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way of confessing your sins, the fact is, you confess none. Can you now, I continued, endeavouring once more to reach his conscience, possibly imagine that you are justi fied in the sight of God in this act?" He acknowledged that he was not. To stand before God (said he) is a very different thing from standing before men; and the scripture says, Thou shalt do no inurder.'

"How infatuated then must you be, I rejoined, that acknowledging as you do, that your act is a crime in the sight of God, you are yet in sensible of its atrocity, and are practically justifying yourself on the account of it!". Here he was silent: I thought I had exhausted his attention; for his erect position was painful to him, on account of his heavy, irons; and said to him, “Perhaps I weary you too much by my long conversation." By no means, he answered, with the mildness which never forsook him What can be more agreeable to me! I should be glad if you could stay with me the whole night.'

He then began to recur to his peculiar circumstances, and observed, amongst other things, that he had been long in making up his mind to the deed; and that he was as sorry as any man could be for Mrs. Perceval and the family.

"It seems to me," I answered, "that you have been allowing your mind to brood over your imagined injuries so long, that you have really quite blinded your judgement, and hardened your heart, and at length brought yourself to frample on all the checks of conscience, the plainest duties of morality, the first precepts of religion, and the most positie laws of your country: and thus, instead of submitting to your difficulties with patience, as inflicted by the providence of God, and confining yourself to lawful and peaceable means for your relief, you have, by degrees, brought yourself, first to commit, and then to justify this horrible deed." Mr. Wilson now pressed again upon the conscience of the prisoner the horrid nature of the crime, and urged him to repent ance; but with no further effect than the cold and general declara

tion, I trust in the mercy of God. The conversation continued two hours; and the friend who accompanied Mr. Wilson remained still longer; read to him, and received from him many particulars of his life, which are here related, and accompanied with very suitable and important remarks. We are sorry to find, however, that no more serious impression was made on the prisoner's mind; but that he continued to the last more dis posed to justify, or at least to pallate his offence, than to bewail it.

Mr. Bellingham, it appears, had received a religious education from his mother, who was a truly pious woman. Early in life he proved wild, and ran from his apprentice ship to sea. After his return, he set up in business, but failed and was charged with setting fire to ha house. His subsequent life was rather scheming than industribas and he seems to have lived rather by his wits than by a steady application to business. His temper was remarkably jealous, turbulent, and self-willed; which seems to have been the source of all his mistors tunes and his crimes. Insanity has been alleged in his excuse. It appeared on his trial that his friends attributed his unaccountable conduct in Russia to that cause1; and Mr. Wilson informs us that his fal ther died insane. On this point Mr! W. paid particular attention to what he said on Russian concerns; but found him on this, as on all other subjects, perfectly cool and collect ed throughout their long conversation. Nor, from the moment of his crime to that of his death, do we find any symptom of insanity, unless his unaccountable persuas ion that he should be acquitted, be considered in that light.

The Preacher's Manual ; contai#ing,

1, Two Essays on Lay-Preaching, and on the Ministerial Character 2, implicity recommended to Ministers of the Gospel. 8, Letters on Preaching. By Sheva. 4, Appendix, Extracts from Doddridge, Newton, owper, &c.

THE second part of this work, Simplicity recommended to Ministers of the Gospel,' was originally

printed in a separate form, and has now reached a third edition. Our opinion of the second edition, with an Analysis of the work, may be seen in our 13th vol. page 465.

The Letters on Preaching, written by the same pen, were first printed in this work; under the signature of Sheva, during the year 1808, and of course met with our approbation. They treat on Doctrinal, Practical, Experimental, and Alle, gorical Preaching.

To these judicious letters the author has added an Appendix, containing, 1, Rules for the composition of a sermon, from Claude, 2, Extracts on preaching, from Doddridge. 3, Hints to Students, from Mather. 4. The character of St. Paul, from Newton. 5, On the Style of Preaching, from Cowper. 6. On Pulpit Eloquence,-Garrick. 1, Preparation for the Pulpit, Watts; and Maxims for Preachers, from Newton, Cecil, Horne, &c.

