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him. G[overnor] Hutchinson died in the Beginning of the Affray.1 Lord Mansfield's House underwent a worse Fate, than his.

I suppose that it will cost two millions Sterling, to indemnify the Sufferers. this must be added to all the other Expences of the War. They forget the State of Ireland, France Spain, West Indies, N. America, the armed Neutrality of the maritime Powers, and their own distracted State, in their Joy for the News of Charlestown, which in reality however unpleasant to Us ought to be more dreadful to them, because it will be a Grave to their Army and a drain to their Purses without any considerable Advantage.

They however think not of Peace. We are all well.

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BOSTON, July 11th, 1780

MY DEAR SIR, My last Letters went by my Son Winslow who left this place about three weeks ago, for Amsterdam, and I hope will soon be able to deliver them to you at Paris.

At that time I flattered myself that we should be able to hold Charlestown, but you will find before this reaches you that the Enemy have got it, with the four Continental Ships that were ordered there last November. this is a great reduction of our Navy, and seems to be occasioned more by ill policy, than the fortune of War. it was certainly a very odd measure to shut up those Ships in a place where they could not possibly do any service, and where probably they would be lost. the Loss of Charlestown at first seemed to have disagreeable Effects. it produced some degree of dejection, but those Effects were soon changed for more agreeable ones. it has done more good than hurt. it has waked us from a profound Sleep, and roused every Man to Action. we shall now have a fine Army, and they will be supplied and when our Allies arrive, (who by the way we yet hear Nothing more of than that they sailed the 2d May) I dare say we shall Beat the Britons, though flushed with Victory over the Capital of a Country, which

I June 3, at Brompton, near London.

had not public Spirit enough in the midst of plenty to supply provisions for those that would fight or Courage to fight themselves. the Spirit of '75 seems to be revived. our Papers which will be sent you will give an Account of a Brilliant Action on our side, in which a few Continental Troops and a few of the brave Jersey Militia beat back, and drove out of that Country an Army of British Savages with a loss of 7 or 800 killed and wounded. we have no other News. As to our Navy the Confederacy is at Philadelphia, the Deane and Trumbull are here, the latter repairing her Injurys suffered by a noble and well conducted Action with a Ship of superior force. The Alliance laying in France tho' exceedingly wanted here. our New Constitution is established, and is to operate on the last Wednesday in October. The Election of Gov'r, Lieut. Gov'r and Senate to be made on the beginning of September. Mr. Blowdoin] has again come into public Life that he may with the greater Advantage stand as a candidate, in competition with H[ancock] for the highest honor and rank in this State. who will carry the Election is very uncertain. I dont envy either of them their feelings. the Vanity of one of them will Sting like an Adder if it is disappointed, and the Advancements made by the other if they dont succeed will hurt his Modest pride. the upper counties will be for H., the Interest of the other will lay in the lower ones. I dont hear who is to be the Lieut. [Governor], or anything about it, only that an Interest is making for C[ushing] in this Town. if H. is Chief, why will not C. make an excellent second. The old General Court will have one short Sessions more and then Die, and give place to a new one. one of my last gave you an account of the proceedings of this State with regard to Money. Notwithstanding which it has continued to depreciate till it got to 75 and 80 for one. there is no accounting for it, or reasoning about it. it is progressive, retrograde, eccentric, regular or irregular just as the D-1 will have it, and Nobody, not even Coll. Quincey can tell why. it seems just now to make a pause, and if there is any reasoning about it I think it will in the Course of a Month return to about forty. would you wish to hear anything of the Husbandry of the Country. I have already told you in a former Letter that we had a most horrible winter. the Spring and

former part of the Summer were very dry, the whole Country has suffered by droughts and some parts of it very severely. we have lately had fine rains, but they came too late for Hay, and a full Crop of English Corn. I dont remember that you ever mentioned to me your Friend the Abbé Raynal's History of the East and West Indies. I told you before that I was exceedingly pleased with it. I like it the better because it contains many fine reflections on Agriculture, and the dignity and advantages of it.


I shall write nothing about your good Family, as Mrs. Adams will write by this very good Oppertunity herself, and Capt. Samson 1 will take the best Care of all Letters to you. please to make my regards to Mr. Dana, and remember me to Mr. Thaxter, and your two Sons, and believe me to be with Great Sincerity Your Friend and Humble Servant,


Mr. Gerry has returned from Congress. Mr. Adams and Gen'l Ward are gone. Mr. Partridge is also returned.



