hope that be with you all.



1 PAUL, an apostle, (not from men, nor by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the

Father, who raised him from the dead,*) 2 and all the brethren who are with me, to the churches of Galatia: 3 favour

* "Not deriving my mission from other apostles, nor even from God by their appointment, but from Jesus Christ himself; and consequently, from God his Father. Here, observe, Jesus

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be to you, and peace, from God behaviour in the Jewish reli1 the Father, and from our Lord gion, that I exceedingly perse- · Jesus Christ; 4 who gave him-cuted the church of God, and self for our sins, that he might laid it waste; 14 and made a deliver us from this present proficiency in the Jewish relievil age, according to the will gion above many of the same of our God and Father; 5 to age in mine own nation, being whom be glory to the ages of more exceedingly zealous of ages. Amen. the traditions of my fathers: 15 but when it pleased [God,] who separated me to the gospel from my mother's womb, and called me through his favour, 16 to reveal his son in me, that I might preach the glad tidings of him among the gentiles; I did not confer immediately with flesh and blood; 17 nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those who were apostles before me; but I went into Arabia, and returned to Damascus.

6 I WONDER that ye are so soon removed from him who called you in the favour [of Christ,] to a different gospel: 7 which indeed is not another; but there are some who trouble you, and desire to alter the gospel of Christ.

8 But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any gospel to you, besides that which we have preached to you, let him be accursed.* 9 As we have said already, so I 18 Then, after three years, now say again; If any one I went up to Jerusalem, that I preach any gospel to you be- might see Peter; and abode sides that which ye have re- with him fifteen days. 19 But ceived, let him be accursed.* I saw none other of the apos10 For, do I now approve my-tles, except James, the Lord's self to men, or to God? or do brother. 20 (Now concerning I seek to please men? [for] if the things which I write to you, I still pleased men, I should behold, in the sight of God, not be a servant of Christ. I lie not.) 21 Afterward, I went into the regions of Syria and Cilicia; 22 and I was unknown, by face, to the churches of Judea, which were in Christ : 23 but they had only heard, that he who formerly persecuted us, now preached

11 But I declare to you, brethren, that the gospel preached by me is not according to man. 12 For I neither received it from man, nor was I taught it but through the revelation of Jesus Christ.+ 13 For ye have heard of my former | faith, which formerly he laid


Christ is distinguished from God, to whom he was subordinate, and by whose power, and not his own, he was raised from the dead." Dr Priestly. "It may also be observed; that the apostle's distinction here is not between a man and a being of a superior order; but between men now living in the world, and who were themselves servants and messengers of Christ, and Jesus Christ himself, who had been raised from the dead, and exalted to be the head and governor of the church." Im. Ver. note.

*Gr. anathema, which signifies a person or thing "separated to destruction." Parkhurst. "One cut off from the congregation of the worshippers of God." Macknight. See 1 Cor. v. 5.

+q. d. from no man living upon earth, but from Christ in his exalted state> See note on ver. 1.

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