To this Manual the author has prefixed Two Essays on LayPreaching, and on the Ministerial 'Character,' which are also sold separately, in an octavo pamphlet, price 1s.

In that on Lay-Preaching, the author consider, the principle of making converts as essential to Christianity; • that laymen should be allowed to converse on the great topics of Christianity, and catechize and otherwise instruct youth, has never been denied by Protestants; but how far they shall be admitted to expound the Scriptures, or to teach in public, is the question here discussed. Reasoning generally, every man who understands the Scriptures should be allowed to teach them: but who shall be the judge of his ability? In answer to this, the author follows his principle into the Jewish and Primitive Christian church. In the Jewish church, preaching was not confined to consecrated ministers. Mr. Stackhouse allows this fact. Dr. Macknight observes, the reading of the Scriptures made an essential part of the Jewish public worship; but was not confined to those that were properly the ministers of religion. The rulers of the synagogue

assigned it to such persons in the congregation as they knew were capable of it.' After some further observations, the author considers it of more importance to look into the services of the Christian church in apostolic times; and here he enquires, Who were the persons that engaged in the service? and, secondly, How was it conducted?— Our principal business is with the preacher, who was not always the bishop, nor even ordained. Some, times he desired a Presbyter, or Elder, or some other competent person, to preach in his room.' That laymen did preach in this way, he proves from Lord King; and adduces two famous instances from Bishop Burnet; and observes, that even in the church of Rome lay-preaching obtained the highest sanction by the institution of the Dominicans,

That there are laymen qualified for public instruction cannot be denied,-men who are neither illiterate nor ignorant; but supposing the worst, that some men are even as ignorant of religion as they are of literature, who shall judge this matter? Shall the lawyers? shall the justices? shall the clergy ?— There is no medium between liberty of conscience and popery.


The writer then meets an objection, Will not this be opening the door to great abuses? Will not such persons bring a reproach upon religion? The answer is, There is one remedy,-not to hear them; and we have seen. that, neither in the Jewish nor the Christian church was it the custom for men to thrust themselves into the teacher's chair without authority. In the former case, from the ruler of the synagogue; in the latter, the bishop or minister of the place. Lastly, Lay - Preaching is distinguished from the pastoral office. A man may be qualified to address a Sunday School, or a few village rutics, or to preach occasionally in a country town, who is by no means qualified for constant preaching. We have given the outline of this Essay, as at the present mo ment, it is a subject of considera ble interest; and, perhaps, is the

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chief object in certain judicial and legislative occurrences which have taken place within the last year. We recommend this essay to those gentlemen who seem to wish, that, out of the national church at least, the magistrate shall, in a greater or less degree, decide on the fitness of the Christian teacher. The 2d Essay, on the Ministerial Character, shews that the institution of such an order of men is of God; and is attended with the greatest advantages to the church and the world; but we must refer to the Essay itself, as we have no room to enlarge on this subjec!, C. G. Dr. Williams's Defence of Calvinism, against the Bishop of Lin


[Concluded from our last, p. 219.]

Ir is one of the characteristics of this valuable work, that it penetrates to the core of error, and developes those primary and deepseated principles which are the originating cause of mistakes in religion, and of which the subject of such mistakes is often scarcely conscious. The deep discerument and acute argumentation of Dr. Williams, form, in this respect, a remarkable contrast to the ignorance, mistiness, and inconsistencies of his Lordship of Lincoln. Our very restricted limits prohibit the introducing of many or large citations; but we cannot but insert an instance or two of the elucidations to which we refer.