BOSTON, July 19, 1780

MY DEAR SIR,-Having already wrote you pretty largely by Capt. Samson, this is only to Inform you that two days ago arrived here one Mr. Mitchel' with a Load of English Goods from London. this seems to be a prevailing and encreasing object of Commerce one arrived in the Spring little Notice was taken of it. four more Vessels are said to be on their way here. it is certain there is one, and Mr. Duncan is in her. he and Mitchel married two Daughters of Geo. Bethune I dont say any thing of their political Principles. there are no Tories or Tory Connections here, we are all Whiggs, and the Man that hid himself in the heat of the day, and has never done any thing since has as much Merit as one that has been in the front of the Battle. these Men had Address enough to procure flaggs from our Council to carry to

1 Of the Mercury packet.


2 Henry Mitchell.

3 George Bethune (d. 1785) married in 1754 Mary Faneuil, niece of Peter Faneuil.

England a Number of Prisoners, under the Pretence that they would carry as many more to France and come out from there with a Load of Goods. Mitchel now says they would not suffer an Exchange for the Prisoners they carried, and took their Ships from them but afterwards paid them for their Ships.

They come boldly in under the Protection of Permits from Doct'r Franklin. I thought you should be acquainted with these Circumstances: you are best able to judge if it be good Policy for us, and consistent with our Connections with France, to carry on such a Trade. if it be I think it should be publicly avowed, if not it should be publickly discountenanced. my own Judgment is we can do very well without it, and that all Intercourse with that accursed and barbarous Nation should be intirely broke of, and that we should use ourselves to the Manufactures and Merchandize of other Nations, to prevent as much as possible the hankering after those of Britain, the Leeks and onions of Egypt, when a Peace takes place. I have had but one Letter from you since you left us and that a very short one. I always take pleasure in your Letters. if you can find Friends out of your own Family, more pleased with your Friendship, or more Sincere and Zealous in his or theirs, I will not complain that you do not write to me oftener. I am Yours sincerely,



PHILADELPHIA, Augt. 3d, 1780

MY DEAR SIR, —I receivd your favor of the 13th of July by yesterdays Post. On my Journey I met Mr. Gerry at Hartford, where we were unexpectedly engaged in publick Business with Governor Trumbull. I utterly forgot that I had your Letter to him, but since you have empowerd me to open it, I find, it would have been of no Advantage to you to have deliverd it to him there. I waited upon the only Gentleman of the Committee of Commerce now in Town, who told me your Account was not settled. I urgd it, and will continue to do so as a Matter which ought not to be

delayd. When this is done, I will pursue the Step which you request.

I do not like the Situations of the two Fleets. The English appears to be the superior, and while they lie before R[hode] Island, they may serve two great Purposes, the intercepting the 2d Division from France, and the giving their Cork Fleet an Opportunity of arriving at N. York. If our Privatiers were cruising off the Hook at this Juncture it might be advantageous to them as well as to the Publick. I am sorry to find that the Trumbull and the Dean are to run a double and I think a needless Risque of Falling into the Enemies Hands; but if this be an ill judged Measure, you are not accountable for it.

The Doctor is this Moment going, which prevents my adding to this Letter. I refer you to him for Intelligence.

Adieu my dear Sir, and be assured that I am Your affectionate, S. A


BOSTON, Sepr. 17th, 1780

MY DEAR SIR,- I very seldom hear from you. whether you are prevented from writeing by more Important concerns, or whether you have no Inclination for the Correspondence, you best can tell; but as I always incline to put Construction on my Friends Conduct, the most favourable to them and myself, I shall suppose the first and Continue writeing to you. The Elections, so far as lay with the People at large are made. a Governor is Undoubtedly chosen and the Votes of your own beloved Town will give you at once an Idea of the Majority in favour of Mr. Hancock, and a General one of their proceedings through the whole. Mr. Powel was their Man for Lieut. A great Majority through the State was in favour of Mr. Hancock. I believe no Choice is made of Lieut. Governor and that will be the Case in part in respect to Senators in the different Counties, and in most Instances where a Choice is made they seem Calculated for that I From the Samuel Adams Papers in the New York Public Library.

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