To every observant reader of moral and theological discussions, it must be very apparent that ambiguity often attends the use of the word POWER. In writers who do not define their terms, we find it, even in controversy, standing indiscriminately for physical strength, for opportunity of acting, for sufficient inducement to act, and for moral ability. Now, except a writer explain what kind of power he designs, there can be no close reasoning on the subject. I know of no Calvinist who denies that fallen man has power, in the sense of physical strength, to will or to act according to his pleasure ;- or of opportunity of acting well if so disposed;

or of a sufficient inducenient

to act aright. The point, therefore, is simply this, Whether man, in his native degeneracy, irrespective of gracious renewing influence from the Holy Spirit, has that kind of power which consists in a good disposition or inclination and whether it renders a man capable of himself [the bishop] to understand the spiritual design of the gospel, to love God supremely, to love the Lord Jesus Christ as a holy Saviour, and to approve unreservedly of God's holy will and commandments.' P. 14, 15.

By MOTIVE, I understand that which actually moves and determines the free-will of an agent to one choice rather than another. Is any thing besides the exhortation and the will required to effect this? Yes: for the will, however free, must in its elections either move itself, or be moved by something else, in order to comply with or to reject the exhortation. If it move itself, it is both the mover and the

thing moved; that is, it is at once

both cause and effect. It has been often imagined by those who oppose Calvinism in this point, that the human will is a self-moving power, resembling the self-moving power of the divine will, which, other as they suppose, has no cause of its activity and choice than itself: but it appears to me demonstrable, that the divine will is not of that character. For what is divine will, in accurate conception, but the medium of power?

Power therefore moves the divine will.

Even power, however, is is never exerted, nor can consistently be conceived to be exerted, - and without a moving cause: what can there be in God anterior.

as to the order of our conception to will and power, but his nature as infinite good and wise PP. 250

There is an important difference, between the JUSTIFICATION of our persons and the justification of our actions. Every sinful act, and every neglect of duty, is condemnable; but it does not follow that every person, on account of the failure, is struck off from the list of acceptance, without involving endless absurdities: such as, confound

ing a federal and personal righteousness;-placing a fallen sinner in the same predicament of continuance in favour with sinless Adam; making the Divine Head of influbence, as such, a mere cypher in the recovery of our justification, supposed to be lost; and imagining justification and condemnation to proceed alternately in rapid succession, a succession as rapid and frequent, for aught we know, as those of individual human volitions now justified by a dead faith, next condemned for neglect of any practicable duty, then restored by sincere faith, anon condeinned for another failure, and so on, it may be, ten thousand times over, till the moment of death; and finally, if any neglect attach to us at that moment, we lie under condemnation for ever! And these, I apprehend, are the genuine consequences of his Lordship's theory of Justification.' P. 137.

On the nature, cause, formation, and progressive improvement of a holy character; in other words, on the doctrine of conversion and sanctification, there is an admirable passage (p. 163–168) too long for our insertion; but which we cannot abridge or partially extract without injury. We shall, however, select another passage on the same subject:

'Conversion, in our view of it, denotes an actual turning from vice to real virtue; from every false refuge to Christ, who is the end of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth in him with the heart; from an inordinate love of self and of the world, to the love of God; and from the practice of sin, whether open or secret, to the exercise of divinely prescribed duties and all holy obedience. Now, the question is, Whence originates so great a change, both inward and outward? To what is it owing? Can it satisfy any serious and reflecting inquirer, to be told that the change in converted persons was owing to the exercise of their own natural pow ers? Do not the disobedient exercise their own natural powers? Yes; but the sincere converts, it may be said, exercise them in a dif

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ferent manner. Granted; but the inquirer has a right to ask, why they do so. For this is the very point in question; and he is entit!ed to expect a better answer than They do it, because they do it.' Our answer is, and let the reader judge whether it be not conformable to Scripture and the principles of sound reason, The happy change is owing to the special grace of God in the hearts of true converts, disposing them to exersise their natural powers in a proper manner.—I said special grace; because that which is displayed in the gospel objectively, which bringeth the tidings of salvation through Christ, has appeared to all men,-is alike common to the converted and unconverted,to numbers who perish, as well as to them who are eventually saved. Consequently that grace which causes the difference of result, must be subjection, or internal, or special. P. 28.

Dr. Williams examines, to their deepest root, the vulgar objections to the doctrines of Predestination and Election, and establishes those Scriptural truths by powerful evidence, equally guarded against the misconceptions of the Pelagian, and the perversions of the Fatalist. From the ample and interesting chapter on this head, we can only make one brief extract:

If there be any thing terrific in the sound of Predestination, it must be from false associations; whereby persons darkly ascribe to God's purpose the evil no less than the good. Let this mist of error roll away, and the doctrine appears as cheering as the sun, from which proceed neither cold nor darkness, but light, and warmth, and vivifying influence. What advantage can the Bishop's view offer which this does not comprehend? None. This includes no evil, any more than his: but it includes more good. Does he hold a decree to make known the gospel of Christ, and a gracious purpose of God to make a conditional offer of salvation to men, through the merits of Christ?' So do we. Does he discard a purpose of excluding any? So do we. What then is the difference? His Lordship's Predestination denies any

divine influence that shall make the salvation of any individual certain: -a doctrine assuredly fraught with the most dismal gloom, and inexpressibly degrading to the mercy and grace of God ! Ours, on the contrary, while it takes away nothing, but allows every material facility .and religious advantage indiscriminately which the other can possibly require, ensures the spiritual vivification, the renovation, the holiness, the voluntary and cordial obedience of some. And who are these? The very same persons as those whom the Bishop acknowledges will be saved! There is no dispute about how many, or how few. They are precisely those to whom the Judge will say, 'Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.' On both schemes, the Calvinistic and the Anti Calvinistic, they who attain to everlasting felicity are identically the same.. On both schemes, men must have the same qualifications for heaven; and all shall be judged according to their works.-We de: sire none to be brought to heaven in virtue of Predestination or Election, but those who are actually suitable in their state, temper, and conduct, to see God, and to enjoy hin for ever; in short, none but those who shall be introduced by the final Judge. These we call the ELECT: they reckou themselves, when they have done all, unprofitable servants, and cry out, Not unto us, not unto us, O Lord, but

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THY name give praise.' Had it... been for thy discriminating meny and special grace, we should never have inherited these realins of everlasting felicity!' P. 271.

We had intended to conclude this article by some remarks on the different utility of this temperate, candid, and masterly Defence of the doctrines justly styled, by the excellent Archbishop of Canterbury, Bradwardin, THE CAUSE OF GOD, to the enemies and to the friends of Calvinism, to established Christians, to young and inquiring disciples, and to the irreligious and sceptical. But we inust suppress our own observations, to leave

room for another extract; in which the words of truth and soberness furnish a contrast to the unfounded and (justice compels us to say) calumnious insinuations of Bishop Tomline against the best friends of outward order and genuine morality in and out of the Established Church.

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His Lordship dwells much on the importance of good works, and of the clergy insisting upon them as the condition of our salvation. Certainly,good works are very good things; but among what congrega tions are they actually found to the greatest extent, and in the greatest variety? If those of the Evangelical Clergy be candidly compared with those of the gentlemen whom his Lordship defends, in opposition to them, they need not shrink at the comparison. Where shall we find most devotion, punctuality' in attending divine ordinances, family worship, catechising the young and ignorant, visiting the poor, the widow, and fatherless, abstinence from the schools of levity and vice, charitable contributions, reformation of manners, order in society, and an awakening concern to work out their own salvation with fear and trembling? If their hearers be more inclined to frequent circles. of dissipation and foliy, the cardtable, the ball, the assembly, the play, the opera, or the horse-race ; if they are more addicted to the jovial board or the deceitful glass, to delightin theatrical exhibitions, novels, romances, to utter profane oaths, and on trivial occasious to take the most holy name in van if they are more given to pursue their diversions on the Lord's Day, or less conscientious in keeping it holy in religious exercises; if they are more lax in observing the relative duties of parents and children, masters and servants; if they are more cruel to men or brutes, or less chaste and temperate, honest and industrious, let them, by ail means, be condemned in the comparison. If otherwise, the following admonition may be seasonably recommended: Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neigh bour.' P. 169, &c.

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